The Roots of Religion: Genevieve Von Petzinger at TEDxVictoria

Translator: Robert Tucker
Reviewer: Krystian Aparta We live in a world that is absolutely infused
with religion and spirituality, sometimes even to the point
where maybe we don’t recognize it. It affects everything from something
as simple as the holidays we celebrate, to the names that we give our children, to something much more really
saddening and sort of disheartening, which is finding a conflict
on the other side of the world somewhere. I mean, any given day, somewhere somebody is fighting
about spirituality and religion. So, let’s take a look at how this all
plays out then on a global scale. Depending on whom you talk to,
there’s about 20 major world religions – so, these are ones that are in more
than one country, more than one continent. Add to that hundreds of belief systems, and out of the 7 billion people who live
on this planet at this point in time, just under 6 billion profess
to follow some sort of faith. Now, I want you to try and imagine
a world with no religion. What would it look like? Because that is the reality, is if we go far enough back
into our own deep history, there was a time, maybe not
with Homo sapiens, maybe further back, where we didn’t have any religion. So, as you can see in the slide behind me, that’s a very simplified
evolutionary chart, but it’s a question that people
in my field, palaeoanthropology, have asked: How far back
does the religious impulse go? And how would you get at that?
It’s incredibly subjective, right? So, obviously Homo sapiens at the top. We know that Homo sapiens
have religion, that’s us. But, what about heidelbergensis
before us, and erectus, and all the way back to Homo hails. You know, Homo habilis
2.5 million years ago, they’re considered to be a good candidate
for the original toolmakers. And you might wonder – tools, religion,
what do these potentially have in common? But, if you actually think about
what a cognitive leap making tools is, there are some things in common. For instance, when you’re
actually making a tool – so you’ve got one piece of stone
and you’ve got another to shape it – you have to hold a mental template
in your head of what that finished product
is going to look like. And also what we find
with these early toolmakers, is that they actually were exhibiting
forethought and pre-planning. They were potentially taking
a nice piece of flint with them, along the landscape,
so that when their current tool ran out, or got down to kind of a nub,
they could make themselves a new one. So, there are some
researchers in my field, especially a fellow
by the name of Thomas Wynn, has teamed up with a neuropsychologist,
by the name of Frederick Coolidge, and the two of them have talked
about something called working memory. And so, it’s not one spot in the brain so much as sort of several functions
that kind of work together, that allow things like mental templates
and allow things like pre-planning. Now, they’ve made the argument
that even on a very basic level chimps probably do have
some working memory as well. Of course, they can also use tools, they’re just not very good at – Basically, they’ll take their stick, they’ll rip off the leaves,
they’ll use it to dip some termites out, but then they tend to dump it. That’s pretty much it,
they’re done with that tool. So, there’s not a lot of examples
of chimps reusing tools or sort of behaving
in exactly the same way as what we see with Homo habilis. But with that as sort of the base
and that idea of working memory, they’ve then sort of extrapolated that and said, let’s talk about something
that they call enhanced working memory. And so enhanced working memory – basically there’s
several components to it. This is sort of taking that,
and then basically putting it on steroids. So, not just that basic mental template
and pre-planning, but now let’s add to that
the ability to envision and work with abstract concepts. Let’s talk about mental time travel. Now, what I mean when I say
mental time travel, is the ability to think about
past and future. These are actually very unusual things. We take them for granted, but they’re not something that necessarily
other species can conceive of. I mean obviously your dog seems
to remember about going to the vet, which is sort of an interesting thing, but you know he doesn’t have
a strong sense of clear episodic memories of having been to the vet so much as this is a bad thing
when I go into this building, it smells a certain way – and, you know,
this is danger basically flashing. So, the clear ability to also say,
with mental time travel, “When I tried making a tool
using this material before, this didn’t work very well, so, I’m going to do it
differently this time.” Or, “I saw this person in the next
hunter-gatherer group over do something. That worked really nicely,
I want to do that.” All those kinds of things,
as well as being able to think forwards: so, pre-planning,
but even at a greater degree. Imagination, because again the ability
to sort of conceive of something, like a mental template
when you’re making a tool, relies on us being able
to visualize something that doesn’t actually exist
at that moment in time – it’s more, again,
that we’re looking forward. And then, of course, the capacity
to understand and manipulate symbols. And, so, this is where we get to things
like language and to art. So, you probably saw
I said the “God spot,” what we’re talking about there is that, certainly starting in probably about,
I think, in the 1990’s, once we, especially neuropsychologists, once they had their fancy MRI’s
and other brain scans, they really started looking to see if there was one spot in the brain
that could be associated with God. And they even actually did some study where they actually had
the people in the MRI, and they were like, okay,
we want you to think about your vision of God or faith
or spirituality while you’re in here, while we see if we can map
the areas of the brain that light up while we’re doing that. And they kept getting one spot
that was lighting up, and so it was this huge, like, we did it,
aha, we found the God spot. Turns out it’s the spot that lights up
when people are concentrating. (Laughter) So, we definitely know
where they concentrate, but, of course, everybody concentrated
on thinking about God, so, that was the problem. But I think really what neuropsychologists
and what people working on evolution are working towards, is the idea
there’s probably not one spot. Similar to enhanced working memory, there’s actually
several parts of the brain that are all kind of working together to create that space
and those types of abilities. So, is it all in the lobes? Behind me on the slide what you’ll see is that on the left-hand side
we have a Homo erectus, so that’s 1.65 million years ago. And then on the right-hand side
we have a Homo sapiens skull from about 20,000 years ago in Germany. 20,000 years ago in Germany,
their skulls were identical to ours – I just thought it might be cooler to use a sort of fossil skull
for Homo sapiens. Now, what I want you to look at though, is that when you see the profile, erectus has that nice
big brow ridge we think of, but you’ll notice behind that, it actually slopes at quite
a sharp angle backwards. Now look at that beautiful,
big, old forehead on the Homo sapiens skull. Those are the frontal lobes. This is pretty much where all
of our higher reasoning comes from, from those spots right there. You know, thinking about it,
what’s so interesting is that while we sit here, in this room, having this conversation, you’re using those frontal parts
of your lobes, aren’t you? But the question that’s come up is: It can physically be there,
but is it maybe more about wiring? Not just about size,
but then also about how is it wired, how are the neural pathways moving. So, this is where
the scholars I mentioned, Wynn and Coolidge working together, have made the argument that they believe
that the truly modern thought, that ability [which includes]
imagination, mental time travel, they believe it started
with modern humans. So, what do I mean
when I say modern humans? About 200,000 years ago, we’ve been able to find
the earliest skeletons, that we currently have of what
we would call fully modern humans. That means that their skeletons
were identical to ours, and their brain size was exactly the same. Now, that doesn’t mean though, that they were actually using
all of the abilities we had, and this is something
that is a particular area of mine that I find really fascinating,
as well, trying to figure out: When did they become us? Because we’re more
than just the brain size and the body, it’s also about how we use that brain. And what’s so fascinating
about the early humans in Africa, is that, for probably about the first
80,000 years or so, they’re not really doing much different than the ancestor species
that came before them. They’re making really nice tools, surviving quite well,
making good use of their landscape, all of those types of things are in place. But what we’re not seeing is those kinds
of behaviours that make us go: They’re us. And then, suddenly,
around 120,000 years ago, what starts happening
is we suddenly start finding what we call symbolic behaviour. And what we mean when we say that are things that we would consider
to be non-utilitarian. So, not something that’s useful
at a very 1:1 ratio level of survival, something to keep you warm at night, something to eat,
something to shelter you. We start finding burials. 120,000 years ago is the oldest burials
we know of in the world, and not just burials but burials
with grave goods in them. So, in this case, what we’re talking
about at the 120,000 mark – they were finding a few marine shells
that have perforations, and some of the perforations look
like they probably occurred naturally, some may have been made by tools, but the kicker is that those little holes
in the shells have wear marks on them, which means that they were
being worn in some fashion. Now, there’s nothing about doing that
that is remotely useful for again heat, shelter, food. So, what’s going on?
What’s happened? What’s changed? And this is kind of
the story going forward, and this is again where Wynn and Coolidge
have made this argument, and other scholars have as well, that modern humans is where
that big change takes place. They’ve made the argument potentially even
that the change started here, but that some sort of genetic mutation
or something else happened around 40-50,000 years ago, and that that was
when truly modern behaviour, the full suite of behaviours
that we associate with being modern, music and mathematics and the ability
to envision things that aren’t there, and all of these things
which are very much about us, and, of course, full language,
communication, all that kind of thing. They see it as happening
around 40-50,00 years ago, which coincides with
when modern humans left Africa. Maybe it might have been
as early as 60,000, so somewhere in that 40-60,000 range, is when modern humans left Africa and basically went out
and populated the Old World. Now, I’m personally going to talk to you
tonight about the Ice Age in Europe, and it’s not that there weren’t
interesting things being done by modern humans who went
to other parts of the Old World. In Asia and Australia,
there’s lots of fascinating stuff, but I study the Ice Age,
so it’s what I know best. So, that’s where we’re going to stick
with, looking at the Ice Age, today. When it comes to Europe,
let’s set the scene a little bit. Obviously, we’ve got an Ice Age going on, and an Ice Age is not static by any means. We certainly have movement
of the glacier sheets, but overall definitely colder,
an icy environment, but very rich in animals as well. Huge herds of bison and mammoth and all these other things
on the landscape. So, lots of things to eat,
which was kind of a pull factor that probably kept modern humans there. They show up in Europe somewhere around
40,000, even 45,000, in some spots, and they spread out around there, and this again coincides with what
we call the creative explosion, sometimes. It’s not that they weren’t doing
interesting things before, but this is when it starts
getting really interesting. This is when we start finding
a lot of symbolic materials, like portable art pieces and lots
of jewellery and other interesting things, in the archaeological record
alongside the stone tools. So, what would we look for? Let’s go back to this idea
of religion and spirituality, and how you get that
in the archaeological record. Because, if you think about that far back, basically, we’re working with stone tools. So, there’s not really much to go at, and so how do we start trying
to move beyond that, and actually look for
these indirect clues? Well, there’s three main things
that people in my field tend to use looking at that. The first is burials
with elaborate grave goods. So, the necklace itself
at the 120,000 mark, very interesting, very cool, but we can take that a bit farther, and say: What about if they’re putting
lots of elaborate items into that burial? Impossible entities being depicted. So, when I use the term
impossible entities, we’re referring to things
that do not appear anywhere in nature. So, we’re not referring
to anything in the real world. Something that’s, say,
half-animal, half-human, would be an impossible entity. And then, of course, trying to identify
magic and spiritual themes in the art itself. And this is on portable pieces
and, of course, my particular area of study,
the cave walls. So, to quickly go over a couple of these and I’ll give you some ideas
of what we’re seeing. For an elaborate burial,
this one is a very famous burial and it’s an absolutely fascinating one. This is actually one
of three burials from this site. This particular one is the adult male, and it’s about 28,000 years old,
it’s from Russia, and you notice there’s little white things
all over his skeleton there. Those are ivory beads. There are approximately
3,500 ivory beads in this burial. An archaeologist in our field,
his name’s Randy White, actually went to the effort
of trying to do what we call experimental archaeology. And he actually took
the mammoth ivory and practiced until he could get quite good
at making the beads, and even when he was good at it,
it took an hour per bead. Do the math on that. Then on top of that,
we actually have the fact that the two other burials
at that particular site are actually of two children. A little boy and a little girl, and they’re buried in a double burial. The little boy has 4,500 beads, so 1,000 more than the adult male, and the little girl has over 5,000. So, what we’re seeing here then
is potentially the fact that they’re seeing death as being a state
that’s different than life, and yet worth recognizing
and worth paying attention to, and worth acknowledging, and, frankly, worth the sheer amount of effort
of making all those beads only to bury them in the ground
and cover them up. So, something is definitely
going on in that sense. Then, of course, we come
to impossible entities. And this one is a wonderful,
classic example. This is an ivory carved figurine,
it’s probably about this tall. Head of a lion, body of a human. Again coming back to that,
that doesn’t exist anywhere in nature. So, what’s going on?
Why are they depicting this? This is not a self-representation. And there’s people in my field
who have made the proposal that, maybe, this could be
some sort of mythology, something to do with origin stories
and things like that. So, there’s these interesting examples that exist throughout
the archaeological record. That particular one
is about 32,000 years old. What about hunting magic? When I say hunting magic, I mean this, this is from the cave
called Niaux, in France, and you’ve got a bison
that’s painted on a cave wall, and if you notice it looks like
there’s almost some sort of spear sticking out of its side. So, in this case what people have proposed is that what we could be seeing is them
almost trying to kill the animal ritually in the cave first, in order to ensure success
when they go out on the real hunt. And we do have some examples
where there’s not just the spears, but there’s also punctuation marks, which almost looks like maybe somebody
was banging a real spear or something at the image on the wall. So, again, that suggests
some sort of harnessing of some unseen world –
there’s something going on. And then this is another great example
here of an impossible entity which has also been potentially
identified as being a shaman. Now, the reason why they say that
is the idea that: What if they were wearing a mask? What if this, rather than being
an impossible entity, is an actual depiction of a human
partially dressed up like an animal? You see the legs have
a much more human look, they’re not very bison-like,
yet the head has that very bison look, and the arms are also very human. So, this is where they started to talk
about the idea of shamanistic practices, because shamans, of course – the term itself comes from Russia, but it’s applied a lot
to basically spiritual practices where there are
specific members of your tribe who intercede on your behalf
with an unseen world. Whether it’s to influence weather,
to influence the hunt, or to do with health, and with people being sick
and trying to make them better again, there’s these people that do that. And what’s so interesting about
some modern examples, for instance, is that there is a fellow
by the name of David Lewis-Williams, who is a researcher in rock art
who works in South Africa, and he had the wonderful opportunity
to actually speak with the San people, who are a hunter-gatherer group
living in northern Southern Africa. They live out in the desert, and still practice
the hunter-gatherer lifestyle. And guess what? They still do rock art. So, here had the opportunity to ask them,
“So, why do you guys do the art?” Now, it doesn’t explain all the art, but certainly shamanistic practices
played a large role in it. Things like handprints. They talked about the idea that caves were almost like a transitional place
between worlds. That once you go into a cave – we go in with headlamps and lots of light, and we know what a cave is, geologically. But imagine if you didn’t know. It almost has a feel of maybe being
a portal to another reality. And they’ve talked about
the idea of those cave walls as almost being maybe membranes
that they could touch, and through those membranes
touch the unseen. So, now, we get specifically to a research project
that I’ve been working on, where I said, okay,
well, let’s try with this, because, of course, modern people
in Africa doing this – minimum of 10,000 years’ difference
between what’s happening in Europe, could we get at that? Is it possible? Are we seeing on the walls, potentially,
some of the trance-like imagery which they have said
that that’s why they’re doing it. Because you see, the actual human mind – Obviously, trance is when we go
into an altered state of consciousness. There’s many things that will be
culturally specific to where you live, like the animals you see in the imagery, but geometric imagery
actually happens to be almost universal. And the reason for that is our eyes are only hard-wired
to be able to produce certain shapes when we’re in a state of trance. And so this is where,
what I’ve looked at is, can we find those in the caves in Europe. And the study is still ongoing, but I thought I’d share a little
with you today, which was that with dots,
with lines, with grids, yes, absolutely, we’re finding those. But, some of the other ones, not so much. Zigzags, there’s only
about 15 examples over 300 sites that have zigzags in them. So, they’re not totally behaving the way
that the people in, say, South Africa are. When it comes to spirals,
there’s only two. So, in that sense spirals
are even more uncommon, and not something that we’re seeing
throughout the archaeological record. So, what does that mean? Basically, what it suggests to me – I can’t give you a definitive answer, and say, “Yes, absolutely, there were
spiritual people living back then.” But, the signs are
definitely there to suggest this was something that was developing, something that existed. And I’ll leave you
with the thought that they’re us. In every sense of the word, those people who lived between 10,000
and 40,000 years ago were modern humans. So, if we’re capable of it,
why wouldn’t they have been? Thank you. (Applause)

  1. Goes back to Sumer, Indus Valley, Egypt and the Mayans. However, the early teachings were astrological. There is more to this, but most people can't handle it, so I'll leave it there.

  2. The bible says YHE WAGES OF SIN IS DEATH….take religion out n u cant explain death…we r suppose to evolved…but instead we Die…

  3. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools. Where is this woman at now? I have some land she might be interested in purchasing.

  4. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. It took 6 days in total for him to create the world.

    Anyone agree with this?

  5. Wow! so spirituality WAS hi-jacked and killed off by religion so they could then use it to control the masses, that makes so much sense, thank you

  6. "Leo Frobenius announced a new approach to the study of primitive cultures (the Kulturkreislehre, "culture area theory"), wherein he identified a primitive cultural continuum, extending from equatorial West Africa eastward, through India and Indonesia, Melanesia and Polynesia across the Pacific to equatorial America and the northwest coast. This was a radical challenge to the older "parallel development" or "psychological" schools of interpretation, such as Brinton, Bastian, Tylor, and Frazer had represented, inasmuch as it brought the broad and bold theory of a primitive trans-oceanic "diffusion" to bear upon the question of distribution of so-called "universal" themes."

    [The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology, Joseph Campbell, 1991, Prologue]

  7. There is only ONE "RELIGION", or ROOT PSYCHOLOGY, and it is sadistic, brutal and primitive. It is the reason the world is on the brink of extinction; as YOU are the reason the Earth is suffering, as YOU are a product of this madness…

    "A world vision derived from the lesson of the plants, representing the individual as a mere cell or moment in a larger process-that of the sib, the race, or, in larger terms, the species-so devaluates even the first signs of personal spontaneity that every impulse to self-discovery is purged away."

    [The Masks of God: Primitive Mythology, Joseph Campbell, 1991, Part 3: Ch. 5- "Shamanism"]

  8. Jesus is not religion ,God is wonderful ,powerful and to be respected,which in turn as taught in the new testament then there should be heaven on earth. Religion impulse kinda of a joke lady Jesus is real.

  9. Is it just me or do any of you actually believe or learn anything that this channel presents? There seems to be nothing but theories represented in all TED X Teachers. I think we can all agree that we have devolved as a species. I don't have time to learn Advanced Physics because I'm too busy studying LGBQXYZ History. The public school system is a joke. Even monkeys are learning problem solving and sign language. If you haven't seen the movie Idiocracy, it is worth your time to see where we are headed.

  10. Chimps not reusing tools explains why they dont have a Home Depot.
    TBCH, I'm not certain why I clicked on this video. I've started watching The Family, and its leaving me not knowing wtf to think or feel about religion or politics anymore.

  11. Genevieve Von Petzinger I can see you have never read Zachariah Stitchen! maybe you've spent to much time with people of your own vocation!

  12. [Today] Religion is a system of wishful illusions together with a disavowal of reality, such as we find nowhere else but in a state of blissful hallucinatory confusion. Religion's eleventh commandment is "Thou shalt not question.”
    ― Sigmund Freud, The Future of an Illusion

  13. organised religion creates a self that blocks the religious mind.
    thought invented/created and named it God
    and thought worships the image of God that thought created (All the superlatives)
    which is to worship one's self. The ''I'' is your good self, your God self
    the ''me'' your attachment to the animal side. High self , low self.
    Unite these 2 and you will never again question 'what is God' Allah, whatever.
    The verb 'to be' creates another division.The you and me.
    I was ,i am, and i will be shape our culture. Time.Control.
    Man has the possibility of realising the religious mind which is in all of us.
    Where fear evaporates and is replaced by Grace flowing from the top of
    your head to the tips of your big toes. Reborn.
    ps only the word Grace can describe it.
    so when 'you' are not , the other IS.

  14. If the premise is wrong, no answer can be found, ever. Don’t try to justify an irrational and fearful personal choice by selectively and narrowly applying science. Pure hypocrisy to think otherwise.

  15. Atheism is the cause of most wars and deaths in the world.religion don't even compare to atheism when it comes to deaths and wars.

  16. This woman is a classic american anti-intellectual. Compulsive ignorance masquerading as the simplicity of innocent curiosity. Listen carefully—it's a naive hodgepodge of incoherence.

  17. You don't know for certain whether there was a time in human history where there was no religion or spirituality of some kind. So you can wipe that smug look off your face. How do you know that when we were more ape than man, we weren't worshiping rocks or plants, or everything? You don't. All you can do is speculate. And to come to the conclusion that there was a time where there was absolutely no religion or spirituality among the ranks of humanity is fallacy in my opinion. Not to mention you're discounting the possibility that God or a Creator of some kind may in fact be real, and may in fact have walked among us on the Earth. So in the beginning, religious/spiritual faith may have been the strongest.

  18. I am one of billions of Organic Robots . There is a code in my cellular structure … I belong to the Encoder who created me ( and you ) …. I submit to His Will in obedience. I love Him with all my heart for the bountiful blessings He has showered us with . I am certain this will get the goat of many readers . Those who are victims of the lordship of their intellects .

  19. Religions should realize they are like compasses pointing to God. One of the most vicious religions called Atheism points to nothing and so they think they're not a religion.

  20. When I learned that the cave animals in Lascaux depicted only prey animals, I thought the simplest, most obvious explanation is that the caves are a university in which the most skilled hunters passed on their knowledge to the young. They may have had mystical thoughts about the animals, but i didn't see anything that would necessarily support that assumption. Maybe a series of 5 dots indicated that you needed at least 5 hunters in your party armed with heavy stones to corner and bring down this animal. Lines might mean spears. During the actual hunt it would have been necessary to be quiet – not the case in the cave. So they could get together down there and noisily celebrate their successes and perhaps teach hand signals for the different types of animals. The drawings, as instructional material, depict a whole lot of forethought and planning. During an ice age, there would have been long periods when practice on actual hunts would not have been possible, but instead of just wasting the time waiting for the storm to pass, they were able to see the advantage of hashing out their hunting experiences and making the next generation of hunters aware of certain important skills. They could show, for example, where on the animal to strike if you want to have the most success. One of the few human figures is lying face up in front of a huge animal – possibly a warning not to get too "heroic" and attempt to hunt something that outclasses a solo hunter. I am a layperson, but by just trying to put myself into the place of these ancient people, that makes more sense to me than religious inference. When growing seasons were short, hunting was a matter of life and death.

  21. Big lie..firstly about the designed skull from fragments..secondly didn't mention about the assumptions and flaws of dating theories, especially when it comes to heat and solubility ..she herself talks about the ice age… she obviously has no clue about the lack of scientific data but she only learned about theories based on many assumptions

  22. Science attempts to explain how things came about. When they see religion trying to answer those questions they mistakenly assume that science and religion share the same goal. But religion is born out of mystical experiences. Regardless of whether those are real or mind made religion emerged, imo, as attempts to explain the mystical experience of oneness or merging with something special. All the religious theory about creation is just humans extrapolating the basic mystical experience.
    Science debunking creation myths is all fine but the core issue is the mystical experience. When it comes to debunking it science can point to how the brain works during these experiences. The problem with that is if there is a consciousness that is 'mystical' and survives the body, then both brain and mystical awareness may be linked in a way that causes the brain to mirror a mystical experience, or at least be aware of that consciousness. If true then we would expect the brain to reflect the mystical consciousness. So linking brain activity to mystical experiences is not proof that the mystical experience is just brain activity.

  23. In order to have a religion, you have to have beings who can make moral decisions. But making a moral decision does not constitute a religion. Acts of nature, and physical objects, like stones, stimulated the first religions.

  24. 40 – 50,000 years ago? Maybe 75,000 years ago? That would coincide with the arrival of the Material Son and Daughter, Adam & Eve, and Mesopotamia.

  25. This may be the roots of religion.
    But God is the root of Christianity, which is not a religion.
    Evolution is a religion.
    A religion is a belief in something that you cannot prove exists. You believe it does.
    Like evolution, or an old Earth, or that life arose from non-life.
    None of which can be shown scientifically to be true.
    God, and the bible, are both probably true.

  26. So 120,000 years ago humans started to concentrate on why things happen to develop higher consciousness with no clue how nature works in lack of science to imagine how it does to create Gods and religion to confuse the world for science to develop in response to this madness to be where we are now. The separation of the intellectual few from the religious masses. Two species living together.

  27. Nature goes on forever for everyone and everything to return as everyone and everything an infinite number of times. 😢 😢 😢

  28. I do not find irrational thought amazing. This gal talks as if irrational thought is something to admire as progress. Trust me; religion and other dogmas have set back the human race.

  29. 10:39 – So according to the presenter, music, mathematics etc. came about only when the so-called modern human left African, meaning she implies that those who remained in Africa were just primitive humans? So what about ancient African civilizations (Egypt or Nubia). It is as if she is saying they went to the icy lands and came back civilized hence from 3100BC the Nile Valley civilization commenced? This sounds a bit upside-down.

  30. How can we ignore the chinese and india population as being the eldest natives on our planet? you can't increase a population if you haven't settled down somewhere with a kind of society structure and a well functioning agriculture. Religion grew in the minds of leaders as well as the needs of goods to survive, out of fear. Death was very present through sickness, animal assaults, hunger and thirst, etc. What could come in mind other than, to ease the loss of a love one? give him/her a safe place to be, a place where all go to reunite someday, to the father of all, to the imaginary kingdom of God the creator. The words of prayers reveals the intentions to heal and help through in times of illness, in times of fear in the darkness, in times of dying to stay strong for you are not alone. Religion helped people to be more peaceful and respectful. Unfortunately its being misused and has its followers. Those pictures drawn on the walls of caves found in europe (France) are too good of a skill for those days I would say, but well, everything is possible.

  31. I think us people can’t comprehend that we control our own future and want/need a higher power to look to for questions and answers

  32. So when you are all standing in front of the creator of the universe and you realize that you have chosen to believe a theory or an idea that the secret societies have created recently since the time of Darwin and by the way Darwin tried desperately to take back his concept but his handler decided to hijack and enforce what Darwin desperately regretted stating because he realized that it was impossible!!! Note that evolution is a guess a theory hello ??? Evolution is nothing but an attempt to justify lying to yourself while you are alive so that you and others can attempt to enjoy your quest for pleasures and acts that a Holy God who has created the universe by speaking and it’s created. So where’s the transitional fossils and you liars fail to use simple reasoning that there’s so many unexplainable things about the universe and galaxies that defies logic and laws that can only point out that God is literally mocking your attempts to deny his existence and His Reality like Orion’s Belt and the Pleiades and the spinning and counter spinnings of stars and planets and something so simple is what it takes to be fossilized it means that it would have to be instantaneous. Like a wall of mud traveling at an enormous speeds like if you were a fish or a whale swimming in the ocean like during the time of Noah’s world wide flood in the future God will allow the discovery of the ark and also the ark of the covenant just before he sends the seven last plagues. YOU ALL NEED TO REPENT WHILE YOU ARE ALIVE “

  33. Evolution is a religion and belief that you will not have to be held accountable for your sins after you die your all worst than ostriches because you think that by denying the existence of The Creator of the universe you won’t have to answer for your perversions there’s no way around the existence of a Holy God

  34. It is not "Roots of Religion" it is "A potential dot on a time lime of religion beginnings". The title is deluding. I did not get why I clicked this talk for. Roots – origins. Also, very American-oriented point of view science.

  35. if there really is a God then the root of religion, and even the plain nature of it, is ENTIRELY different to what her smug materialism thinks it is

  36. Religion is a way of people controlling one another in the name of super being and an questionable power they called later God and this went through various phases each group adding to it and refining it and making it more practicable and easy to practice and humans need God and this is why they invented it as there whare not anything higher in there life to refer to specially as thing got more complicated and rule of law needed to be in forced.

  37. God created us, so it goes back to the beginning of time of following Him, or being disobedient create false gods, going your own way..

  38. "Imagine a world without religion".. You can't "reset" the moral values (belief in an "ultimate" consequence) that got us to where we are today with the "synthetics" of Science., besides, you cannot dismiss the God conjecture entirely… The limitations of the possibile are only defined by going beyond them, into the impossible… Absence of evidence is NOT evidence of absence.

  39. Religion(binding of the soul to God) Jesus said "I am the way ,the truth and the life-no one comes to the father except by me"John 14:6

  40. Some people don't see the light until they feel the heat. Every knee will bow and every tongue confess that He is Lord…Coming soon to reality near you

  41. That grave goods are of a religious impulse definable in modern-day terms, is a very unlikely hypothesis, (it is what some want to believe, not necessarily what can be interpreted without doubt), but if it's characterized as the cultural continuity of the buried individuals in a shared living memory of identity in the group, that makes immediate sense of what is actually observable then and now. (Speaking from experience)

    Religion is just another label, for collective human behavior, that is often misused because it doesn't tell you precisely how individuals can be predicted to act in keeping with a particular religion, in any specific situation, except in ritualistic cases, and that is no different to any other adopted appearance, like clothing or even Shaman or Party Magician etc.

    In other words, first produce real evidence of the "god", not the assumption. Maybe religion should be redefined by observable fact in those transparent practices deemed "good = god", by what is actually achieved in the (accountable) general good, without labels.

  42. If you had not read the holy Quran then you are not able to understand God and it's creations…please read and understand…

  43. Says the Quran ( @ )

    " Behold, thy Lord said to the angels, " I will create a vicegerent (Khalifah) on earth. " The angels had a relevant reply: They said: " Wilt thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood- whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy(name)? " The angels thought they knew something Allah did not and were rebuked. Allah asked them to bow before Adam, and only Iblis refused because, he told Allah, he had been created from fire and man from clay. Allah cursed Iblis(Satan) till the day of judgment.

    Says the Holy Quran to believers;

    " Ye are the best of peoples evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah "

    And Surah 9, AlTawbah, says in Verse 111:

    " Allah hath purchased of the believers their persons and and their goods;for theirs(in return) is the Garden of Paradise. They fight in His Cause and slay and are slain: a promise binding on Him in Truth.through the law, the Gospel, and the Quran.. And who is more faithful to His Covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which ye have concluded: that is the achievement supreme."

  44. Plants and Fungi have been here a long time, obviously they are the dictators of all our knowledge from Medicine to Religion.
    Couldn't really be any other way since they are the ones who made it possible for us to simply exist in the first place.

    As to those who are rebellious and wicked, their Abode will be the Fire : every time they wish to get away therefrom, they will be forced thereinto, and it will be said to them : " Taste ye the Penalty of the Fire, the which ye were wont to reject as false. And indeed We will make them taste of the Penalty of this ( life ) prior to the supreme Penalty, in order that they may ( repent and ) return. And who does more wrong than one to whom are recited the Signs of his Lord, and who then turns away therefrom? Verily from those who transgress, We shall exact ( Due ) retribution.

  46. World without religion it is everything, what we know about Russia since bolszevic revolution till Stalin death just like Solzenitzyn described.

  47. Only took 1.25 minutes to learn that she has absolutely no idea what she’s talking about. By the 2 minute mark, any doubt was removed.

  48. 29 point, I don't know 1, circa 1988, women were ya know…HOT..I thought it might be cool to use Joan Collins, Susan Lucci, and maybe Barbara Eden as examples of Feminine Erectus…who are still alive and still are…she is not.

  49. Genesis 2 makes sense regarding the origin of man. God was involved in the formation of man and man had a relationship with God from the time man drew his first breath. How does self-awareness, self consciousness evolve? The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom, and knowledge of the Holy One is understanding. Proverbs 9:10.

  50. I can see God's omnipresent bearded face. Hook me up to an MRI when I am looking at him. I highlight Jesus's Omnipresent bearded face on my YouTube channel.

  51. Hopefully, we will evolve sufficiently to make religion redundant.

    But… we may kill ourselves off before then by warfare.

  52. Religions roots are to be found in the ignorance of scientific facts which is indirectly bred by the sheer poverty billions of our fellow humans find themselves all around the world still . The poorer the countries the greater their people's reliance on Religion and superstitions for any sort of help with their dire conditions !


  54. The lion headed entity she displayed, shows up in Egyptian pictorials as well. . . So, what is it called? Where does it fit?

  55. I don’t understand how someone can spend their entire life researching this.. and miss the meanings of these objects and pictures. Get out of your paradigm. Get out of your box. Seek the truth and you’ll find it.

  56. Congratulations for making the most exciting topic in the world, quite boring, very conservative, and I really don't know how you got onto that stage….
    It is very difficult to follow your line of thought because of constant speed changes in your speech.

  57. A Religion seems to be product of intelligence. The smarter we become, the stronger the impulse to find larger patterns. Microorganisms self-organize into cells. Cells self-organize into organisms. Organisms self-organize into cultures. Cultures self-organize into religions. It is a chain of seal-organizations that are analogical to a plant moving to face the sun.

  58. The church of the living GOD is alive and well .As a child I believed that the Bible was the word of God and that Jesus was my savior .In 1988  I had a wonderful girlfriend , we raced motorcycles , we went to bluegrass festivals and did whatever we wanted to do . I realized that I had everything the world said was happiness but I felt something important was missing and I didn't know what it was. I tried scientology , all kinds of yoga, martial arts and various other disciplines but nothing satisfied me . One Sunday morning I came home drunk in a taxicab and waiting outside of my house was a man who was giving my roommate a ride to church. I had gone to alcoholics anonymous for six months and they helped me a lot but I had gone back to drinking .He invited me to sit in his car and talk. He asked me if I wanted a bible study. I said I would love to have a bible study . He came on Monday nights the only night of the week that I didn't drink. It was a 12 week bible study that went from Genesis to Revelation. He showed me in the book of Acts ( Acts 2:38 ) where it said repent and be baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sin and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost . I said I'd never seen that in the bible and I wanted to get baptized in Jesus' name and receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. I got baptized in Jesus' name and prayed for two months to get the Holy Ghost. The night that I got the Holy Ghost I was praying and I started to talk in tongues , I felt wonderful and GOD delivered me from the spirit of alcohol . I have never wanted to drink since then and I praise GOD for that.
    . The man who gave me the twelve week bible study taught me a ' GODHEAD ' bible study twice but i didn't understand the oneness of God or the trinity . I was reading the bible one day and read Ephesians 4 : 5-6 that i had previously highlighted in my bible . God gave me the revelation of oneness . ' ONE LORD , ONE FAITH , ONE BAPTISM , ONE GOD AND FATHER OF ALL , WHO IS ABOVE ALL , AND THROUGH ALL ,AND IN YOU ALL !
    I was a believer from childhood but I wasn't saved .

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