Why fascism is so tempting — and how your data could power it | Yuval Noah Harari

Hello, everyone. It’s a bit funny, because I did write
that humans will become digital, but I didn’t think it will happen so fast and that it will happen to me. But here I am, as a digital avatar, and here you are, so let’s start. And let’s start with a question. How many fascists are there
in the audience today? (Laughter) Well, it’s a bit difficult to say, because we’ve forgotten what fascism is. People now use the term “fascist” as a kind of general-purpose abuse. Or they confuse fascism with nationalism. So let’s take a few minutes
to clarify what fascism actually is, and how it is different from nationalism. The milder forms of nationalism
have been among the most benevolent of human creations. Nations are communities
of millions of strangers who don’t really know each other. For example, I don’t know
the eight million people who share my Israeli citizenship. But thanks to nationalism, we can all care about one another
and cooperate effectively. This is very good. Some people, like John Lennon,
imagine that without nationalism, the world will be a peaceful paradise. But far more likely, without nationalism,
we would have been living in tribal chaos. If you look today at the most prosperous
and peaceful countries in the world, countries like Sweden
and Switzerland and Japan, you will see that they have
a very strong sense of nationalism. In contrast, countries that lack
a strong sense of nationalism, like Congo and Somalia and Afghanistan, tend to be violent and poor. So what is fascism, and how
is it different from nationalism? Well, nationalism tells me
that my nation is unique, and that I have special obligations
towards my nation. Fascism, in contrast, tells me
that my nation is supreme, and that I have exclusive
obligations towards it. I don’t need to care about anybody
or anything other than my nation. Usually, of course,
people have many identities and loyalties to different groups. For example, I can be a good patriot,
loyal to my country, and at the same time,
be loyal to my family, my neighborhood, my profession, humankind as a whole, truth and beauty. Of course, when I have different
identities and loyalties, it sometimes creates conflicts
and complications. But, well, who ever told you
that life was easy? Life is complicated. Deal with it. Fascism is what happens when people try
to ignore the complications and to make life too easy for themselves. Fascism denies all identities
except the national identity and insists that I have obligations
only towards my nation. If my nation demands
that I sacrifice my family, then I will sacrifice my family. If the nation demands
that I kill millions of people, then I will kill millions of people. And if my nation demands
that I betray truth and beauty, then I should betray truth and beauty. For example, how does
a fascist evaluate art? How does a fascist decide whether a movie
is a good movie or a bad movie? Well, it’s very, very, very simple. There is really just one yardstick: if the movie serves
the interests of the nation, it’s a good movie; if the movie doesn’t serve
the interests of the nation, it’s a bad movie. That’s it. Similarly, how does a fascist decide
what to teach kids in school? Again, it’s very simple. There is just one yardstick: you teach the kids whatever serves
the interests of the nation. The truth doesn’t matter at all. Now, the horrors of the Second World War
and of the Holocaust remind us of the terrible consequences
of this way of thinking. But usually, when we talk
about the ills of fascism, we do so in an ineffective way, because we tend to depict fascism
as a hideous monster, without really explaining
what was so seductive about it. It’s a bit like these Hollywood movies
that depict the bad guys — Voldemort or Sauron
or Darth Vader — as ugly and mean and cruel. They’re cruel even
to their own supporters. When I see these movies,
I never understand — why would anybody be tempted to follow
a disgusting creep like Voldemort? The problem with evil
is that in real life, evil doesn’t necessarily look ugly. It can look very beautiful. This is something that
Christianity knew very well, which is why in Christian art,
as [opposed to] Hollywood, Satan is usually depicted
as a gorgeous hunk. This is why it’s so difficult
to resist the temptations of Satan, and why it is also difficult
to resist the temptations of fascism. Fascism makes people see themselves as belonging to the most beautiful
and most important thing in the world — the nation. And then people think, “Well, they taught us
that fascism is ugly. But when I look in the mirror,
I see something very beautiful, so I can’t be a fascist, right?” Wrong. That’s the problem with fascism. When you look in the fascist mirror, you see yourself as far more beautiful
than you really are. In the 1930s, when Germans
looked in the fascist mirror, they saw Germany as the most
beautiful thing in the world. If today, Russians look
in the fascist mirror, they will see Russia as the most
beautiful thing in the world. And if Israelis look
in the fascist mirror, they will see Israel as the most
beautiful thing in the world. This does not mean that we are now
facing a rerun of the 1930s. Fascism and dictatorships might come back, but they will come back in a new form, a form which is much more relevant to the new technological realities
of the 21st century. In ancient times, land was the most important
asset in the world. Politics, therefore,
was the struggle to control land. And dictatorship meant that all the land
was owned by a single ruler or by a small oligarch. And in the modern age,
machines became more important than land. Politics became the struggle
to control the machines. And dictatorship meant that too many of the machines
became concentrated in the hands of the government
or of a small elite. Now data is replacing
both land and machines as the most important asset. Politics becomes the struggle
to control the flows of data. And dictatorship now means that too much data is being concentrated
in the hands of the government or of a small elite. The greatest danger
that now faces liberal democracy is that the revolution
in information technology will make dictatorships
more efficient than democracies. In the 20th century, democracy and capitalism
defeated fascism and communism because democracy was better
at processing data and making decisions. Given 20th-century technology, it was simply inefficient to try
and concentrate too much data and too much power in one place. But it is not a law of nature that centralized data processing
is always less efficient than distributed data processing. With the rise of artificial intelligence
and machine learning, it might become feasible to process
enormous amounts of information very efficiently in one place, to take all the decisions in one place, and then centralized data processing
will be more efficient than distributed data processing. And then the main handicap
of authoritarian regimes in the 20th century — their attempt to concentrate
all the information in one place — it will become their greatest advantage. Another technological danger
that threatens the future of democracy is the merger of information technology
with biotechnology, which might result
in the creation of algorithms that know me better than I know myself. And once you have such algorithms, an external system, like the government, cannot just predict my decisions, it can also manipulate
my feelings, my emotions. A dictator may not be able
to provide me with good health care, but he will be able to make me love him and to make me hate the opposition. Democracy will find it difficult
to survive such a development because, in the end, democracy is not based
on human rationality; it’s based on human feelings. During elections and referendums, you’re not being asked,
“What do you think?” You’re actually being asked,
“How do you feel?” And if somebody can manipulate
your emotions effectively, democracy will become
an emotional puppet show. So what can we do to prevent
the return of fascism and the rise of new dictatorships? The number one question that we face
is: Who controls the data? If you are an engineer, then find ways to prevent too much data from being concentrated in too few hands. And find ways to make sure the distributed data processing
is at least as efficient as centralized data processing. This will be the best
safeguard for democracy. As for the rest of us
who are not engineers, the number one question facing us is how not to allow
ourselves to be manipulated by those who control the data. The enemies of liberal democracy,
they have a method. They hack our feelings. Not our emails, not our bank accounts — they hack our feelings of fear
and hate and vanity, and then use these feelings to polarize and destroy
democracy from within. This is actually a method that Silicon Valley pioneered
in order to sell us products. But now, the enemies of democracy
are using this very method to sell us fear and hate and vanity. They cannot create
these feelings out of nothing. So they get to know our own
preexisting weaknesses. And then use them against us. And it is therefore
the responsibility of all of us to get to know our weaknesses and make sure that they
do not become a weapon in the hands of the enemies of democracy. Getting to know our own weaknesses will also help us to avoid the trap
of the fascist mirror. As we explained earlier,
fascism exploits our vanity. It makes us see ourselves
as far more beautiful than we really are. This is the seduction. But if you really know yourself, you will not fall
for this kind of flattery. If somebody puts a mirror
in front of your eyes that hides all your ugly bits
and makes you see yourself as far more beautiful
and far more important than you really are, just break that mirror. Thank you. (Applause) Chris Anderson: Yuval, thank you. Goodness me. It’s so nice to see you again. So, if I understand you right, you’re alerting us
to two big dangers here. One is the possible resurgence
of a seductive form of fascism, but close to that, dictatorships
that may not exactly be fascistic, but control all the data. I wonder if there’s a third concern that some people here
have already expressed, which is where, not governments,
but big corporations control all our data. What do you call that, and how worried should we be about that? Yuval Noah Harari: Well, in the end,
there isn’t such a big difference between the corporations
and the governments, because, as I said, the questions is:
Who controls the data? This is the real government. If you call it a corporation
or a government — if it’s a corporation
and it really controls the data, this is our real government. So the difference
is more apparent than real. CA: But somehow,
at least with corporations, you can imagine market mechanisms
where they can be taken down. I mean, if consumers just decide that the company is no longer
operating in their interest, it does open the door to another market. It seems easier to imagine that than, say, citizens rising up
and taking down a government that is in control of everything. YNH: Well, we are not there yet, but again, if a corporation really
knows you better than you know yourself — at least that it can manipulate
your own deepest emotions and desires, and you won’t even realize — you will think this is
your authentic self. So in theory, yes, in theory,
you can rise against a corporation, just as, in theory, you can rise
against a dictatorship. But in practice,
it is extremely difficult. CA: So in “Homo Deus,” you argue
that this would be the century when humans kind of became gods, either through development
of artificial intelligence or through genetic engineering. Has this prospect of political
system shift, collapse impacted your view on that possibility? YNH: Well, I think it makes it
even more likely, and more likely
that it will happen faster, because in times of crisis,
people are willing to take risks that they wouldn’t otherwise take. And people are willing to try all kinds of high-risk,
high-gain technologies. So these kinds of crises
might serve the same function as the two world wars in the 20th century. The two world wars greatly accelerated the development of new
and dangerous technologies. And the same thing might happen
in the 21st century. I mean, you need to be
a little crazy to run too fast, let’s say, with genetic engineering. But now you have more
and more crazy people in charge of different
countries in the world, so the chances are getting
higher, not lower. CA: So, putting it all together, Yuval,
you’ve got this unique vision. Roll the clock forward 30 years. What’s your guess —
does humanity just somehow scrape through, look back and say, “Wow,
that was a close thing. We did it!” Or not? YNH: So far, we’ve managed
to overcome all the previous crises. And especially if you look
at liberal democracy and you think things are bad now, just remember how much worse
things looked in 1938 or in 1968. So this is really nothing,
this is just a small crisis. But you can never know, because, as a historian, I know that you should never
underestimate human stupidity. (Laughter) (Applause) It is one of the most powerful forces
that shape history. CA: Yuval, it’s been an absolute delight
to have you with us. Thank you for making the virtual trip. Have a great evening there in Tel Aviv. Yuval Harari! YNH: Thank you very much. (Applause)

  1. What a fake smartass. Fascism is brutal militaristic expansionism. Wrong. Mussolini said Fascism is the corporate state in other worlds collectivism aka orwellian big stick tyranny of collective statism over induviduality. aka socialism, whether german racial or volkish or russian class socialism. Aka anthill or borg.

    This yuval is a moron not a thinker. Ted sucks 99.99%

  2. We should not forget about communist or rather bolshevist fascism. The definition here is too narrow, there is fascism beyond nationalism, its called communism. The worst, since most appealing form of fascism.Camouflaged religious , dystopian fascism.

  3. The vast majority of this talk is very very accurate and found myself in firm agreement . But towards the end I knew exactly where it was going when it started talking about the concentration of data . Google , YouTube etc ; is not going to establish a dictatorship FFS it’s absolute garbage and again people can not tell the difference between economic & political power . Both left and right wing factions are at war with these internet companies and I spotted the GOVERNMENT ( which has the sole monopoly on the use of force and legal power ) attempting to push ,shame and CONTROL these companies ( the data ) allowed to be shown to the public . When the companies complied , the company’s were made the villains and everybody’s scared and angry with them as threats to free speech as conservative thinkers have their accounts blocked and removed . Why !? Due to political pressures . It’s becoming s self cycling prophecy I’m afraid . The fear of these companies is creating the demand to politically CONTROL the information we are allowed to see and hear . WE are doing this !

  4. BS . The corporation can’t pass laws and put u in jail orca concentration camp . ONLY if the government expands its power and reach attempting to control these companies and therefor the data we see and hear ( under the banner of combating hate speech ) will a new fascism emerge . Jesus fucking Christ , ooooh corporations are trying to sell me products oooohhhh the drama . As for deplatforming , again it began when governments began to assert pressure on the social media giants and it’s escalated . Began with attempting to rid the net of radical Islamist content and has expanded to right wing thinkers . Now as the guy at the end said , there are market mechanisms and consumers and content creators can currently jump ship and use other platforms to showcase their material ….but how long before the government then goes after them !? It’s the government that tries to centralise data and always has done so for centuries . It’s a free speech issue . Land !? No …it’s akways been about centralising and controlling data the state deems acceptable for us to access . That’s what the religious absolute monarchies attempted and why secret societies emerged and revolutions broke out in retaliation to it .

  5. Fascism is a closed system that can only exist surrounded by enemies. Its only purpose is to live by death and dominance.Its kin to hedonistic sexual pleasure as the most sensual of the participants are the ideal prospects for selection and reproduction. Elitism and desirable traits.What people don't realize is how indiscriminate it kills to protect its integrity.

  6. Hitler was willing to kill more Anglos to make his worldview possible. Stalin,Mao,also willing to purge as many of their own to create their ideal systems and their role at the top of it. Its not really a particular view or way of life as the ultimate goal. Its about absolute power.

  7. Who is watching this talk after Indian 🇮🇳 MP ( member of parliament) Mahua Moitra’s fiery maiden talking about growing signs of fascism in India 🇮🇳 ???

  8. Anything against Zionism is Fascism.. Otherwise Antisemitism and Racism wouldn't be illegal. Zionism is above and beyond racism and fascism. It's the Elite secrecy establishment (Zionists) that caused everything bad that's happened since Britain colonised Palestine. Hitler did what he had to, he knew what the future held for the world under Zionism. Every terror attack, every proxy war and every country liberated by western countries in the Middle East, lead back before World War 1.

  9. It would be interesting to see.. and hear.. what Palestinians think about this lecture and lecturer..
    .. especially those, who are locked in concentration camp of Gaza.. for 70 years….
    There is no sophisticated manipulation of data…. there is no choice of government.. there is just pure terror of militaristic, fascist regime, oppressing whole nation to the level of sub humans..

  10. Boy is this scary. America is breaking up into factions, hard right, tyrannical, oligarchical versus the middle class, and millions of us are watching the disintegration of our empire and alienation of the world due to bellicose foreign and environmental policy. Every day fewer and fewer people are proud to call themselves Americans, make sacrifice for the common good, pay taxes or join the military. I will not allow or support my nation to imprison children, torture immigrants, kill Americans without trial or allow billionaires access to power and corruption while suppressing the dreams and opportunities of minorities, the poor and the unconnected and unlucky. Russia, China and the Arab countries should be salivating to fill the power vacuum as our nation devolves into infighting, bankruptcy and civil war. Oligarchs, no how much they gild their lily, are just fascistic narcissists for whom ALL is their only possible goal. I don't see the US or capitalism as the most beautiful thing anywhere – if we don't stem the tide of the .001% to grab every resource and hoard the last dollar, we will come apart at the seams.

  11. It is patriotism ( love of nation without hate of other nations ) , not nationalism that is good.
    Fascism is nationalist.

  12. the word antisemitism obfuscates the difference between the race, religion and nationalism. That is a sinister extreme right wing game.

  13. The very worst regime could never happen without the complicity of the middle class. The middle class is all too willing to do absolutely anything for any regime as evidenced globally and through all history. Don't forget in the one party state the party is the middle class.

  14. The Congo is not in the state it is because of lack of nationalism, it’s largely a consequence of centuries of western interference.

  15. Nationalism has rarely been good since it unifies only a specific group of people. Patriotism has mostly been good, but that is very different from nationalism and is driven from a more individual urge than from a confined group of like-minded people.

    Patriotism would allow one to burn his/her nations flag in protest of its current government's policies – a crucial right in a true democracy.

    Nationalism would have one condemned for burning one's nations flag and has much less room for individual liberty.

    But such individual liberty is critical to a healthy democracy for if absent it would lead to a single party system, where majority overrules minority by mob rule and individual civil liberties aren't protected. That is what happens when facsist use democracy against itself by leveraging populism to suppress minorities, when democracy, like commu ism, succombs to a single political party.

    Also, the notion of non nationalistic countries being more peaceful than nationalistic ones does not hold up. Present day Germany is not inherently nationalistic (although moreso than shortly after the second world war). Neither was West-Germany in the post 1945 and pre 1990 era. But it has been predominantly peaceful and represents international cooperation. Intense de-nazification and a non-presidential democracy with extra safeguards in separation of powers helped with that as does the fact only political parties with a democratic structure and public transparency and public accountability in its funding are allowed. A decent election system based on mixed-member proportional representation is another beneficial factor.

    In addition, populism isn't the same as democracy and mob rule is not the same as democracy.

    Preventing the return of fascism is something we've already failed at.

    An independent press, transparency and accountability are essential. The concepts of crowd funding applied to civic engagement and sufficient funding of education is as well.

    There is no one magic solution. Awareness is where fighting fascism begins.

    Yes, it helps to understand and educate people on how advertising (basically emotional hacking applied every day) works, but debunking fallacies and lies remains important too.

    Having multiple independent sources who actively seek out and contradict those who spread falsehoods is as well.

    Educating people on cause and effect and correlation of data helps.

    It was not Silicon Valley which pioneered hacking feelings. Goebbels did the same in the 1930s-1940s.

    To create a fascism resistant society, individual and social awareness is important. It requires independent press, strong education and strong multilateral dialogue with multiple sources of information not controlled by one group or person. It also requires international cooperation, multilateral trade and multilateral structures and the awareness that cross national common interests and cultural exchanges benefit everyone.

    The world should be greater than the sum of its parts. John Lennon was not wrong. The world should be as one, but not in anarchy.

    People's stupidity would lead us eithet there or to totalitatianism though. Let's be vigilant.

  16. Is there a country that looks at itself as the best and always correct country that the world should follow? Hmmmmmm. Any country at all come to mind? …

  17. Yeah… an Israeli who thinks nationalism is good… I'm out. I can already see this is going to be a "It's different when we're the ones doing it". No it isn't, it's the same.

  18. honesty, integrity, truth, & bravery into the white house
    compassion for earth & all her inhabitants
    ~Our Future is Our Choice~

  19. White Police killing unarmed black men — for almost any non violent crime — is the beginning of Resurrection of Republican Fascism that this country embraced in the 1930s before WWII.

  20. So how would you describe your nation's interactions with Palestinians if not fascism … So much for "never again" …

  21. He might have, had he had the time, made mention of the antifa crowd. In Benito Mussolini's Italy, each antifa member, to the very last man and woman, would have worn the fascist black shirt with pride.

  22. He calls nationalism what is patriotism and fascism what is nationalism. For example, fascism is a far right ideology, but I think that left people could see the same mirror.

    Minor criticism though.

  23. I wasn't sure where that was going but I think he's spot on. TED is still curated I see. If it were TEDx it could have gone wrong.

  24. Biologicial algorithms….this is why I would NEVER do a DNA test…..because this is why they want us to do them….Nope…no buddy….

  25. Nationalism is tribalism writ large. Nationalism means not showing empathy with people from other nations who are not in your national tribe. So oppressing Palestinians is okay you are Israeli because you don't share their identity. Nationalism is close to fascism.

  26. Warning: A very, very very, simplistic explanation of what fascism is. If your going to use body count as yardstick, there is another kind of fascism that was far, far, far more deadly than holocaust/nazis, called 'Communism".

  27. This is senseless. He sees a correlation between countries that are peaceful and countries that are nationalist and sees a relation of causality that is by no means supported by evidence. They are peaceful because they are nationalist? It could as easily be the opposite, they are nationalist because they are peaceful. It's easy to have no regard for a sense of nationality when the state has collapsed.

  28. Google, Amazon and Facebook are data collection machines analyzing You and are paid handsomely for this information by corporations and governments. This information is used to manipulate you in how you vote and what to spend your money on. Complete mind-control. Fascism on steroids.

  29. Yuval Noah Harari….one of the few times the word genius fails and fails totally to describe what it set out…to describe. A gift to humanity, no doubt…now the real question is will they realize it…

  30. I would say there is something more fundamental than Facism … as that is restricted to only one kind of institution, the nation-state. At 15:00, the interviewer correctly points this out.  

    More fundamentally, authoritarianism is the simplification and reduction of identity to any single institution … a particular religion, corporate culture, or nation state. (See Herman and Chomsky on 'Manufacturing Consent' as ways of the dysfunctional concentrating power).  

    At least nation-states can endulge in the conceit of democratic ideals. Corporations do not even bother with that, 'too big to fail' banks or GAFA (Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple) being good examples.  

    Having lived in Japan for over 36 years now, authoritarianism masquerading as a meritocracy, appears to the ground from which so many social problems arise.  

    I think the speech shows many good insights, but could be improved by bringing in other triangulations such as the differences in morality between small communities, the roots of morality as explored by primatology (Frans de Waal), and large populations (Robin Dunbar), the ruling elite and those just getting by, the altruists and the dark-triad personality types.

    Scary times ahead, with three voices weighing in, pointed to at 18:00 of the above video.

    1 — Chomsky's opening remarks at his 2011 Chapel Hill speech … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZbW7lvGkuA&feature=youtu.be

    2 — Stephen Hawking on Stupidity and Greed as our downfall … https://mavenroundtable.io/theintellectualist/news/video-stephen-hawking-greed-and-stupidity-are-what-will-end-the-human-race-ayunr2tOL0Sf4HVLW7eSAA/?utm_source=SP&utm_medium=SP&utm_campaign=SP&utm_term=SP&utm_content=SP&fbclid=IwAR2KomxhTDU0zxaWWxD65q5B7vpifUKo5Ms7QydD4WLbDgIiLJYuPXYgtVo

    3 — J. Robert Openheimer, upon observing the father of the atomic bomb … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lb13ynu3Iac

    Indeed … scary times ahead.

  31. Fascism means bundle of sticks that is tied together very tightly. It is collectivist and collectivism is left wing. It diefies the collective whole such as the nation over the individual. Individualism is about individual freedom and is therefore right wing. China is a fascist country. It is communist and it has been increasingly been turning to the left under chairman for life Xi Jing Ping. The individual has no real place other than part of the collective whole. Therefore, the rights of the nation overrule the rights of the individual. China has been collecting data on as many people as possible and buying it from the likes of Facebook. It is also buying up the media in the West to manipulate our sediments and feelings. It wishes to undermine our own democracies and national identity in order to insert its own.

  32. Ultra nationalism is very often a component of fascism. You should know this. Just look at your terrorist settlers in Israel.

  33. The stupidity being a force? Only the liar is hoping for that! The real human being is counting for the realisation of truth. Witch will come thru lies exposed. First duty of a country's historian is to tell why a war was fought. If your kin died and you do not know why, clearly. You have been lied to, period.

  34. Another bullshit talk from TED. The list of oversimplifications made here is very long, just look for another sources to get definitions of democracy, nationalism and fashism. The speaker touched on many important problems, but achieved to make me confused even more.

  35. All of this so-called wisdom coming from the holographic image of a guy from an openly apartheid state (Israel), speaking about the values of Democracy vs Fascism, give me a break! This guy has so little invested in his logic he couldn't be bothered to physically present his points personally.

  36. Correlation does not equal causation. Those countries are not better of because they have more nationalism, they are better off because they are more affluent and have less religion. They are more nationalist because they are better off.

    Conversely, those other countries he names are not worse off because they are less nationalist, they are less nationalist because they are worse off.

    If there very beginning of the lecture involves playing a shell game of reversing cause and effect, I don't see the value in watching the rest of the presentation.

  37. Countries like Somalia and Afghanistan are the way they are because of American colonialism and desire to steal other countries recourses

  38. He seems to be just making up his own definitions for "nationalism" and "fascism." He is redefining "nationalism" as simple patriotism and then describing extreme nationalism but calling it "fascism." It almost seems as if he is trying to give cover to people who call themselves (or have been called) "nationalists."

  39. Fascism is when corporations control governments. That is the original definition in the context of Mousilini's Italy.

  40. -American Exceptionalism
    -Hyper Patriotism
    -Hyper Nationalism
    -Cultural Mythology That Shapes Everything
    -Propaganda That Informs Everything
    -Clearly Defined Enemies, Simultaneously Weak and Overwhelming
    -Military And Police Worship
    -Militarized Police
    -Patriarchal Relations/ Structures With Stereotypical Gender Roles
    -Strong Advocacy For The "Traditional" Family
    -A Strong Centralized State That Is Completely And Totally Captured By Capitalism
    -Uncrititical, Miseducated, Irrational, Submissive And Obedient Population
    -Extreme Xenophobia

    The list could go on indefinitely. The groundwork has long been laid. It's woven into the fabric of US culture. It can happen here. And it already is.

  41. Bullshit, nationalism is not strong in Sweden nor Switzerland, except in racist right-wing parties who are threatening peace and democracy.

  42. This is what is happing nowadays in our Latin american countries, COlombia and Mexico are the best examples of what a dictatorship sistem is

  43. I am Italian. I am simply astonished by the description that he has done of democracy.
    This video is a very detailed summary of the most recent italian politics, especially when he explain how politician could use data in order to create hate. In Italy is happening exactly what he said: "fascism is evil, I am not evil after all so i am not fascist". This is what the most of the people say. Our minister Matteo Salvini has focalised the attention of the entire nation on migration. As a consequence, refugees are basically seen as the major cause of all our problems. I often hear people saying "Italy is no longer italian. Italian first". Italian first is the slogan of Salvini. During tv shows and other debate, Salvini use to correlate facts totally random, and use many simbols of force, like wearing police uniform. In other situation Salvini has kissed rosary in public. In summary, he want angry people to vot him

  44. I've preached for years now that democracy is a prelude to ready the people for dictatorship or fascism.

  45. Very weak argument. From the Nazis point of view, it wasn't "evil" to wipe out everybody that wasn't German speaking. That's the key problem. In the modern world there are no moral absolutes to judge anyone. There is only the current zeitgeist that can change in a decade, or certainly within a generation. Tell me, if we used nuclear weapons to wipe out all life on Earth, deliberately, so that no self-aware life-form would ever suffer again – why would that be evil? If you can't answer that, you'll never have an answer to Nazism or Fascism.

  46. It’s hard to listen to someone telling us about fascism when he doesn’t recognize it in his own country

  47. The clown in this video does not have a clue what Fascism is. Why do they let these dunces make videos that are totally STUPID? Peron was a Fascist. Franco was a Fascist. Mussolini was a Fascist. Hitler was the opposite of a Fascist. Fascists were Socialists. Hitler, like Trump, believed that Socialists needed to be exterminated. The First people killed in the Germany Death Camps were Socialists.

  48. If a ‘fascist’ dictatorship decides what art and literature is, why did he allow the Russian government to edit out the Crimean reference in his most recent book? I’m a big fan but I’m not sure where I sit with the publishing decision. It’s a little hypocritical, Altho he never states whether he agrees or disagrees.

  49. Most of this talk is good but why the modern day Russian bashing? Especially when most USA nationalist look in the mirror and see themselves more beautiful than they really are.

  50. Democracy based on feelings, we have to think beyond the feelings?
    We're boned! Most people cannot do this, or at least never do it.
    Wow! I never knew that distributed data processing was so important!

  51. Yes, break the mirror, brake the bubble (then discard the bubble, live and breathe with much holistic perspective until holistic actions become nature, not 2nd, not 3rd, etc nature – not that monopolies of thought of what "perfection" is for each one of us is the goal). Bring individual holistic efforts to / for democracy 🕊✌🏽

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