What is a Neo-Nazi? | The History of Hate

Nazis… Nazis Nazis Nazis… It seems like there are so many angles with
these guys that others have done already. Sometimes even on this channel. However, the term Neo-Nazi is especially prevalent
today, and so let’s talk about them. This is the story of the Nazis… AFTER World War Two. Hi, I’m Tristan Johnson, and this is Step
Back History. So after the Nazis did what Nazis do and lost
the Second World War, their… charming ideas about hating pretty much anyone who isn’t
them did not die out. Neo-Nazis have been around since the end of
the war, trying to harass or kill people slightly different, taking immense pride in things
they have literally no control over like race or nation, and trying to rebuild the fourth
Reich through violence and cosplay. Neo-nazis are all over the world, and there’s
a story behind their presence in many countries. Because this is a Youtube video and not an
encyclopedia, I used my viewership analytics and after a history of the overall movement
will talk about it in the 5 countries that have the most Step Back viewers. So, Germany, Australia, The UK, Canada, and
the United States. Naziism as a concept was in trouble after
the second world war. The official Nazi party’s last leader was
Martin Bormann, a close confidante of Hitler who had been with him for the final days before
his death. The Soviets killed him during the Battle of
Berlin, but for a long time, they didn’t tell anyone, so the fate of Bormann was a
mystery for many years. Around this time, Hitler also bravely committed
suicide, and his body was burned was to either not suffer the same fate of Benito Mussolini’s
body, torn apart and dragged through the street, or to prevent there being a place for him
to serve as a martyr. Because of this, there is no body of Hitler. One documentary went to the old Soviet archives
and might have found a fragment of a skull that belonged to him, but it’s hard to verify. Russian archives are… hard to navigate. Because of this, conspiracy theories began
to flourish that Hitler somehow escaped and was in hiding somewhere in South America. Hitler’s successors were Karl Donitz and
Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk. The only job these two men had was to write
and sign the articles of surrender, ending the Second World War in Europe officially. By October, the Nazi party had been dissolved
officially by the occupying government, finishing what we can call Old Nazis. Germany was in ruins, and denazification programs
after the war made it pretty tough to be a racist git in Germany. The allies also ran the Nuremberg trials and
killed pretty much any prominent nazi left. Most veterans and party members just gave
up and tried to return to a healthy life. I say most, but there were a few hardcore
holdouts. Some attempted to join the German conservatives
in the British Occupied Zone. Remember this when Dinesh D’souza tells
you that the Nazis were left wing. Either way, they left and formed another party
called the Socialist Reich Party. Pretty soon after though, many European countries
beginning with Austria banned Nazi parties. Some of the former Nazis joined a nationalist
party in Germany and even tried to start their own version of the Hitler youth, getting only
about one percent of the popular vote throughout the 1950s. Naziism then started to become even more weird. People began writing weird books calling Hitler
the avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, and wrote about paganism in a big way. The old Nazis played with this, but these
new Nazis dug in. This is partly why Nazis tend to co-opt pagan
symbols like the volks knot, or the Black Sun symbol. They started proposing weird things like building
secret colonies under the polar ice caps. Oh, and that Aryans might be from another
galaxy… In East Germany, a party called the National
Democratic Party of Germany tried to make a stab at mobilising old Nazis into a political
force. Weirdly enough the National Democratic Party
of Germany’s goal was to prevent these former Nazis from becoming Nazis again. Nazis also began to pop up outside of the
German world. Groups in the Uk and the US tried to move
the focus away from specific Aryan aspects and expand the definition to all whiteness. They would oppose racial progress happening
in the mid-20th century, and try to leverage anti-communism to blame the Jews. There was also an explosion of Holocaust denial. A movement of people trying to make the claim
that the six million Jews who died in the holocaust didn’t die. They just magically disappeared somehow. This subculture flourished, and their works
tend to help fuel Neo-nazi movements to this day. It’s a way to try to soften the Nazis in
the eyes of the world and give Nazis a chance to be legit again. Nazi movements also found receptive audiences
after the collapse of the communist world in the 1990s. It was an easy go-to for those that didn’t
like the communist system they lived under but had internalised the hate of liberal capitalism
over the years. Nazis… the third way. You can also tie it to pain over the loss
of territory by the Russians. This includes the apparently immune to Irony
National Bolshevik Party, which tries to marry Soviet nostalgia and Nazi symbology into some
horrific nightmare that is indeed the worst of both worlds. You can even label the Greek Golden Dawn Neo-Nazis
who were growing in prominence a few years ago to this phenomenon. It’s almost as if no matter what you add
nationalism to it turns to shit. Funny that. So how does it play out in the countries that
like Step Back the most? Well, I kinda told the story about Germany,
but since the Second World War, there have been far-right groups virtually indistinguishable
from Neo-Nazis, they just can’t use the term because being a Nazi is illegal there. These parties have had a few surprising successes
starting in about 2004. They’re estimated to number approximately
25,000. They’ve attacked the homes of refugees,
vandalised synagogues and Jewish cemeteries, occupied a small village called Jamel and
somehow won a seat in the 2014 European parliament elections. Down under, a few Aussie Nazis… Naussies? Auzis? Have sprung up over the decades. Some Aryan prison gangs have become prominent. Most recently though there has been a rise
in a group called the United Patriot’s Front based out of Victoria operating on a platform
of anti-immigration, anti-multiculturalism, and open Islamophobia. They’ve shown friendship with the Golden
Dawn neo-nazi party in Greece, and their leader Blair Cottrell has connections with Neo-Nazis. He even wants pictures of Hitler in classrooms,
and for every child in school to get a copy of Mein Kampf. Don’t worry, classical liberals will still
deny he and this group are neo-nazis. I just call everyone I disagree with a Nazi
because they just happen to want a picture of Hitler in every classroom. In the UK, there was already a prominent Fascist
organisation in the 30s. The cycle since seems to be bouncing between
being a small part of the Conservative party or forming their own minor political parties. Their main causes were preserving the empire,
and when that turned out to be impossible, banning non-white immigration, keeping northern
Ireland British, opposing the European Union, and supporting Apartheid in South Africa. There were race riots, there were Nazi punk
skinheads, and there was Nick Griffin. A far-right politician who led a group called
the British National Party until a BBC documentary exposed him as a racist. He resigned in 2014, and the party fell into
obscurity afterwards. The UK to this day has a lot of far-right
groups espousing open racism, but maybe not directly advocating Nazi beliefs. These days they tend to leverage anti-Muslim
hatred to elevate conspiracy theories about Muslims. There is the group National Action, which
has been active since 2013 and declared a terrorist organisation since 2016. The first Canadian Nazi party was called the… Canadian Nazi Party. They founded in 1965, and neo-nazi movements
sprung up around the country, some domestic and some imported from the US. In 1977 there was a Nationalist Party that
merely said they wanted to defend western heritage and culture but was full of antisemites,
neo-nazis, and racists. Another attempt was a group called the heritage
front, but Neo-nazi groups have had a hard time here. Neo Nazi groups today are mostly disorganized
and small. And lastly, we come to the United States. Naziism in America could almost be a video
in and of itself. The most prominent group to date is the National
Socialist movement, but there are groups like the National States’ Rights Party, and the
American Nazi Party as well. Because of the first amendment, these groups
experience a lot more freedom than they do in other countries. They even got permission to march in a Jewish
part of Chicago by the supreme court. The most prominent holocaust denial organisation,
the Institute for Historical Review also comes from America. Whether or not giving Nazis this sort of latitude
is something people are talking about a lot these days. Heck, the ACLU even fights for the Nazis’
freedom of speech. What do you all think about this? In Canada, we have laws against hate speech,
and it might be why there aren’t so many Nazi groups. Let’s have a chit chat in the comments. If you remember my Fascism video from October,
you will remember my talk about pain points and the way fascism takes root in different
contexts. These cases show how a German identitarian
movement can mutate in various places to represent different forms of colonialism, white supremacy,
and hatred depending on the tensions in the country at the time. Truly terrifying. Alrighty, well if you liked that video you
should click the subscribe button down below. To not miss a single video or live stream,
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I wanna see you all report in in the comments. If you don’t spend a ton of time on Youtube,
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to Patron.com/StepBackHistory and pledge as little as a dollar a month. The theme song is by 12 tone and come back
next time for more Step Back.

  1. Well I did nazi that coming. Honestly, I think that banning a party to get rid of them is less effective than ripping their ideology to shreds with a good argument. Censoring them just gives them fuel. Also, free speech

  2. If we're gonna have a 4th Reich in Germany it damn well better be a Kaiserreich, preferably a constitutional one and not Nazi Germany 2.0

  3. Nationalism should be fundamentally cultural and not depreciative of others. Any ethnic nationalism is utterly detached from what allows a nation state to flourish. As a Cornishman – a formerly culturally oppressed minority for generations – I think attributing nationalism as the problem is generalising.

  4. "Let's destroy Hitler's body so nobody can rally around his grave."
    "Hey, nobody's seen Hitler's body, right? He must still be alive!"

  5. I think far right groups here in the USA are more white nationalist and fascist then neo nazis. Because they allowed Slavic descent people, which is something that nazis won’t do. In fact I did see a few white nationalist saying they would have Jews if they look European enough(they most likely covering there asses). Hey step back can you also other far right groups in other parts of the world like the one in Asia. Any way resist the far right and don’t there bull!!!✊🏻✊🏻

  6. But National-Socialist were a Socialist aka Left Wing. That after war they pretend that they weren't, like also those people who claim that Liberalism is "Left Wing" despite fact that Libertarians are literally a Right Wing Liberals so such claim doesn't have a sense. Obviously fact that left wing extremism do exist don't diminish modern social-democratic movements, but simple fact is that both neo-natzi and neo-communist are basically this same.

  7. I would just like to point out that not all modern germanic pagans are Nazis, many of them are kind progressive people who support LGBTQ+ rights, muti-ethnicity, and tolerence of all peoples and religions.

  8. This is a very complicated issue in the US. The constitution specifically gives individuals the freedom to express their opinions in the first Amendment. This is one of the values that Americans hold most dear. I've heard from friends in the military who say "I do not agree with what they say, but I will defend to my death their right to say it" Freedom of expression is considered a basic human right in the US, any laws banning books, or limiting speech, the press, or banning peaceful assemblies is unconstitutional. This is of course to prevent a government such as North Korea's where any anti-american speech or anti-government speech would land you in jail. We expect to be able to express our opinions publicly without risk of being thrown in jail. This is where it gets gray. There are some restrictions on speech, like it's illegal to yell "Bomb!" on an airplane, or yell "Fire" in a movie theater because those are considered creating unnecessary panic which can actually get people hurt. Now comes the Nazi speech. It is perfectly legal for them to assemble as long as the assembly is peaceful. It's perfectly legal for them to call themselves Nazis. It's perfectly legal for them to fly the original Nazi flag, and it's perfectly legal for them to publicly express their Nazi beliefs both in person and through media. The gray area comes when it is no longer spouting your ideas, but when it actually becomes a call to action. It's perfectly fine to say "I hate immigrants and Jews", but if you actually start calling for the extermination of those people, it is considered inciting violence and can actually be illegal. We can't specifically say "Nazism, all their views, and all Nazi assemblies are illegal" because that violates the first Amendment. If we do start making that stuff illegal, then it could lead the way for a government that can throw you in jail for simply stating that you don't like the government. So while I don't agree with Nazis, I respect their right to have those ideals, but once they start acting on them, once they actually kill someone, then they have crossed the line. Which is exactly what happened in Charlottesville. A self identified white supremacist drove his car into crowd of people and killed a woman. That crosses the line of it being okay to self identify as a white supremacist, and acting on dangerous speech.

  9. Being able to be jailed for things you believe or say is an insanely dangerous and Orwellian thing to do. You can't convince people what they think is wrong if you just blindly lock them up instead of letting them be open to the public forum where there ideas will be challenged. Freedom of Speech is a fundamental right that everyone should have and it's the foundation of Western Society which has allowed people to prosper without fear of being locked up or killed for wrong think. No one and no entity should have the ability to declare something as illegal to be though or said.

  10. I believe in freedom of speech to the purist point. I think hate speech should be legal. But when these people pop up I believe we have a responsibility to shut them down by any means necessary.

  11. hate speech laws are tyrannical methods the government uses to crack down on speech they dont agree with. As long as no one is committing aggression, they can say what ever trash they want, this is the only true way to a free society.

  12. http://constitution.findlaw.com/amendment1.html

    Here's the exact wording of the first amendment:
    "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."

    Yes, this does protect a person's right to say, think, and believe whatever they want, but it also means people are allowed to disagree with them AND that they can voice that disagreement. It works both ways, not that progressives care.

  13. Conservatives such as pragerU and national review try to label fascists as far left by displaying an version of the left-right spectrum that has no historical basis

  14. As always, very interesting, Tristan. I understand that drawing a line between far-right and actual Nazi is probably impossible, but I wonder what you think about how (in Australia at least), the right wing of politics (One Nation, Australian Conservatives, Democratic Liberal Party) courts sympathisers of NN groups, and doesn't challenge their statements because they get their vote? Much like President45 and the "charming" (laughed at that) people in Charlottesville. Well done for not mentioning him by the way. 🙂 SBH rocks!!!

  15. The UPF here in Australia are a joke. As are their mates in Reclaim Australia. They make a big deal out of being native born white Australians…. in a country which white people immigrated to, violently displacing the native population. What idiots.

  16. To me nazism is Germanic nationalism/fascism as it a extent to Facism and it specially about Germanic people, not white in general because they had promblems with slavs and other white groups.

  17. Canadian anti-hate speech laws are fantastic and I do believe they've helped curb the growth and spread of Nazism here when compared to the UK, America, Poland, Germany etc. Though some of it has to be becasue of are culture here in Canada being much more open and accepting. /Do a video on South Tamil Indian dynasties Cholas, Pandyas or Cheras i'm Bengali but find them to be quite interesting and underrated in the West.

  18. I am from Austria (the country Hitler is from) and not only do we have openly neo-nazi groups (which are rather small though), but also a party, that formed from the members of the successor party of the NSDAP, the FPÖ. They are not openly neo-nazis, but play with that a LOT. They call themselves the "socialist homeland party" and are openly anti-muslim, after being openly antisemitic in the 90ies, early 2000s. Pretty often, members of their youth organisations are convicted for reactivation of NS symbols, like doing the Hitler salute, openly wearing or spraying swastika. Hell, even their chairman was taking part in neo-nazi groups and activities as well as being best friends with the well-known holocaust denier Gottfried Küssel and being engaged to the daughter of another neo-nazi, Norbert Burger.
    The horrible thing right now is, that they are currently trying to form a government with the conservatives (who would do anything to stay in power)…

  19. Yes Neo-Nazis are abusing pagan symbols, but they are in no way related to Nazism nor racists. I am deeply intrigued by germanic, nordic or celtic paganism and when I wear a Mjölnir or a Wotansknoten as a necklace I always get stupid comments. We have to stop naming these two together without any context.

  20. I really like these videos but I also really hate that Youtube's algorithm recommend me Neo-Nazi and white-terror videos because of it. Apparently that's okay under YouTube but God help you if you make a Peppa Pig YouTube poop.

  21. Here in Australia you could question that the Australia First, another far right organisation out of QUeensland is also possiblely Neo Nazi. Thankfully we have anti hate speech laws to minimise the number of Neo Nazi's. Politians that have a raceist hate speech agenda are making Neo Nazi groups bolder in their actions.

  22. you should do an episode on Benito Mussolini's death, that sounds like it could be a weird story? everyone knows about Hitler's suicide, but i'd never heard what happened to Benito Mussolini.

  23. I am not a Nazi or racist. But Descartes once said "I might vehemently disagree with your opinion, but I will defend your right to voice it with my life". So whilst white supremacy and racism have little if any place in society, they still have every right to voice their opinions.

  24. My question in all of this is how do we know when someone is being patriotic versus being nationalistic? Personally I'm more on the left but how should we treat people when they are espousing about patriotism? Should we considered them to be a bit more far right like nazis or what? Thoughts?

  25. Youtube is full of nazis and youtube is doing nothing to stop them from recruiting children. The only platform that a nazi should be given is the gallows.

  26. I think "whiteness" is a pretty narrow view of it. There are several neonazi groups in South America that are comprised of people of mixed racial (ie Mestizo) heritage who levy hatred against people of African and Jewish descent. In Mongolia, the nazi party there singles out Chinese migrants. This speaks volumes of how nazism is seen by these groups: as a weapon against the "other".

  27. Here in the US a lot of groups get labeled as Nazi, even though many don't have many views related to Nazism. I think many are people with very little understanding of what a nazi even is, but they know they don't like people that don't look like them. Some even think that Trump is a Nazi, even though he's really just a clueless moron. Either way I'll take freedom of speech any day, at least it allows people to expose their ignorance.

  28. American here. The idea behind our first amendment is that people should be able to say anything they feel, no matter how egregious or offensive you may find it. That’s because we public opinion changes over time, and if you can ban speech based off of mob rule, you aren’t free. Only 50 years ago I’m sure creationists would have and could have banned people from discussing evolution without the first amendment. Furthermore, banning people from expressing harmful opinions doesn’t make those opinions go away, it simply allows them to fester. It may even grant legitimacy to a warped victim narrative. Free speech is the single most important right any society can recognize its citizens to have. It is paramount.


    Bunch of bogan tosspots.

  30. Honestly, I think this is another area where the rest of the world is more advanced than the US. If we know what Naziism leads to, maybe we should do things to prevent it. Freedom of speech shouldn't allow for the return of an ideology the world has pretty much agreed is evil and dangerous. Letting the Nazis speak is one thing, claiming its an infringement of speech to not let them march through a neighborhood occupied by a group they're responsible for almost eliminating and terrorizing is just being an asshole. The rise of Naziism in the West is a failure to learn from history.

  31. Just because you don't see them doesn't mean they're not there. I remember my uncle not wanting to work in one part of Canada because he was approached by people who wanted him to bring them guns. The beauty of freedom of speech is that it acts as a valve release letting people voice their opinions whether or not they happen to be correct politically or otherwise. Moreover, freedom of speech also means someone can also challenge these claims the neo-Nazi groups make, and they do get challenged. I imagine that march through that Jewish part of Chicago brought out a number of people shouting at the idiots as they marched through.

  32. My husband and I are trying to emigrate from America to Germany, due largely to the appalling rise of Nazism, especially in our state (Idaho). Moving to Germany to get away from the Nazi…. 2018 is a weird year.

  33. Intresting thought about Nazis and Islam. Mein Kampf is a best seller in Palestine and Bangladesh. What a strange world we live in and even stranger times.

  34. First Karl Donst became Fuhrer, Goring was expelled from office in the final week with Himmler. who tried to negotiate peace with the west to keep fighting the Soviet's. Boremann did not take over but was found 50 yards from the bunker.

  35. There's barely any neo nazism in the UK, there is unfortunately quite a bit of racism amongst parties/ organisations such as UKIP, BNP & the EDL but most people are against them. What is a problem however is the worryingly prominent anti Semitism amongst members of our Socialist Labour Party

  36. Interesting that you criticize the notion of nationalism as a whole. I'd be interested to hear your opinion on John Stuart Mill and his philosophy of civic nationalism (which was pro-immigration and more-so built upon the idea of culture.

  37. Good video man I got introduced to you from jabari from nothing guy one thing that I would add is the South American nazi connection because there is a bunch of them that went there people like Joseph Mengele never even Saw Justice and getting convicted as a matter of fact some of the nazis ended up being hired by even the United States for research stuff that's messed up anyway man good content I just subscribed to you great interview with jabari

  38. The American idea of absolute freedom of speech is utter non-sense, from mainstreaming racist views to anti-science stupidity, the American absolute definition does not bring any good to anyone.

  39. Here's just one little point, maybe beeing a jew yourself, is not the best starting point to talk about nazis, neonazis or holocaustdenial. Especially, if you just say, "They just really hate jews.", without even mentioning their reasons, for that anti-jew point of view, like racism in the Thora and Zohar, reluctance to adapt to any other culture, they live in or the political influence of some very rich individuals, who happen to be jewish or the political policies of modern day Israel. I'm not a sympathiser to anti-semetism, racism or neo-naziism, but i think it's important to know, why these people think the way they do and not trying to reduce it to set phrases. Everyone is a hero in their own story, after all and even the holocaustdenialists have some reasoning behind their theory.

  40. As an American AntiFascist I want the state to UNINVOLVE itself from the bulk of the struggle against fascists.

    When it inserts itself it is almost always to crack down on Antifa and open space for nazis to get to their platform.

    We have a particular set of politics here and the state will never censor them without also censoring us.

  41. Why do we have have to call them neo Nazis? Nazism never died , and if it did and now it's starting again then just call them Nazis

  42. The National bolshevik party has nothing in common with the nazis. They used this symbolic to provoke people, but they never were racists. The nazbols said, a Russian is someone, who speak Russian. In the middle of the last decade the nazbols along with pro western liberals protested against Putins gouverment. And the real Russian neonazis disliked nazbols, because Limonov, the founder of the party descripted a sexual act with a black guy in his books. Later limonov became more and more Putin sympatheizer, but still not a Neonazi.

  43. I say they should have dragged Hitler's ass out in the streets and ripped him to pieces for all to see, remember, and think "This is what happens to Fascists."

  44. Blah Cottrell put his support behind Senator Fraser Anning- and joined Annings new political party something something Australian Conservatives.

    Anning is most well known for using the term “final solution” in his maiden speech to the senate, and for blaming the Muslim community of Christchurch for the massacre, basically saying they had it coming (exact wording included “live by the sword”).

    Good thing though, Anning lost his seat at the last federal election, and his party won a grand total of zero seats across the country. Bad news, Malcolm Roberts won his seat, and he’s actually who Anning replaced when Roberts was found to be a dual citizen, and thus ineligible for parliament. They both belonged to Pauline Hanson’s One Nation party- a far right nationalist party with lots of cuckoo beliefs. Roberts is the worst for it- he thinks climate change is a (((globalist))) hoax and has previously been a “sovereign citizen, using all the ridiculous and wrong reasoning that implies.

    As soon as Anning took his seat in the last parliament, Anning left One Nation to stand as an independent, then part of the Katter party (another cuckoo right wing pollie), then was kicked out of Katter for being too racist for them (truly an exceptional feat- Katter once said that gay people didn’t exist in his electorate. His brother is gay- though they don’t talk anymore, obviously).

    Then Anning was independent for a while, then started his own party after the increased coverage he got following Christchurch.

    Oh, also, he was the one that got egged by the young lad. That lad, Will (forgot his last name), had about $100k raised for his legal fees and “more eggs”, which he donated to the victims of Christchurch and their families (I believe he had to fight go fund me to do that, because they don’t like you to use money for any other purpose than that stated on the fundraiser, but they gave in).

    Blah and his crew of rotten bogans are still running around being utter pricks. He’s also been arrested and convicted of a few things including arson, assault and domestic violence. Nice guy.

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