Why Did Soviet Union Fall Apart – Collapse of Soviet Union Explained


Why Did Soviet Union Fall Apart It was on 26th December, 1991
when Soviet Union collapsed and 15 separate countries emerged
from the disintegration. The eighth and final leader of Soviet
Union, Mikhali Gorbachev resigned on the previous day and he handed over his power
to the Russian President Boris Yeltsin. This disintegration of the
USSR gave birth to the Commonwealth of Independent
States, also called as the CIS. This breakdown is considered as a victory
of freedom, the win of capitalism over socialism, also a triumph of
democracy over totalitarianism. But this led to a complete reformation
in the entire world in every area starting from political, economical,
social and military alliances. The question is how Soviet Union
fell apart that was emerged in 1921 and eventually became really
powerful by the end of 1980s? Well, the answer is not really
simple and it requires digging into the history to have a
better idea of the reason. Emerge of Soviet Union Soviet Union emerged on 1921 from a
civil war that went for quite long. Before that it was Romanov
Monarchy to rule the country. Before falling apart, Soviet Union was really
a very powerful and one of the largest nation in the globe that was occupying
almost one sixth of the earth’s land. The Russian revolution started during
1917 while the Radical Leftist threw out the Romanov monarchy and Soviet
Union was born in the Russian Empire. It gave birth to a bloody
and long civil war. The civil war was held between
the Red army and white army. While the red army was backed by Bolshevik
government (Supporter of USSR), the red army was backed by the monarchist, capitalists
and the other forms of socialists. The war kept going on
and finally the white army won the battle by
defeating the red army. It resulted into the formation
of Soviet Union that was an agreement between Russia, Ukraine,
Transcaucasia and Belarus. A new communist party was established
that took the entire control of Government and it was led by the
Marxist revolutionary, Vladimir Lenin. Soviet Union started growing
with time and it became highly powerful to contain almost 15
Soviet socialist republics. After Lenin’s death in 1924,
Joseph Stalin came to power and he ruled the
nation by his strict rules. His policies were so brutal that left
a large part of the citizens dead. Before he came to the power
Soviet Union was an Agrarian society and Stalin transformed
it into a military superpower. Now when it come to the part
that how Soviet Union fell apart, there is not any single
reason rather several reasons contribute to the
disintegration of Soviet Union and most of the possible
reasons are stated here. Reasons of disintegration of Soviet Union Mikhali Gorbachev’s policy
– Perestroika and Glasnost Gorbachev was selected as the General
Secretary by Politburo on March 11, 1985 and he was the eighth and
final leader of Soviet Union. He was selected after the death of
Konstantin Chernenko who expired at 73. The goal of the last leader Mikhali
Gorbachev’s was completely different. He wanted to revitalize the entire
economic situation of Soviet Union and it required to change the complete
economical and political structure. This was not an easy task
at all and Mikhali planned of introducing two
policies in this context. Those two policies are known
as Perestroika and Glasnost. Perestroika refers to the
rebuilding of economic situation while Glasnost refers to
the freedom of speech. Even though Mikhali’s intention was
really different, but it cost him a lot. Under the plan Perestroika, Soviet
started to move towards a hybrid Communist-Capitalist system following
the developed country China. This made the government
to allow market forces to state some development
and production decision. It also required the complete
rearranging of the party. As a result the younger voices came
to the forefront and with time Gorbachev imagined of building a
democratically chosen Communist Party. The second policy that he introduced is
the Glasnost that is freedom of speech. As per this new rule, people are
allowed to raise their voice and they can freely express what they
actually think and their views. Citizens remained quiet for almost decades
and Mikhali Gorbachev though that if people are empowered to express their
views, things will become much easier. But unfortunately, Gorbachev’s policies
failed completely and when citizens were powered to put forward their views, it
resulted into the loose of control over them. Citizens started criticising the government
rather than doing something good with their power and government became
really weak to the Soviet Union people. They used their power for nothing good but
to end up the complete Soviet Union rule. So, even though Mikhali Gorbachev
was really a very powerful and an honest leader with a
good aim of reformation, but it actually failed to work out
and this is why he is strongly considered as one of the main reason
of Soviet Union’s disintegration. However, other reasons too are there
and those are explained below. Flaws in Politburo When Soviet Union was emerged from
the Russian revolutionary, the first general secretary was Vladimir Lenin,
the lead of the Politburo team. His intention was extremely
powerful and they tried to do all good
as much as possible. After his death the next leader was
Joseph Stalin to rule the nation. Things kept going on and Politburo
was ruling the nation by its power. The member of the team was quite
good but they had their flaws also. They were inspired by an ideological
purity that is linked with the Marxism and it is true that this was ever been able
to maintain by the young generation. Nikita Khrushchev was the last leader who
worked with the revolutionary team directly and after his removal in 1963, the picture
of Politburo was completely different. The Politburo started to
drift during the 1960’s and 1970’s and there was huge
change in the team entirely. They did manage to enhance their
power and wealth but most of the money were being spending to
maintain their luxurious lifestyle. They started spending money on luxurious
foods, cars, clothing while the Soviet Union people remain ignored and
so many people expired in starvation. This created backlash
among the citizens and they refused to accept
the party ideology. Their anger started growing and with time
when the power came to their hand during 1980, they were really not interested to
save a nation which did not care for them. As a result, the Soviet Union
broke down eventually in 1991. United States’s clear aggression
against Soviet People It was 1960 when the
cold war between United States and Soviet Union
started to grow. By 1979, Jimmy Carter in US inspired the
war while by 1981 things got a worse form. Ronald Reagan took the
power of United States in 1981 and he was the real
enemy of Soviet Union. He used to address the Soviet
Union as an Evil Empire and his intention was too
prominent against USSR. He ensured to make the military
power stronger while the weapons and other necessary
stuff for war were improvised. With these, Ronald Reagan attacked the
Soviet People and destroyed their economy. They were made separated from rest of the
world and it affected the oil prices badly. The oil price became too low
to generate revenue and it caused the Soviet Union
to fall down eventually. Economic shortages and too heavy
focuses on the capital goods The economy of every nation is limited
and it is true that they need to make a balance between the
capital goods and consumer goods. While capital goods such as guns are important
to make the nation powerful, consumer goods such as butter is really important
for the basic living of the people. But When Stalin came to power
in the Soviet Union, he focused highly on capital goods production
and ignored the consumer goods. The members of Politburo never paid any
attention in enhancing the consumer goods and this resulted into starvation
among the citizens of Soviet Union. They were deprived from the basic
foods, clothing and shelter which eventually made them
to look for a revolution. While the aforementioned
reasons are the main reasons of the disintegration
of Soviet Union, the structure of the Nation too
is responsible more or less for the quick demise of the once a
very powerful nation Soviet Union. This nation consisted 15
different nations and all of them were
different in many areas. For example, their religion,
culture, language, ethnicity was completely different and they were
not compatible with each other also. This created an odd situation
actually and this can be said as one of the strong reason
of fall of the Soviet Union. All these reasons were weakening the
power of Soviet Union and finally this nation broke down completely by 1991
which generated 15 different countries. Mikhali Gorbachev, the
last leader of Politburo finally resigned on
25th December, 1991 and it was just the next day when
Soviet Union fell apart to create a newly formed entity called as CIS,
Commonwealth of Independent States.




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