The Share-Washing of Late Stage Capitalism



我記得在以前 共享經濟這個詞 意味著實際意義的非盈利目的共享 然而現在 當我錄這個視頻的時候 我找到的大多數卻是與 矽谷 、大公司有千絲萬縷干係的 信奉新自由主義的 聲稱能使我們變成所謂 創業者 的所謂共享經濟 在熙熙攘攘的街上公然叫賣 任何我們可以轉變成商品的東西 這無疑是一個悲劇 因爲共享經濟應該有更多改變社會面貌的潛力 它能有效節制物質過度生產 從而減緩氣候變化 如果人們只需要借東西而不是完全地占有 又或者將物質在群體閒互相輪流分享 那麽我們就能夠在這個浪費型經濟中 大大地減少過剩生產 除此之外, 它還能引導人們參與到社會關懷活動中 幫助我們從”經濟增長“為導向 ”經濟增長“為導向 的資本主義思維中解脫出來 但我們需要進一步明確何爲”分享“ Chris Martin寫道: 共享基本含義是排除任何形式 使任何一方或多方金融增值的交換 因此基於P2P資產租賃的發明—— 例如Airbnb(愛彼迎) 就被排除出共享經濟之外 但是, 如果分享的是使用資產的途徑而不是資產本身 那麽就和金錢上的獲利就變得不相關了 所以這種基於P2P的創新就包含在共享經濟之中 這種資產“共享”理論的支持者認爲 共享平臺例如Airbnb、Uber和Task Rabbit “授能”個人去從其未充分利用資產、時間或技術中賺錢 成爲“微”企業家 同時充當工人滿足消費者的需求 他們認爲這種行爲更有效地調配資源, 從而有助於建立更加可持續的消費模式 即著重個人使用權而非擁有權 最後他們還認爲, 這種模式能夠使權力機構去中心化 干預現存的政體 而促成一種基於人文、環境、自由、民主、正義價值觀的“新”經濟模式 那麽好吧! 我喜歡正義 那我們就看看這種所謂共享經濟帶來的“革命性”改變 要是你住在地下幾百公里的一個地堡的話 Airbnb是一個允許人們向其他尋求短期住宿的人短期租賃自身多餘的物業的平臺 從另一面來說, 它提供給游客們在逗留期間内一個能夠租房子或公寓的替代酒店選擇 現在你可能在想, 賣不是分享 這裏這得注意的是, 被分享的是資產的使用權 當然這價格要比長期租賃高得多 所以 這和自由、民主、正義有什麽深層次聯係呢? 首先,我們能說這是真正的“民主”嗎? 如果衹有產權擁有者可以利用並獲取收益的話? 當然,不排除會有例外的情況 例如租客繞過條款 又或者有好心的房主 同意租客把租來的地方放上Airbnb 不過大部分能從“微”創業得益的 仍然是產權擁有人 擧個例子 在紐約 超過四分之一收益來自於擁有多處完整住所商業或三個以上的私人房間房源的商業組織 而且據2016年一本白皮書的資料 Airbnb業主更傾向於拒絕接待有色人種 即使這意味著要損失收入 有一項關於紐約黑人區的研究 也顯示出白人業主的在租賃上的所得 遠超其在總人口比例 Airbnb也在和世界各地的地方政府作鬥爭 游説其對短期租賃放鬆管理 同樣在紐約, 2016年,州長Cuomo禁止30日以下的短期租賃 Airbnb 迅速在法庭上挑戰這項法令 一個月后,Airbnb願意取消訴訟 但是條件是將法律主題定為房主而非Airbnb 來承擔最高7500美元罰款的違法風險 有評論認爲, 這樣的“新自由主義”平臺 將責任和風險轉移到合同工人和消費者自身 以規避經營風險 即使他們在後面收割成果 另外 這無疑削弱酒店工會甚至使他們失去工作 而且,這裏面包含了很多未上稅的收入 減少過百萬用於公共服務的經費 尤其重要的是, Airbnb被認爲會令住宅片區貴族化 令當地群衆難以承擔長期住房的 Airbnb創造了Neal Smith所提及的“地租缺口" 即相對變化較小的房東要求租金 與其實際可出租租金之間的缺口 這給資本創造了重新發展的動機 最終導致了片區貴族化 人民被迫離開家園 因爲他們已經無法承擔當地租金 而在Airbnb上 我們可以立即看到“地租缺口" 而資本知道通過短期租賃能夠賺更多的錢 甚至不需要去重新發展 所需要做的就是把租客趕走 又或者等他們自己走 這也製造了一場全球的危機 因為它在房主的實際收入和通過接待外國中產階級游客收入之間形成更大的缺口 著名的示威在巴塞羅那和馬德里爆發 當地人已經被Airbnb對當地房產市場的影響激怒 很多人將矛頭指向了游客 或者宏觀上的旅游業 但實際上這更多是一個結構性的現象 而阿姆斯特丹和康沃尔又和其他的一些城市 在居民强烈抗議下對其進行了嚴厲的監管 如果你真的住在一個地堡裏 那你一定也沒聽説過Uber 但是這也是差不多的 它共享汽車的使用權 使車主可以晚上兼職去載喝醉酒的人回家 再一次, 責任和風險被轉移到車主身上 而Uber躲在後面獲取25%的佣金 有點值得注意 司機并不是實際上的Uber員工 他們是各自擁有共享汽車事業的合同勞工 喔噢!多自由啊 那麽就要跟社保、福利、加班費、勞資談判說再見了! Marie Ben-Shahar寫道 Uber在和司機的合約中利用法律用语 定義他們為夥伴而不是雇員 Uber聲稱能為司機帶來商業機會 他們自稱科技公司,平臺提供者 而不是運輸公司 這種十分睿智的措辭 完美描述當今”共享經濟“的症结 從此以後再沒有雇員了, 衹有商業機會和平臺 而真正令我驚奇的, 是Uber將兼職擺上主流議程 我們當然不能衹靠全職工作生活 無須擔心 我們有有趣而簡單的方法 用晚上和周末去滿足各種的消費需求 在車上接待各種混蛋 使用我們可愛的化石燃料 我曾經遇到一個這樣的Uber司機 他告訴我他剛到加拿大就在做三份工作 一份清晨,一份中午 然後做Uber司機直到凌晨兩到三點 而每天衹睡4到5小時 簡直就是機會之地啊! TaskRabbit似乎代表了最壞的 一種新自由主義下反烏托邦精神 人們可以為各種家中瑣碎的事情提供服務 好吧!我能看出它的吸引點 能請人們做事而不用雇傭公司 但是這看起來衹是有錢人想花少點錢找人辦事而已 這讓我回想起Becky Ellis 在播客對我説過的話 這就好像一個世紀前的女人爲了吃飯而賣頭髮 我知道這聽起來很極端 但老實講 按照現在市場的走勢 勞資雙方力量的變化 和機械自動化下儲備勞動力越來越富餘的情況下 我已經可以想象在不久的將來 過剩的勞動力人群要賣器官以求生存 一方面來看 我其實期待那天的到來的 因爲那時候應該就會有人瞭解到外面世界的美好 去實現更好的社會,或真正意義上的共享 但如果以目前共享經濟的走勢來看 那麽勞動力的前景就真讓人着急了 Francis Flanagan指出, 今天的TaskRabbit的外包勞動 有點像19到20世紀那時候的家政服務 完全沒有最低工資或工時標準的保護 沒有擁有独立的仲裁部门的工會 工作和非工作時間的界限模糊 而且待遇十分低 他認爲綫上平臺正在造成一種改變 即如TaskRabbit等的中介平臺 實際上在以往社會上沒有扮演任何角色 但他們在今天的體制中擔任基本的角色 他們收集工人工作效率相關資料 用於訓導或獎勵工人 而不需要依據公法 正如我們在之前大多數視頻討論到的 今日我們正出處於勞動力被威脅而待遇停滯的狀態 就是資本主義制度運行下的結果 資本通過擴大儲備勞動力 以使勞動力價格保持在低水平 那麽他們的利潤就會變高 將工作外包給機器 更進一步削弱勞動力相對于資本的力量 就好像自由派和保守派 對集體勞資談判進行無理的批判 新自由主義政策下的公共開支削減 私有化以及放任自由 無一不對勞動力造成負面壓力 那麽資本就可以進一步積纍,走上巔峰 令底層人們爲了蠅頭小利爭破頭 這種在增長為導向的和營利性制度下所謂的分享 將我們變成沒有任何保障或工會的機器人 絞盡腦汁去找東西去賣給任何會買的人 但是你知道嗎?共享是真實存在的! 而且世界上有很多例子説明真共享經濟是行得通的 因此除挽救激進派的創造力外 我們還需要挽救分享這個概念 一個真共享經濟的例子 可以在馬來西亞Semai人身上找到 Robert Denton是一個人類學家 他和Semai人生活了一段時間 他認爲Semai人有十分有趣而激進的文化與經濟 Semai的經濟是基於共享和贈禮的而非以物換物 Denton寫道, 他們之間的經濟來往就像聖誕節交換禮物 而不是商業交換。 在Semai社會中, 計算禮物價值的被認爲是一種禁忌 他們有社會義務去向賓客或者想要的人 分享他們所擁有的而暫時不需要的東西 而拒絕分享或他人的請求是不允許的 而且索取他人所不能及的也是一種禁忌 這才是“共享經濟”真正的意義啊 而在西方, 在加拿大有個叫bunz交易地帶的網站 他們自稱專注於通過重新掌控我們的消費、貢獻、成長的行爲 而來創造一個可持續的未來 “我們的運作將金錢排除出外 這個平臺讓住在加拿大大城市裏面的人可以交換物品或者技能 比如我將用不到的微波爐擺上網 那麽某人就可能會以幫助我種植物作爲交換 同樣邏輯的還有Facebook上面 一個叫“不要賣任何東西的群組” 人們可以擺不需要的東西上網去交換 完全不需要金錢參與 之外還有柏林的借物雜貨店 衣物交換 我們之前談到的“食物而不是炸彈” 和我認爲以後會未來幾十年内十分重要的灾难援助 我可能會做關於這個内容的視頻 但除此之外還有很多關於互助共享, 和如何去建立一個充滿人文關懷而不是衹是關注利潤,增長和個人主義的經濟制度的想法 Sam Bliss 假共享經濟的自我漂白就如以往的漂”綠“行為 但我們需要共享,真正的“共享” 資本主義正在滅亡的邊緣掙扎 我們需要系統性地去抨擊它 但是當它分崩離析之時 我們更需要學會如何建設一個充滿關懷社區 一個真正令人們 之間能夠慷概解囊的社區 在此非常感謝我的Patreons 是你們令我的視頻得以實現 如果你想支持節目的話 請考慮成爲我的包月patreon 又或者向我Paypal上面給我一次性的捐助 可以看看我的博客veganpodcast.com 我們下個視頻再見!




Comments
  1. So refreshing to see also a female on the New Left sharing so many thought-provoking ideas on YouTube. I was kinda getting tired of the same ol'-same ol' sausage fest. Don't get me wrong, I still enjoy many of these usual suspects, and I bet there are many very constructive female channels, but for me personally yours is the first that captured my attention intellectually. Hope your channel will blow up soon in popularity.

  2. I'd love to see a video taking down the socialist calculation problem and prices… Too many libertarian fan boys rely on this relic to defend the status quo!!!!

  3. This is actually even more than just late-stage capitalism – it's full-world economics: they're running out of natural resources and biomass/biocapital to exploit.

  4. This is a great video! Thanks for making it!!

    I'd give you money, but I'm a student at a state school in America, and therefore have none…

  5. It's really nice to see videos talking about real community solutions we can work on. I do love the deprogramming/"this is why capitalism sucks" videos, but it does seem vitally important to cultivate that base level of trust that is necessary for people to function once a communist society is achieved, and I'm appreciating the pieces of framework you've been putting forward toward that end.

  6. I am trying not to bust out laughing right now. This is what truckdriving has been like….forever? Every Sr driver i have ever met will tell you 'Lease to own is a scam!" for exactly this reason. Welcome to the party mexie!

  7. Stopped by after the shoutout from Olly on "Philosophy Tube" – excellent post! I really like how you not only pointed out the latest word/idea that runaway capitalism has captured and zombified, but also presented alternatives and fostered interest in reclaiming the original idea and using it to leapfrog capitalist pitfalls.

  8. for us Yanks a good platform is Simbi for Time Sharing/Banking. I encourage all to join; cuts money out of alot; and i have taken a service in person as well.

  9. I agree with you on everything but free speech and your retarded goal to "eliminate harm." Them tiddies are definitely an incentive for my clicks tho, just being frank.

  10. Yeah yeah thats great naive hope for a better future despite all the evidence to the contrary thats great. Will you gibe de succ tho?

  11. Are you not selling your own ideas here miss? How much makeup? Hey I subscribed just pointing out the obvious..

  12. Was a sharing economy a thing that was every lifting off. I remember hearing about it a while back and thinking thats sounds great, and it's adorable that anyone thinks it can get off the ground. If we can't sell socialism I think selling something further leftword is going to be a non starter outside of small communes. I don't mean to sound pessimistic, well actually I guess I do. I just think even Marx knew Socialism was a nessesary step on the road. and somohow we are repeating history wanting to jump right into Communism or something just to the right of it. And I only bring it up because I would really like to see leftward economic movement, IDK the readical right seems to be working out for them though so WTF do I and Marx know.

  13. Internet enabled these new platforms and whether you like it or not they are here to stay. If instead complaining you would be using these new exciting opportunities you would be much happier.

  14. My first job was funded by local government to utilise grassroots micro-actions in order to alleviate some of the social pressures individuals were facing. After consultation, the community (Bootle, Liverpool) said they wanted control of their local economy and to run public services as volunteers instead of them being outsourced. My manager told me the report was too focused on revolution so, it never got put to the funders. Instead, the funders decided they were just going to get 200 volunteers to try to get people to do nice things, with no incentive or reward, because altruism is their duty, and not the people profiting of them. They then fired me because I told them their ideas were shit and wouldn't do fuck all for working class people. After that, I kind of thought that maybe I was just a naive, idealistic punk but, after watching this Left-Tube stuff I really want to go out and start agitating against the status-quo. It's like you've evidenced here, we're still being manipulated into having our labour used for the benefit of those who already have the desired privilege. I don't know if that was too long for a YouTube comment. I don't know how to social media. But this is my long-winded of saying you're video is great.

  15. I think the big issue is the "what you do not immediately need" part that stops people from sharing in our culture….

    When you know that others in your village or neighborhood will always share everything they don't need as well, you have a sense of security that prevents you from needing to stockpile…

    In our culture however, those with extra often use their excess to exert their will on those with less, so the concept of having enough to be secure in giving the rest away feels impossible to a lot of people. There is no guarantee anyone will take care of you in your time of need and, I'm fact there is a likelihood that if you should fall on hard times you will be preyed upon by a system structured to make regaining security very difficult…

  16. There are lots of attempts at P2P ride-sharing and resource sharing apps, but most of them don't have a very large user base because of the lack of any kind of financial incentive to motivate new drivers/sharers…

  17. Mexie I am so glad I found your channel!
    Every leftist or vegan channel I’ve watched up until now always left me hopeful but with a few niggling doubts.
    Not only does your analysis align perfectly with my own views, but I’ve learned bucketloads from bingeing your videos and podcast, joining dots in ways I didn’t think to before.

    So THANK YOU!
    From London UK

  18. you don't need to live in a bunker to not know those thing, only by living in extreme poverty in a 3rd world country is enough or living in a country embargoed by the U.S.

  19. I have mixed feelings on the AirBnB thing because it can be bad for local residents when landlords start charging higher rent to them just because they can in areas with heavy AirBnB concentration, so that should be illegal, but for the little guy who needs a safe place to stay short term AirBnB is a lifesaver. I was homeless once and even the cheapest hotel I could find was still 3 times as expensive as AirBnB and that place was crawling with dangerous people and bugs, but I was able to use the little money I had to couchhop with AirBnB for a few weeks until I found a job and an apartment, and if not for that I would have been sleeping on the streets alone and we all know how dangerous that is for a young girl. Also AirBnB can be a convenient way for less well off people who otherwise never could have afforded to travel, to well… travel. So for the people who are using it to rent, I think it's a really good thing.

  20. Good morning Mexie. I just discovered your channel and it is like a breath of fresh air. Really love your presentation of your arguments and I like that you have present solutions as well. Now that the sycophancy is over (lol), I live in the UK and I have been horrified to see the degradation of work over the years to the point that cowboys like Uber are making a killing. Anyway the reason I am writing this is because I don't know if you are aware of the phenomenon of low cost gyms that have been VERY successful in the UK in the last 10 years. They typically attract very large memberships due to their low subscriptions and because they don't lock folks into contracts like the average gym.
    However, they scarcely employ anyone and the "staff" are all "self-employed" Personal Trainers who have to work a certain number of hours for the gym for FREE, leaving the rest of the time free for PT's to try to develop their "business" in selling personal training sessions to a membership who by and large cannot even afford a P.T. Perhaps most galling of all the low cost gym chains cynically exploit the welfare system we have over here in a way that is far too detailed and boring for me to go into here. But needless to say the are another sector that has risen up in the race to the bottom

  21. You should come on the Big Brain University show, you might not have seen it yet but The Finnish Bolshevik, Red Renegade, and myself host the show, we usually have one guest per episode. Let me know if you're interested.

  22. Mexie – "Very special thanks to my patrons, you make this show possible. If you'd like to support this show please consider becoming a monthly patron…"

  23. I'd like to mention Couchsurfing. It has become a bit worse over the past 2 years, because the owners are trying to get fees from users (which are a bit high for an average backpacker), but in general, it works, and if there was a totally free, more user friendly alternative, the crowd would already be there to use it. I haven't paid the fee yet and am using CS for free with limited options, but I can do it because I am a girl (without paying the fee, u can send 10 requests, which usually works for me when travelling solo, but guys have to send a lot more requests to get lucky). Couchsurfing is also a thing that could offer relief for problems with tourism causing higher rents, such as Barcelona.

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