Whale culture: Hal Whitehead at TEDxHalifax


Translator: Leonardo Silva
Reviewer: Peter van de Ven We are all like one another, and that likeness is the essence of life. Life is built on information moving
from one organism to another organism, from one animal to another animal,
or from one plant to another plant. Without this transfer,
there would be no life, no evolution, no biology. So, how does this intermotion move around? Well, we biologists
concentrate on genes, and part of the reason
we’re also like one another is because of the
human genes that we share. If this was a gathering of squirrels,
we’d all be like each other again, but we’d be very different
from what we are now. Squirrel DNA. But we’re also similar in ways
which are not due to our genes. We all understand English, and most of us are wearing
the same T-shirt. (Laughter) And these similarities
are not because of genes, they’re because of culture. Culture is what we learn from one another, and culture is another way that information moves
from one organism to another organism. Culture is why we are here,
the TED culture. Some of what you’ll hear here
you may pass on, and other communities will become
more similar to one another. Look at this picture. It contains all kinds
of cultural elements. Genes do not produce anything like this: unrelated organisms
wearing identical apparel, carrying complex technology, marching lockstep
into a very dangerous situation with no likely personal reward. The one animal in this picture
from a non-cultural species, the horse, may be rightfully very dubious
about what’s about to happen. The human population, our human population,
is defined by our genes as well as our cultural information, whereas individual squirrels
and the squirrel population largely possess only genetic information. We get our genes from our parents,
at least until now, whereas we get our culture
from all kinds of sources. We might get our religion
from our parents, our taste in clothes from our peers, our ideas about politics
from our professors, our knowledge of sports from TV. These profound differences in how genes and culture move
from one creature to another creature mean that if culture
is important to a species, evolution proceeds very differently. Cultural species can produce
cathedrals, kamikaze pilots, the Simpsons, jumbo jets,
NASCAR and the United Nations. Species without much culture
can hoard nuts. So, are we the only species with culture? No, birds sing, and a lot of that song
is learned from other birds, and so, culture. Then, perhaps we are the only species
in which culture is so important that it drives our society,
our evolution, our ecology and an extraordinary technology. That’s what most people
and most academics think. This 2009 book addresses
the question of animal culture from a number of perspectives. Kim Hill is one of the
relatively few anthropologists willing to even talk about the idea
of non-human culture, but the anthropologists’ point
of view is pretty clear: only humans have culture. Psychologists might be
a little bit milder: only humans have sophisticated methods of getting knowledge
from one to another by learning, and so only they can produce
significant cultures. Zoologists aren’t so certain. They wonder whether culture might be quite
significant for a few species and animals, like chimps and elephants
and capuchin monkeys. And then, there’s me, and a few other whale nuts. We have spent years of our lives
with these animals. We haven’t learned a whole lot, because the whales and dolphins
are very hard to study, and it’s been a struggle to work out
how to make sense of them. But what we have found out
has convinced us that for these animals,
culture is more than vital. It confirms who they are
and how they interact with each other, and their culture affects their ecology
as well as their genetic evolution, as it does for us humans. Well, a caveat: there are two important parts
of human culture that the whales do not have. They don’t have cumulative
material technology; so, no jumbo jets. And don’t have a syntactical language; so, no Shakespeare. But there are signs that they have all
the other important aspects of culture, and there may be elements
of their culture that we do not have, and of course we’ll have
a really hard time recognizing them. There’s lots of evidence of whale culture
in all the best studied species. I’m going to concentrate
on my own experience. Well, I study sperm whales,
the Moby Dick whale. The sperm whale’s a predator
on deep-water squid. It’s an animal of extremes. It has the largest nose on Earth. This nose is the most powerful
sonar system in the natural world. They also have the biggest brain on Earth,
the biggest of all brains, and the sperm whale population, even though we’ve reduced them
by about two-thirds through whaling, takes more food
out of the ocean every year than all our fisheries
for all species combined. And we generally cannot catch
those deep-water squid that they live on. I’ve been particularly interested
in the social structure of the female sperm whales. I’ve studied this for 30 years by following the whales around
in my sailing boat, tracking them by listening
for their sounds, and it’s great. We have studied them in various places, but I’m going to concentrate
on the research we’ve done off the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador. Female sperm whales
live in permanent social units, with about ten animals in each. Off the Galapagos, these units contain both related animals
and unrelated animals. So, the two whales at the top
of this picture might be aunt and niece, the two at the bottom might be
unrelated in any genetic way, but they will live together
for most of their lives. They move around the ocean together, they babysit each other’s young, they suckle each other’s young and they defend themselves
against predators such as killer whales, communally, together. Sperm whales communicate
with a strange Morse-code-like system, using patterns of clicks. So, here we go. (Whale clicking sounds) So that was a couple of sperm whales
communicating with each other. We analyzed these clicks, these patterns, and off the Galapagos,
we found two main kinds of social units. Some units made codas
like “click, click, click, click,” or “click, click, click.” We called them the regular units. Others made “click, click, click – click,” or “click, click – click.” We called them the plus-one units, like a Canadian “a”
at the end of each sentence. We found that the coda
repertoires were stable. If we recorded a plus-one unit
now and then five years later, they were still plus-one units. The units only grouped
with other units from their own clan, even though they lived
in the same general area. So, we had these two types of sperm whales
living in the same area, but having very different lives. And they behaved differently. Units of the regular clan stayed close
to the Galapagos Islands, shown here in yellow, and as we followed them,
they wiggled about this way and that way, we’d have to keep changing
the direction of the boat. When we were following the plus-one clan, we were further from the islands
and moving generally in straight lines. What’s behind this?
Well, are they subspecies? We checked the genetics and there’s almost
no difference between the two clans. We also checked that the clans were not
different parts of the same population, say, teenagers and adults. No, all parts were in each clan. The only explanation left was
that these clans were formed by culture. The young sperm whale
learns from her mother and the other members of her family unit “how we do things.” So, we have a situation here
comparable to two ethnic groups, living in the same area,
each doing their own thing, being aware of each other,
but rarely interacting – what we would perhaps
call multiculturalism. Well, we were so excited
when we discovered all of this, but there was more, as we began to think about the
implications of the sperm whale clans. How deeply does clan membership
affect sperm whales? We looked at two
fundamental attributes of life: feeding and reproduction. Well, unfortunately,
this is a very rare picture. We usually cannot see
the sperm whales eating. They’re a kilometer
below the surface, feeding on squid. But when they come to breathe,
they also defecate. So, on the principle
of “what went out must have gone in,” we count brown patches behind whales. More brown patches
equals more feeding success. In normal years off the Galapagos,
such as 1989, when we’d got a lot of data, the regular clan units usually did better. About 20 percent of the time
that the whales dived, started their long dives for squid, we saw a brown patch behind them. For the plus-one clan,
it was only about 6 percent. But every few years, El Niño strikes he Galapagos area,
the waters warm up, and it’s bad news for nearly everything
in the ocean, including sperm whales. The feeding success goes down. However, in these new conditions,
the plus-one clan does better. We see almost no brown patches when
we’re following the regular clan around. But the plus-oners
managed to squeeze out a few. With global warming, El-Niño-like conditions
are likely to increase in frequency, so for sperm whales, cultural diversity
may be very important to their survival. We also looked at reproduction. Once again, there are big differences, with the plus-one groups almost always
having a young baby with them, whereas when we were following
the regular groups, they only had a young calf
about half of the time. This indicates that culture
may be affecting genetic evolution. While the clans don’t differ
in the nuclear genes, the ones that really control
behavior and so on, they do differ a bit
in the neutral mitochondrial genes, which are passed down
from mothers to their offspring, to daughter and so on. So, if we think of the regular clan
as having generally green genes and the plus-one as having blue genes – and I’m sorry about that,
it turned out to be blue genes, yes – If the plus-one clan keeps up
its high reproductive rate, at each generation, the proportion
of blue genes in the ocean will increase, because there’s more plus-oners, and eventually, they’ll come
to dominate the sperm whale’s ocean. So, the ocean becomes filled
with the plus-one blue genes not because these blue genes
are advantageous in themselves, they’re no better than the green ones, but because they were lucky enough
to be linked to the good ideas, the cultural ideas of the plus-one clan, which allowed them to have more babies. I call this “cultural hitchhiking” and think it probably explains
the extraordinarily low diversity of the mitochondrial genes
in sperm whales. This chart shows the differences between the coda dialects
of the units off the Galapagos. The lines on the left represent
the units of the regular clan. Those on the right,
the units of the plus-one clan. The tree represents the differences between the dialects
of the different units. So, this is the average difference between a plus-one unit
and a regular unit. Remember: these clans live together
off the Galapagos Islands, in the Pacific Ocean. We’ve also studied
sperm whales in the Atlantic, where, as Ricardo Antunes found out,
the clans do not overlap. So, in each part of the Atlantic,
there’s only one clan. He calculated the difference
between the coda repertoires of these different areas of the Atlantic,
which are shown in red here. And so, that’s a geographical distance. That distance, the difference between
the different areas in the Atlantic, is less than that between the two clans
that live in the same area in the Pacific. The implication is that
in a multicultural environment such as off the Galapagos, it’s particularly important to designate
who we are and who they are, so we actually change our dialect
to make it different from the others. So, sperm whale clans have culture, and they seem to have
a multicultural society. They have huge ranges. Each clan contains thousands of animals
and covers thousands of kilometers. The clans strongly affect ecology. They seem to affect genetic evolutions
through cultural hitchhiking. They govern large parts
of the behavior of the whales, and they probably form a major part
of the identity of the whales. So, “I am a plus-one whale”
is one of the ways they see themselves. Well, we know only a tiny bit of the behavior or the culture
of sperm whales, and more generally,
we only know a tiny bit of the behavior or culture
of whales and dolphins, but we do know that
their cultures include diet, foraging methods, dialects, songs, social conventions, movements and play behavior. They include stable traditions,
like the coda repertoires, perhaps a bit analogous to our languages,
which are stable over generations. They also include short-term fads, like killer whales pushing around
dead salmon for a week, or two weeks, and then everyone getting bored and say,
“That’s not cool anymore,” and stopping, rather like our fads for boy bands. (Laughter) Their cultures affect
their ecology, their evolution and what the animals really are. Their cultures are not like our cultures,
but they’re vital for them. I believe we need to try
to understand them. First we have to conserve them, as we humans increasingly
rubbish their ocean. Secondly, it should help us
to understand our own cultures, what they mean, why we have them. And thirdly, they’re just so fascinating,
so we go out and study them. I’d like to end with this quote, which is about dolphins,
but could easily refer to whales, and it’s from The Hitchhiker’s
Guide to Galaxy: “Man had always assumed that he was
more intelligent than the dolphins because he had achieved so much – the wheel, New York, wars and so on – whilst all the dolphins had ever done
was muck about in the water, having a good time. But conversely, the dolphins had always believed that
they were far more intelligent than man, for precisely the same reason.” Thank you. (Applause)




Comments
  1. I'd like to add my own quote from Hitchhiker's guide to the Universe:
    "So long, and thanks for all the fish."

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