What Is Fascism? | Ideologies

Fascism is a difficult word to define. We know it when we see it, but no one ever
has a satisfying definition. In the 30s and 40s, it brought totalitarianism,
war, and genocide. So today, let’s talk about how this idea
took hold, grew to prominence, and just how much support it had. I’m Tristan Johnson, and this is Step Back
History. In 1929 the world rocked with to this day
the largest economic recession in the history of the industrialized world. European and American countries experienced
a massive stock market crash put millions out of work, and many more into poverty. Many saw this downturn as the failure of liberal
capitalism. Capitalist economies are prone to these cycles
of big boom times and massive recessions and it’s not often the wealthy and connected
ever seem to suffer during these waves. Many of the masses of unemployed took to socialist
and Marxist activism. They wanted to break this cycle of boom and
bust and take the wealth of the country out of the hands of a few wealthy industrialists
and bankers. There were, however, people who didn’t go
down the red route. In countries such as Germany and Italy, an
alternative solution to the liberal capitalist order emerged, one steeped in totalitarianism
and nationalism. Why Germany and Italy though? Well, they both were struggling young democracies
in the wake of the First World War. The other European powers humiliated Germany
with the terms of the peace treaty drawn after the war called the treaty of Versailles. The treaty imposed debilitating reparations
they didn’t finish paying off until 2010; shutting down all the German colonies, and
severe curtailment of their military. Germany had also been hit hard by the depression,
with debilitating economic misery. The parliamentary government set up after
the war attempted to address these problems, but it resulted in hyperinflation. German money became worthless, and a country
rather new to democracy didn’t see it as working out for them. This was fertile ground for radical politics. With the Soviet Union’s economy growing
in this period, many turned to socialist movements. You might remember from my video on the communist
world revolution, but it’s almost a law of nature liberals and capitalists fear socialism. Many of the capitalist world leaders sent
troops to Russia to suppress the State Capitli- I mean Communist revolution there. In Germany and Italy, anti-Communism blended
with other ideas such as hypernationalism, and a desire to do away with the “slow”
and “weak” democratic decision-making in Rome and Berlin. Throw in the support of industry leaders at
war with socialist-leaning organized workers, and you have a dark mix we call fascism. Italy was the first country in which fascism
took root. And now we must talk about Benito Mussolini. Mussolini founded a newspaper called Il Popolo
d’Italia, or the people of Italy in 1914 after a break with the Italian Socialist party. He served in the First World War, and after
returning injured began to use this paper to start a movement. With economic and social crises and a fear
of Communist revolution, this paper espoused militarist and nationalist ideas with a healthy
dose of money from French industrialists. It became a voice for disillusioned veterans,
the unemployed, and Italian nationalists who were discontented with democracy. His rise to power began on the streets. Loyal followers of Mussolini organized into
paramilitary groups called the Blackshirt militia. They violently clashed with leftists, again
with the support of industrialists who feared a Communist revolution. A group of leftists organized to fight this
group called Antifa, and they were a resistance through the entire fascist regime. The Fascists entered the political sphere
in 1921, by running in the Italian parliament, but without much success. Even with some undercover support from the
government, they only got about 5% of the popular vote. They did, however, use their small political
platform to introduce their ideas to the public. They proposed solutions to Italy’s problems
horrible as they were, while the established parties had nothing to offer themselves. Mussolini’s National Fascist party made
a huge gamble and organized a massive demonstration in October of 1922 called the March on Rome. When his Fascist troops did indeed march on
Rome, the Prime Minister Luigi Facta wanted to fight back. However, one of Mussolini’s biggest fans
overruled him. The fan was the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel
III. Without any shots fired, Mussolini became
Prime-Minister of Italy. I want to talk a bit about how Mussolini campaigned
and built his following. He maximised on a crisis situation where the
elected government was inactive. Mussolini used the unique faults and pain
points of Italy to one end, giving himself power. Much of what he argues wasn’t a coherent
ideology. At times he sounded almost socialist, and
at other times defended elitism, industry leaders, and traditional values. Lastly, the financial and government elites
used Mussolini’s totalitarianism as a way to suppress a socialist uprising and bring
order back to a chaotic situation. Many didn’t see Mussolini himself as much
of a threat, and Fascism was just a phase before Italy could get itself back on track. After taking power, Mussolini used the organs
of the state he could to consolidate his power and suppressed those who challenged it. He escalated violence to the point where by
1925, blackshirts were killing his political rivals. He managed to make an era of economic prosperity
with a totalitarian fist, and with economic growth, a lot of dissent quieted down. The extralegal violence became legitimised,
and so it gained a veneer of respectability. Now, how did Fascism come to power in Germany? Well, to begin they had the positive example
of Italy to inform them, many of the same problems as Italy, and a dictator in waiting
ready to go, Adolf Hitler. Now, there are a million videos out there
about Hitler, so I won’t go too much into his life story. An important detail is that he found the party
which would become the Nazis by working to undermine them as a German agent. They won him over with their rhetoric, and
he sort-of defected. One of his first works as the leader of this
party was to rebrand it to the Nazi party we know today. They quickly became a force on the German
radical right. So, there’s a common misconception about
the Nazis we need to discuss because if I don’t it’ll be the subject of at least
a thousand comments. The name of the party was the National Socialist
Party of German Workers, which sounds like they should be a far left socialist group. However, the party was far right in its politics.They
took inspiration from the rhetoric of Italian Fascism, which in itself was a rightwing reaction
to the fear of socialism as I mentioned earlier. They had some super benign socialist policies
such as an investment in public spending on infrastructure. (How you liking that Autobahn Germany? Nah just kidding this video is going to be
super censored there). When Hitler joined this party it was just
the German Worker’s Party, but Hitler wanted to get support from disaffected socialists
who don’t support any actual social equality. The leftypol of Germany if you will. Socialism was still pretty new in this era,
so the Nazis also added it as a way to modernize the party branding. Socialism was sexy and new. It made you sound forward-looking. However, they lacked a lot of the policies
an actual left-wing party would have. They were for increasing inequality, not eliminating
it, and that applies to both economic class AND their horrible opinions about race and
nation. Their economic spending quickly turned into
a corporate cartel, and they banned communist organization as well as unionization. If they’re left wing, those are some strange
policies to have. Ok, massive aside over. Like the Italian Fascists, Nazis campaigned
on lifting Germany out of the Depression and reaffirming traditional German values. They wanted to return Germany to its former
greatness by undoing the humiliation imposed on them by losing the First World War, the
sanctions of the Treaty of Versailles, and the imposition of a parliamentary republic. They also sold themselves as a way to fight
off the rising communist threat. Also like the Italians, they didn’t keep
any consistency in their positions, they just campaigned on whatever they needed to obtain
and consolidate power. They’d downplay antisemitism and emphasize
anticommunism to business leaders, promise price controls to farmers, and stable buying
power for pensioners. In January of 1933, President Hindenberg appointed
Hitler to prime minister despite him not winning an electoral victory, just like Mussolini. This time, instead of a king appointing him
he came to power with a deal between a few conservative politicians who had given up
on a parliamentary rule. They wanted to use Hitler’s popularity to
bring back a conservative authoritarian rule, even playing with the idea of restoring the
monarchy. Again, they saw Hitler, like the elites who
backed Mussolini, as a temporary way to restore order and bring about the government they
desired. And just like Mussolini, Hitler outmaneuvered
these conservatives to install a Nazi dictatorship completely subordinate to his will. These are just the successful takeovers of
government. I think when we tell the story of the rise
of fascism in this period we overlook that fascism had a growing fanbase in a lot of
the western world. In my country of Canada, there was also a
depression, and desire to bring back order and prosperity. Many Canadians thought Mussolini and Hitler
were on to something. Fascist ideas were also popular in America. High profile American celebrities like Henry
Ford and Charles Lindbergh admired what Hitler was doing in Germany. Again, American fascists used unique American
pain point to attempt to consolidate power, such as racial tensions, and anti-immigrant
sentiments. The Ku Klux Klan was larger in the 30s than
today, and they lapped up this rhetoric. A book in 1941 reported that more than 100
fascist organizations had formed in the US since 1933. One popular radio preacher Catholic Reverend
Charles Coughlin had the most popular radio show in America next to Roosevelt’s fireside
chats.He spoke glowingly about the Nazis, often quoting propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels
and admired the German quest for “full employment and racial purity”. Also in before someone points this out, yes
I know he was born in Canada. And this is all before we talk about anti
semitism. As in Germany, the Americans of the 30s saw
Jews as a vague, but dangerous threat undermining the country. A Gallup poll in 1942 showed 1 in 6 Americans
thought Hitler was doing the right thing to the Jews, and one in five considered Jews
a “menace”. This was, by the way, a higher number than
those who considered Germans a menace… in 1942. 12% of Americans even supported a widespread
campaign against the Jews in America. No one considered fascism marginal; it was
popular. On the geopolitical stage, the western allies
tended to let Hitler make massive land grabs rather than confront them in war. This meant undermining a lot of the collective
security which they vowed at the end of the First World War to uphold. Many wanted to prevent another war, but they
also saw Germany’s nazi government as one they could use as a bulwark against the growing
power of Stalin’s Soviet Union. Germany used their pain points to gain more
power. He… fish hooked them if you will. So what should we take away from all this? Well, the first question I want to answer
is why we seem to have a hard time defining fascism. It’s not so much an ideology as an active
undermining of representative democracy and the electoral process. Fascists in Europe used rhetoric all over
the political spectrum for the sole purpose of consolidating power and installing a totalitarian
regime. It’s a method for those seeking naked personal
power, built and maintained through violence. This means fascism looks different everywhere
it springs up. They use whatever pain points the country
has to consolidate a base, whether it be scapegoating a maligned other, anxiety over radical ideologies
or economic chaos. It doesn’t matter. In this period the great depression, fear
of Communists, and the fallout of the First World War were the main factors. It could be something different again. So how do we combat it? Well, I don’t want to tell you how to live
your life, but be sceptical. When politicians use rhetoric, make sure it’s
backed up by their policies and actions. Don’t fall for empty promises and platitudes. Also, maybe we can do away with nationalist
rhetoric? Please? It doesn’t help anyone. Lastly, it helps protect you from manipulation
if you don’t have a vague malicious other to exploit. Read about other groups, see people complexly
and whatnot. Resist the rhetoric of scapegoating, and be
ready to resist it when it pokes its head. Because when we don’t combat fascism when
it’s small, the end result can be literal genocide. Well, that was a dark one. Next week I promise we’ll have a bit more
fun. It’s going to be my first *cut* HALLOWEEN
SPECIAL *cut*. To see that video push the subscribe button
down below, and hit the notification bell to make sure you don’t miss it. If you liked this video, be sure to share
it with someone in your life who needs a little more history. Lastly, I want to thank all of my patrons,
especially these patrons, and especially especially Don and Kerry Johnson. You’re making it all possible. If you want your name up here, consider tossing
me a few dollars at Patreon.com/StepBackHistory. Hug your loved ones, and come back soon for
more Step Back.

  1. Ideologies have made a massive impact on humanity, learn about a few of them with this series: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qLtFxykg1ew&list=PLnpoOo7lhNnGn1KNSkIhiVmi7w98Nz8iE

  2. socialist societies are also fascists. east germany (stasi), ussr, yugoslavia, romania (causescu), czechoslovakia, china (no freedom of speech), dprk, and many more.

  3. good take on it, its definitely not a left or right issue but more of an authoritarian model. top down, massive control over life but still respects the class differences . They used some socialist policies but i mean basically its to get votes/support and to get a basic level of work going.

    One benefit Hitler you could say had was Germany was still paying war debt from the Treaty of Versailles and when he came to power, he stopped abiding by it and used some of those funds to help ease the German burden

  4. The reason people on the right try to say the Nazis were Socialists is because it's usually people on the right who get tarred with "nazi", and they're just throwing the stupid accusations back in the other direction. I know Hitler definitely wasn't Socialist and to suggest that is ridiculous. He was a nationalist authoritarian. However some people say the exact opposite by trying to suggest that he was a free market libertarian or something. The economy of Nazi Germany was actually somewhat closer to the Soviet Union than most people realize. Banning all trade unions and replacing them by one run by the state is something Lennin did as well as Hitler.

  5. facist communist caplitism all share one thing. Sound good on paper but in practice have alot of negatives

  6. Technically "state capitalism" isn't Capitalism, because Capitalism requires a free market (like here in the West). State capitalism requires heavy central planning and a lot of industrial nationalization. A more accurate term would be corporatism or mercantilism.

    Unfortunately, now we have some anti-market corporatist idiot in the White House hellbent on destroying Capitalism, all in an attempt to bring about his 17th century mercantilist policy of economic nationalism.

  7. This is a historical timeline of fascism, and doesn’t answer what fascism is, really. I know this is a history channel so that’s to be expected, but the title should have been “A History of Fascism” or some shit

  8. Well Germany was going to go socialist but they got killed off like if you want to read more look up Rosa Luxemburg

  9. Nice to leave out the fact that Jewish communists launched a revolution in 1918 and the fact they were the driving force behind all the degeneracy of the Weimar Republic

  10. I have a doubt: is the fascism left or right? The fascism and communism seem similar because they are totalitary and claim for more state, besides they hate liberarism. (I din't understand the whole video because I don't speak english yet).

  11. Trump is a fascist. No, I don't mean that he is a fascist dictator, but he is a fascist by nature. This will history prove. Trump will become a fascist dictator, or fall trying. There is nothing in between…

  12. The arguement you made about the NAZIs not being left wing socialist because they didn't favor equality for all….are you there for implying that the "Right" does not want equality? What a weak arguement!

    Would the communist fighting for control of Germany at the same time be considered the "left"

  13. First Antifa organization was established in 1932 by the German communist party (KPD) as an opposition to a nationalist movement. The anti-fascist organization in Italy was called Arditi del Popolo. Get your facts straight!

  14. There is Fascism on the Right and the Left. Please read Liberal Fascism by Jonah Goldberg. He has interviews and lectures on YouTube

  15. Fascism is authoritarianism with a specific ethnic or religious focus. That's why Berkley students not allowing Milo to speak is definitely not fascism (multi-ethnic youth are not installed position of authority and their attacks are not based on ethnicity nor religion)… Whereas Donald Trump's "Make America Great Again" is definitely fascism (Using the power of the state apparatus to promote a particular ethnic world-view at the expense of immigrants). Easy.

  16. Actually Mussolini at the election of 1921 ran with Right Wing's block formed by many political groups and parties called National Blocks (Blocchi Nazionali), which took not just the 5% of the votes, but actually the 19,7% of the votes. There is a huge difference I suppose, because when he started his march on Rome, Mussolini did it basing his dacision on a STRONG political consensus among the masses.

  17. Look on the back of U.S. Dimes from 1916-45. It came off in 1946. Their still are gilded wooden ones in the U.S. capitol. They are 2,000 year old symbols, as is the Roman salute, the stiff right arm "Hail".

  18. In truth, no real definition of Fascism you encounter will ever be complete enough. This is because the original Fascists (Mussolini and co.) never really had much of an ideology to speak of. It changed at any given time based on whatever Mussolini was trying to accomplish.

  19. Fascism was created and coined by an Italian "Socialist" Far Left Benito Mussolini and is Radical Left-Wing. Mussolini sided with the National “Socialist” German Workers Party Far Left wing before the beginning of WW II. Fascism is a Totalitarian National State where the Collective and State/Dictator is stressed and anybody against the Collectivism and the State/Dictator is eliminated.

  20. La Parola d'Ordine e' una
    Impegnativa per tutti!
    Benito Mussolini 10.06.1940 Palazzo Venezia.Urbe
    Viva il DUCE !
    Italia era e' e sara' sempre Fascista.

  21. how do you explain the phrase "we dont need to regulate population, if we regulate bussinesses"(hitler). sounds socialist to me. Look. At the end of the day, minimum regulation, free market, liberta. Did hitler minimize regulations, freed market, or liberated people?(economically yes, but thats not the thing). give me examples i can throw thousands and tens of thousands papers at you, and at the end of the day, you are just gonna say he wasnt socialist. Have it your way. We are not gonna forget what we have learned thru life. You are gonna learn more.

  22. And whoever is cringing in the comments fascists are not anti capitalists they preferred a social friendly society like free education, health care etc. But the means of products were mostly owned by individuals

  23. In all fairness prob 10 percent of the population of US before WW2, had been Germans only twenty years before, so many of their views were prob clouded by their love of their home country. You make great videos, very informative.

  24. I think Trotsky said it best when he stated that Fascism was the total dictatorial state control of the means of production, and the dissolution of any notion of proletarian unions, such that the proletariat cannot rise against the state.

  25. This is Italian fascism and Nazism, you said nothing about fascist philosophy or the core tenants of philosophy

  26. Fascism is a system, not an ideology. It set of ideologies that encompasses both extremes of the political spectrum and is a system based around the group. Fascism doesn't have to be authoritarian though in most cases is. Any ideology based on a group identity is fascist. For example, nazism, or communism. These are both fascist ideologies even though they are opposed to each other. They can both be fascist because as said, fascism is a system, and not an ideology. And that is the simple truth, it is even in the name's etymology. The reason fascism is so hard to define is because marxists are mega-experts at making words mean what they want them to mean simply by saying it till they make it. They take a word, ascribe a meaning to it and then simply repeat it until they die. Doing that over decades and voila. 2019 and noone really knows what fascism is but everyone kinda thinks it's something bad, but they don't know what.

  27. What led to the false association of the Christian Hooked Cross with the Hindu Swastika ?

    If you were to go through the English translations of Mein Kampf (“My Struggle” an autobiography of Hitler”), you would find the mention of Swastika. Mein Kampf was translated into English by James Murphy, an English Christian Priest.

    The English evangelists were opponents of Nazis and they tried to portray Hitler as a Pagan. The word Hooked Cross was conveniently translated as Swastika. When Hitler became extremely unpopular, the Evangelist lobby associated the Hooked Cross with Swastika to hide the fact that Nazism originated in Christian Socialism
    What was Hitler’s party symbol and where did he find it?

    It is a common misconception that Hitler used the Swastika symbol. But Hitler himself never used the word "Swastika" to refer to his symbol. He called it “Hooked Cross”(“Haken Kreuz”).

    Hitler first saw the Hooked Cross symbol in a Christian monastery (Lambach Abbey) which he attended as a boy[11]. He later adopted it as an emblem for his party. There is no evidence that he ever heard of the word “Swastika”. Hooked Cross had been a sacred symbol of Christianity since its inception in ancient days and it is very natural to find Hooked Cross symbol in old churches and chapels.

  28. Fascism was growing in Australia in the 1930s as well. Little known fact is that the sydney harbour bridge was opened by a member of "the new guard" an Australian fascist group. Sulari Gentill writes a lot of novels which focus on the tension between the fascists and the communists.

  29. Fascism is simply a grab bag of disparate ideas underpinned by racism/hyper nationalism and used to justify rule by the traditional social elites. The uniformed thugs act as muscle for the old bosses. It is wrong to consider ANY of their doctrines on their own merits. Their ideas are all over the shop and wildly contradictory. It's all snake oil used to sell and justify control.

    I've said this before on another forum. The American plutocrat Jay Gould once said he had no fear of a leftist revolution because he could always hire half the working class to murder the other half. Fascists/Nazis are Gould's goons in uniforms.

  30. Well you could say the exact same things about communism, about preaching whatever it takes to grab power. Nationalism in Asia and Anti-Nationalism in Europe…
    Yet another failed attempt to define fascim. Next…

  31. This was such a great intro to historical fascism! I do think fascism goes deeper than just creating a scapegoat to consolidate power; fascism's foundation is rooted in the belief that the human race forms natural hierarchies, and creating an alien "other" group helps consolidate that alt-right unity and create a racial or cultural hierarchy. Two things facism will always eventually lead to: hierarchies of power and money, aka authoritarianism and corporatism 👍

  32. This moron doesn't read a book and knows nothing about philosophy.
    Fascism is actualist idealism.
    The hegalian school which says that nature, culture, and spirit
    is all spirit, everything is idealistic.
    It is the rejection of Marxist interpretation of Hegel,
    which is that nature, culture, and spirit
    are all replaced by socio-economical "material"
    So instead of seeing oppressor-victim dynamics,
    fascism see idealistic problems and idealistic

  33. I like the little state capitalism you sneaked in there. Pretty accurate, but don't trigger the tankies

  34. Fascism, socialism, and communism all call for big government.. the right believes in the individual.

  35. This isn't very informative, and you gloss over the early stages. In Italy, Fascism was the result of nearly three decades of intellectual debate between classic Marxists and Syndicalists, and those "nationalists" who were tired of seeing Italy being outpaced and bled dry by the more developed, plutocratic countries like the U.S, England and France. Mussolini was just one among many who had such a newspaper, and he only came in at the middle of the movement. Many Marxists became Fascists after they were convinced that it would take an all-encompassing evolution comprised of all the Italian classes working together to secure Italy, not just a worker's revolution. They feared that a simple Communist revolution would keep Italy permanently behind their more developed neighbors, ensuring they would never have any real sovereignty.

    Also, antisemitism has been around forever, but it grew to a fevered pitch in Germany because of two factors:

    1. The November Revolution, an attempted Communist takeover of Germany after WWI. It was noted that the leadership of this movement was mostly Jewish.
    2. When the German economy was in shambles, many Jewish communities had an easier time of it as many of them were foreigners from other developed countries working in Germany, or at the very least, were part of international trade and banking institutions. Many had shops that became the focus of German jealousy and vitriol.

  36. Even here in India, far-right groups like the RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) and VHP (Vishwa Hindu Parishad) were fans of Italian and German fascism. The second leader of the RSS; M.S.Golwalkar even explicitly admired Hiter many a times:
    “…To keep up the purity of the nation and its culture, Germany shocked the world by her purging the country of Semitic races – the Jews. National pride at its highest has been manifested here. Germany has also shown how well-nigh impossible it is for races and cultures, having differences going to the root, to be assimilated into one united whole, a good lesson for us in Hindustan to learn and profit by,” ('We, or, Our Nationshood Defined')

    Just as the Jews were hated by Hitler, Muslims and Christians are hated by these organisations. The crimes committed against these religious minorities have skyrocketed ever since the BJP (whose members are predominantly from the RSS) won the elections in 2014. Their 2019 election campaigning was based largely on a hyper-nationalistic narrative too.
    These organisations have gained huge base in India in the present era and the ruling party – the BJP (Bhartiya Janta Party) are an electoral wing of the RSS. They won a huge majority of the seats in the 2019 elections. Sadly, fascism is rising in India.

  37. Portugal had a Fascist regime under Antonio Salazar until he stepped down for health reasons in 1968.😐

  38. Fascists believe in the restoration of a nation's past glory, which in theory, is not a bad thing, however, the method had imperialist motives, such as Italy in Ethiopia or Germany in France, Poland, etc. 😐

  39. Trump has the elements of Fascism, egotistical, "Make America Great Again ", ban Muslims, "America will never be a Socialist Country ", he has blind followers that attend his rallies in record numbers. He attacks his opponents with harsh rhetoric, he has a delusional opinion of himself, he uses the technology of the time to destroy his opponents, the only thing he hasn't done was kill anyone or take over another country to "Make America Great Again ".😐

  40. Thanks to President Trump, Fascism is seeing a resurgence around the world, Many European elections have been won by far right extreme Nationalists. 😐

  41. Unlike The Communists, Fascists used religion as a way of maintaining loyalty, Vatican City was a result of Il Duce & Pope Pius XI. 😐

  42. Fascism can go either to the left or the right, but it is popularly associated with the Right. Fascism places emphasis more on the collective than the individual 😊

  43. Fascism has a definition, and a explicit ideology. It is not a method. The reason we have difficulty defining it is because the definitions of specific words have changed drastically over the years.

    In Italian, "Corporazioni" meant Guild. It got mistranslated to mean Corporation. So we call it the Corporate State when in reality it was a Guild State. Mussolini also coined the term Totalitarian. It doesn't mean authoritarian or a single dictator with total power. It means the state and the individuals (its citizenry) were one unit. In a Liberal democracy, the individuals role in the state is largely limited to voting. They have no direct role in the functions of he state. With Fascism, the Guilds were essentially the state. Since membership in the Guilds were mandatory, and since independent guilds/unions/parties were outlawed, all individuals had a direct function in the state. So the State and its citizens were Total.

    The Guild system was basically a system of mass unions for specific fields of industry. Each industrial trade had an Employer Union and Employee Union. These two unions would form confederations (Guilds) to manage their industry collectively. This was Mussolini's Guild State.

    Nazi Germany, Franco's Spain, Vichy France, and Fascist Italy all had this system. The Totalitarian Guild State was Fascism. Mussolini even explicitly stated that Guildism was the cornerstone of Fascism. A Fascist State without Guildism was not Fascism.

  44. Charles Coughlin was a leftist who attacked FDR for not being not progressive enough, i.e. the New Deal wasn't as expansive as it should be (Liberal Fascism p 137-145). Most of the differences between the 1930 socialists and facists are better described as the differences between right wing and left wing socialists. Doubt that you will see this, but I do enjoy your channel! Keep up the good work.

  45. Hyper Inflation was the way the German Government attempted to deal with the reparations issue, not an accidental outcome.

  46. Hitler wasn't sent to undermine the Party, the party was set up by the army and the elite of Bavaria to capture the people for the old ruling class, which had been discredited by the war. Hitler was sent to the party by the army, he was an indoctrination officer and the idea was that he would use his skills to aid the cause through the party.

  47. National Socialism has a specific meaning in the context of the times. The Nazis were the only National Socialist Party or even the first. National Socialism was an ideology based on anti-Semitism and anti-internationalism. It was ideology invented to combat the appeal of socialism to the people that got the shaft under capitalism. It even included appeals against 'unproductive' capital, which is typical of right wing populism. In the Nazi context, witness the ideology of Feder and the even the so-called 'Strasser wing' of the party.

  48. Fascism at it's base is just the political form of capitalism, it will say anything to get power, not as an end in itself, but to save capitalism from the left. However, despite my comments I thought the video was very good, a lot better than the average explanation of fascism and Nazism.

  49. One thing that seems to remain constant to me about the definition of fascism is mythologized ideal of a country's past that they have to return to (that's where the nationalism comes in) as well as the idea of there being a social hierarchy or a certain group that's on top. I could be wrong though.

  50. The reason collectivism flourishes is because people are dumb animals. Fascism, socialism, communism, democracy, are all forms of collectivism. It matters not what mechanisms the slave owners use to control their slave stock. Only an imbecile would choose one form of slavery over another. So long as men act like cattle they will be chattel.

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