The Rise and Fall of Socialism  (Part II)



when Vladimir Lenin seized power in Russia in 1917 he created the world's first socialist state but other socialists said that Lenin's dictatorship wasn't true socialism at all over the next 60 years people who call themselves socialists often disagreeing violently with each other would rise to power in scores of countries all over the globe until they ruled more than 60% of humanity I have seen the future and it works those were the words of American journalist Lincoln Steffens after visiting the Soviet Union in 1919 even though the Bolshevik Revolution frightened people around the world for many it seemed to validate Karl Marx's prophecy that social ins triumph was inevitable hello I'm Ben Wattenberg welcome to the second episode of heaven on earth a think tank special in this hour the communist revolution spreads to China democratic socialism comes to Europe and socialism emerges as a new path to economic growth in the third world but as socialism in its many forms continues to spread it brings with it disappointment and despair nowhere does the reality live up to the idea and so we begin in the new Soviet Union that is the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Vladimir Lenin died of a brain hemorrhage in January 1924 he was only 53 years old but in his relatively short life he had laid out a path to power for revolutionaries around the world what Lenin did electrified excited inspired terrified different people all over the world the depending on their frame of mind and one of the more curious things it did was it gave birth to fascism Lenin it showed that you could take Marxist doctrine and sort of twist it all around and there was Mussolini in Italy and he says he too is a revolutionary for him like for Lenin making the revolution is the main thing and he says well if we could throw out the proletariat and put in the vanguard of the proletariat maybe we could throw out the proletariat and put in the nation instead and all over Europe there were groups of socialists who suddenly became nationalists [Applause] one but not the only one that was Hitler who comes along and has his new ideology of National Socialism which retains a lot of socialist principles but adds on the implacable hatred of the Jews benito mussolini joined forces with adolf hitler to launch a world war even more devastating than the last the alliance between Italy Germany and Imperial Japan placed Mussolini and bloody opposition to his old socialist comrades in the end the grandest ambitions of fascism went up in smoke the world last glimpsed Mussolini's body strung up at an abandoned gas station in Milan the very next day Dittmer shot himself with the defeat of the exports the ideology of fascism collapsed but the death of this strange offshoot only cleared the way for other branches of socialism to flourish and the aftermath of World War two communism spread like never before the Soviet Union's military gains in world war ii who set dates for communist governments to take power in eastern europe and north korea but communism x' biggest post-war conquest was yet to come four years after the war's end insurgent communist forces in china drove the pro-western nationalist government off the mainland in january 1949 the communists marched into beijing to declare birth of the People's Republic of China their leader was a 55 year old intellectual named Mao Zedong now as a true revolutionary it did not believe in normalcy did not believe in 19 he disliked the bureaucracy what he did was to mobilize millions of peasants to join the Communist revolution now gave the Chinese people what came to be called the iron rice bowl a promise of lifelong economic security but the price was submission the party would soon control everything the books people read the clothes they wore even whom they married and how many truth in they had a mouth felt that one has to really not wait for changes in the social system at all but change human being just as we are at once that means to educate them and cut them off from all previous culture Lenin allowed his people to read the classics and had access to the old literature and Mao cut it all off and for what all they could read as the analogies in the so-called red book so here this idea that if you do that you completely cut them off from the past and create new human beings that way for nearly a decade China followed the Soviet model of nationalized industry and collectivized agriculture but the results were disappointing and Mao will impatient he became disillusioned with the Soviet model and he thought he could improve upon it and bring communism overnight he was truly a utopian thinker and so that is when in the late nineteen fifty seven he launched what has been come to be called the Great Leap Forward at the core of the Great Leap Forward was a new Chinese institution the people's confidence more than 23-thousand comprising more than half a billion people by mobilizing the country's vast labor now believed his experiment but catapult China ahead of the West in both agriculture and Industry but the country's frenzied commitment to the Great Leap Forward led only to impossible high production quotas and inferior products and one program the government tried to speed up steel production by encouraging peasants to build backyard steel mills on communes across China for raw materials the peasants donated iron goods from their own homes including walks and other cooking utensils a steel produced was worthless now also emphasized on agriculture production one way he thought of speeding up the agriculture growth was to plant it more density and that's scientifically irrational and that did not really increase the production but very soon in 1959 there was also somewhat drought flood and sort of natural disaster plus this human policy and that became a killer combo the peasants were forced to work long hours every day they were totally exhausted by this they weren't getting enough food to eat they were literally in some areas starving and it is estimated that this utopian idea led to the death of 30 to 40 million Chinese peasant a century earlier Karl Marx had dreamt of the final stage of socialism a society of complete human fulfillment where a person might hunt in the morning fish in the afternoon and write poetry in the evening he called it communism in Russia and China the word had come to mean something very different what communism was far from the only form of socialism to flourish after the war in Western Europe and a few other places a competing version was making new gains it was called democratic socialism or more often social democracy its adherents were convinced that the true humane and democratic essence of socialism could still be reclaimed from Impostors like fascism and communism at the forefront of the movement was Britain's Labour Party which challenged Winston Churchill in the first general election after Germany's surrender we obtained that we can organize the resources of the country to win the world we can do the same in peace as Britain went to the polls socialism's greatest hopes rode on the shoulders of Labour's unassuming leader Clement Attlee Clement Attlee began life as the painfully shy son of a prominent London solicitor the appellees had a vacation home and five full time service they were devout Christians and active in volunteer work the first thing you need to understand about Clement Attlee is that he came to socialism despite himself it wasn't where he wanted to be it wasn't what he was brought up to be he had the fairly automatic conservative opinions of a man of his class at that time at leauge ratcheted from Oxford and drifted into law then one fall evening his brother invited him to visit a club for disadvantaged boys in the notorious slums of East London's Limehouse district for the first time he saw the conditions that the poor lived in in England that he changed his life he saw children starving he saw huge families crammed into tiny squalid little rooms with no furniture and no food and no heating he saw the utter misery in which the poor lived and compared that to the way he had been brought up this made him a socialist within a year and a half the 24 year old Antley took over his club manner and moved in the Limehouse district would remain his home for the next 14 years in 1908 he joined a group of socialists within britain's Labour Party at Lee believed that if people lived in slum houses if they were sick and couldn't have proper medical care they grew up through different people from those who lived in prosperity and cannon of socialism as you have to change the physical environment if you want to improve human nature and that after certainly believes at leave Ahlan tiered for combat during World War one and fought with extraordinary courage as the government mobilized the economy for war he and others saw it as evidence that socialism could work the influence of socialists within the Labour Party was growing in 1918 they revised the party's constitution to support common ownership the British Labour Party was not started as a Socialist Party it was started as a Labour Party as a way for the labor unions to get some more clout or representation in politics it then attracted more and more kind of middle-class intellectuals who were socialists and in 1918 to make the middle-class socialists happy the party adopts a platform which explicitly embraces socialism as the party's ideology and where it does so is in this section that's called Clause 4 which basically said what we believe in is a society in which all the productive power is owned socially meaning by the government or by the community at lea rose to become the Labour Party's leader during World War two he was second only to Winston Churchill in Britain's national unity government when a piece was finally won much of Britain lay in ruins and June 1945 the country held its first general election in nearly a decade the choice was between Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee two men would join together to fight the Germans but now had different visions of how to rebuild Britain any pretty family including the most devoted labor family if they've been asked who they wanted round for supper they would have chosen witness Churchill wrong income exactly any day but Winston Churchill seems to stand for the old ways for unemployment for poverty fell medical care for an adequate system of education actly was a very much more withdrawn figure very quietly spoken little man with very little personal charisma but what he stood for was what appeals of any people by noon on July 26 the results were becoming clear labour had won by a landslide never before have the electors now shown clearly now that is on that there should be in this country a Labour government carrying out Labour's full policy socialism had never before won so clear a mandate the election was really fought on one issue the welfare state at Lee had a vision of a New Jerusalem of a welfare state of a city on a hill of a society that would provide comprehensive national insurance so this is a radical reforming government which intends to transform her society alongside the social welfare system the other cornerstone of at least new policy was nationalization Clause four was still enshrined in the party's constitution mattli now had his chance to bring common ownership to Britain let's go forward into this fight in the spirit of William Blake I will not cease from mental fight nor shall the souls sleep in my hand till we have built Jerusalem in England's green and doesn't land had published a book called the Labour Party in perspective in the 1930s but he reissued it when he was prime minister and with an introduction that Rhian dorste the same points and it called for complete socialism and he went on to say that he wanted all large industry nationalized and that small industry could remain in private hands for a time but his ultimate vision was a completely socialized economy batteries government would remain in power for six years before it left office in 1951 it had nationalized much of the country's industry and introduced an array of social welfare programs they took into public ownership coal rail steel road haulage gas and electricity they created a National Health Service free medical care for everybody they instituted a system of pension by rights at a level which made ownage didn't find if not prosperous I mean they had a pretty business secure I don't think any government ever been as busy as the anti-government put socialism to work rebuilding Britain the idea was being used for building a nation in another part of the world a war-torn Britain could no longer support its far-flung Empire and one by one colonies and territories began to fall away from the mother country 1948 brought the creation of the new State of Israel from part of the British trusteeship of Palestine for decades the Zionist movement had been struggling to create a Jewish state by settling Jews in Palestine many of these settlements were collective socialist villages called kibbutz in the kibbutz saw itself as socialist but also at the same time as the expression of a national revolution and they saw themselves as in fact the future Jewish society of this land kibbutz Ginosar is nestled along the Western banks of the Sea of Galilee it was founded in 1937 by a group of young socialists and it soon became the base of the Palmach the elite commando wing of the Jewish Defense Forces the whole novel the whole novel at scene we wanted to influence the country that was the idea we wanted to influence the country and stand for equality and all the things we believed in Moshe Abbess came to kibbutz Ginosar in 1940 when he was just 20 years old in those early years the kibbutz did not have a tents so he slept on the grass but for Moshe and others the sacrifice was worth it big I called the mayor of Walker thought you know he would see me not not lund with it the spirit of the kibbutz what gave us the strength to live that way someone asked once if I was religious and I told them I have one religion and that is the caboose it covers everything you need the war of independence came in 1948 and the kibbutz based Palmach forces spearheaded the Jewish victory with the support of the new State of Israel Ginosar began to flourish they built permanent homes ran a profitable fish operations raised chickens dairy cattle and honey beans and grew crops like bananas mangoes olives and tomatoes Pamela Vetrov odyssic Lake I had never worked in farming or agriculture before and I had never had to go by the decisions of a collective hello chef ma big la havas olestra NEMA but because what I'd been through in the past all this wasn't hard Isak Rotom settled at Ginosar in 1948 he is one of the hundreds of thousands of European Jews who came to Israel in the wake of the Holocaust but death Kalama I came through all the camps camps and a schvitz camps in Cyprus and suddenly I felt like I was part of one big family suddenly you feel there is someone who cares about you someone keeping up the kibbutz was socialism on a human scale instead of the government owning everything as it did in the Soviet Union and to a lesser extent in Britain the community owned everything and made all decisions collectively the model of the kibbutz movement was borrowed from Marx which was from Inchicore to his ability to each according to his need there was no private property everything was shared in common but it was all done in democratic fashion that is in group meetings or kriti meetings where people could present their needs and the kibbutz would democratically decide what to do to make sure that that person had his or her needs met you did not need any celery because she got food in the dining room you got clothes in the special store at the very beginning at least you had no private clothes the storehouse distributed every week close to the members till you could receive a shirt that another member had the week before like many other communal experiments including Robert Owens New Harmony the kibbutz even tried to reshape family life there would be new roles for husbands and wives and parents and children half the Cuba's members are women and the idea was that they would be liberated liberated from not childbearing of course that impossible but Liberty liberated from bringing up their children liberated from laundry liberated from cooking liberated from all the cares that women normally have so they decided very early on that it was the collective's responsibility to raise the children the children belong to all of us and we are all responsible for looking after them they wouldn't be under the tyranny of a bourgeois a mother and father they would be free members of the children society living with their own age group there was a notion of been kibbutz the son of the kibbutz of the Delta of the kibbutz in some key would seem to you even had that when the child was born the General Assembly met and decided what will be the name of the child when how really because guinnesses membership would eventually swell to nearly 400 adults the kibbutz movement would grow to include 270 kibbutzim with some 130,000 members about 5% of Israel's population and play a leading role in the life of the new state they mopped out the border to start with very much so in the north in the West in the South everywhere where they were kibbutz in there was Israel and they provided a major part of the agriculture as time went on they also produced a large amount of the industrial output they contributed out of all proportion politically the first two prime ministers workable its members at the first cabinet of Israel I think nearly half were key books members army commanders initially all the army and military commanders these were cubics members and I would go as far as to say that without the kibbutz they wouldn't have been misled of Israel much was unique about the Jewish state but in choosing socialism as its strategy for development Israel was part of a swelling tide for the nation's reaching for independence in the aftermath of world war two state planning was held out as the quickest path to prosperity sixty nations in the developing world would eventually adopt some form of socialism most were in Africa the country that became known as Tanzania would provide the world with a leader whose vision of socialism fused the ideas of the West with the traditions of Africa his name was Julius Nyerere II merarys father was a tribal chief in northwestern Tanganyika as the British territory was then known when the colonialists wanted somebody from the chief family to go to school and he was virtually taken away from his his good scent taken to school that was the beginning of Julius by 1949 naari had made it all the way to the University of Edinburgh in Scotland at Edinboro he started studying with socialist teachers who talked about community property and Yuri said we've got community property that's what we have in my tribe and suddenly it seemed as if the ways that he was used to which he had always been told were very a backward and the sort of a source of shame were actually corresponding very nicely to the most advanced social thought that is the ultimate society that people in Europe were looking forward to when the rarey returned to Tanganyika in 1952 colonial unrest had spread across the continent to the north Kenya was engulfed in the violent mal mal rebelled Tanganyika was much quieter the clock of Independence was in the air Neri took a job as a teacher but he found his true calling in politics he soon remade an old social club into his country's first political party as the party attracted thousands of followers across the nation nari kept the title of his old profession Marlena Swahili for teacher in 1961 Tanganyika finally won its independence from Britain at midnight on December 9th the Tanganyika flag flew for the first time the next year the countries were in Julius Nyerere II as its first president he had been elected with more than 98 percent of the vote merarys set out to slay the three dragons that plagued his country big notes poverty and disease his weapon would be socialism fused with the ancient tribal customs of Africa the word he used to describe it was Jamaa Swahili for family hood what my father believed in socialism theory I understand it is that right after independence most of the means were uneducated and we're not all that wealthy so we had to to move together rosemary nur error he was born in the same year her father led the country to independence she is now a member of parliament herself mala uses to say that it's that's new because that's how we live you go to a typical Tanzanian village a typical African village we don't have these nuclear families just the mother and the father and the children we have lots of people living around we help each other it's not drilling you by 1967 Tanganyika had merged with the island of Zanzibar to become Tanzania nari had been advocating his brand of African socialism for more than four years but he had not imposed it on the country he now decided to write it into law Murray laid out his roadmap to socialism in a speech that became known as the Arusha declaration this was a declaration as it said not just for Tanzania but for all of Africa and indeed other Africans did look upon it that way because it was the most complete most ambitious attempt to create a kind of communist manifesto for Africa nearly nationalized the banks and major industries promising to give workers control of the means of production and foreign investments would be turned away in the name of self-reliance according to their Airy socialism would now pave the way to true independence the declaration when it came out spelled out so many things a certain kind of utopia there was this feeling that alongside economic development you created a new human being it was a whole new idea that talked about caring for the next fellow but it was an exciting period Neri encouraged Tanzanians to reorganize their communities into collectives he called Jamaa villages these new villages would build socialism and they would also provide access to schools hospitals and water across the harbor from the capital city of Dar es Salaam Lisa loli became an ajumma village in 1971 he took a year by the level yoku mwah after Molly moon ereira encouraged us to form Iijima villages we were the first to respond and make our village in who Juma village but finally yet greater Gemma refer by the Kwan's of Yama heir to capita FIFA the said the advanced after we began leading the huge amar where life we were able to get facilities for keeping poultry fishing see that boat over there we didn't have it before we got it with our own initiative and we made progress merarys vision of African socialism won the admiration of many in the West as the Cold War intensified many saw it as the best alternative to soviet-style communism in the third world support both moral and financial poured in World Bank presidents would fly out heads of donor agencies would fly out students would come to spend a half a year or a year at the University of Dar es Salaam the University of Dar Salaam was great place in the mid 1960s and early 70s this was seen as a serious well reasoned attempt at socialism and the feeling was let's support this experiment talked of socialism's potential in the third world came amid disappointments in Europe in places like Great Britain pensions and socialized medicine continued to enjoy broad support but State Planning had not delivered on its promise there's a tension between Britain in the 1960s and the one hand we have the image of the swinging 60s the world of the Beatles that Rolling Stones the world of Carnaby Street the problem was that the kind of creative energy that she saw going into music and clothing it didn't go into most parts of the British economy though suddenly this color and fluorescence but what it concealed was the fact the economy was essentially dying and we're living on the credit of the pastor on old declining rusting industries like coal mining shipbuilding and steel and nobody knows where the money's gonna come from you know it was it was a kind of fool's paradise in 1971 The Times of London called the country's condition the British disease the problem with the welfare state was not that it wanted to distribute goods to the people of England the problem was that a society bent on questions of distribution bent on questions of consumption was not a society that was going to deal with the underlying economic problems of how you produce enough how you produce efficiently how you compete in a global market and that's the imbalance the world was changing and it seemed that British industry simply couldn't keep up laws designed to protect British workers now prevented management from changing old practices workers demanded and one ever higher wages even as productivity stagnated in 1975 inflation at 24% what essentially happened was that the wage settlements as they became higher pushed inflation higher and that leads to an inflationary spiral which was very difficult to control since 1945 labour and conservative governments alike have preserved Clement Attlee social welfare programs and most of his nationalizations but by the mid-1970s a growing faction within the Conservative Party placed the blame squarely on the legacy of hapless government in their view what basically happens in post-war Britain is that socialism disruptive trade unions and expensive welfare state lead to a precipitous political and economic decline what they see is a welfare state which created the dependency culture and robbed people of initiative and robbed people of responsibility it disrupted the market admitted impossible for the country to get anything really done among the most outspoken of these conservatives was the party's new leader Margaret Thatcher I presume this is to enable us to sweep Britain clean of Searchers mrs. Thatcher he just couldn't bear the idea that British decline should be taken for granted she rejected that with her guts she thought Britain should be great searching around for what was wrong she decided that what the economy needed was was a dynamic shakeout was to make people self-reliant again and above all to break the powerful trade union movement in the summer of 1978 the Labour Party was in power and gearing up for a new general election the Labour government felt that what they really needed was to have a year of very very low inflation so they imposed a norm on trade unions or on all workers of a 5% increase in wages in December of that year the first test of the norm came in a strike or a dispute at Ford Motor Company and Ford settled for I believe about 16% which was way above a 5 percent meal at that moment the floodgates opened and all sorts of workers who had pent-up demands for higher wages essentially put those demands to government throughout December 1978 and January 1979 massive strikes shook the country it would become known as the winter of discontent most of the striking workers were in the public sector the nationalized services and industries truck drivers teachers medical workers there were stories of ambulance drivers saying things like yes we know some people will die if we don't deliver them to the hospital but we're going to strike anyway there was a famous strike of grave diggers in Liverpool which meant that the bodies piled up and were on buried and there were similar strikes you know the public services well it's this kind of strike really massively roads public support for strikes for unions and for a government that seems completely unable to do anything about it in December 1978 the Labour government despite lots of difficulties still had a lead in the polls over Thatcher and the Conservatives it was a tiny lead it was 1 or 2 percent by the end of February 1979 less than three months later doctor was out in front with 20 percent lead in Israel too socialism was losing some of its appeal the founders of the kibbutz movement had believed that the communal way of life would embed itself ever more strongly over time but as the years passed the trend on the kibbutzim was away from collectivism there Thalia shanem chef Lemar send me out Ella Emma Mata Shibata Lynam cobbling famished if in the beginning we got clothes once a week from the clothing store house then later there were closets and everyone had their own clothes at home in Batala color if at first all the food was in the dining hall then eventually everyone had in high spots I mean by Gaza they care about it feel they oughta buy it and then we started to keep things like beverages and fruit inside the house after Israeli statehood the move toward a more private lifestyle accelerated members began to receive small cash allowances to spend as they wished the changes extended to families as well the kibbutz children had lived and slept in a communal children's house but by the early 1970s some parents were beginning to have second thoughts the communal sleeping is sounded very nice but it was enormously frustrating for parents particularly for mothers who really felt they weren't getting enough of their children they weren't being with them enough they weren't seeing them enough they weren't being able to give them enough love the children's houses slowly began to empty many of the kibbutzim took out loans to pay for adding on children's rooms to their parents homes in the midst of such internal change the kibbutzim suffered a major blow from without in May 1977 Menachem bacon carried a Conservative government into power for the first time in Israel's history the old Labour government was out and with it went to subsidies tax breaks and contracts it had bestowed on the kibbutzim attack COFA che a national threat to him there was a time when we were wanted in Israel they just fooled them Kamat Kashima yet thought no holiday mad because we lived in the problematic areas we produce the food we were the heroes of this country eventually the state let us know hinted to us we don't need you enough you are a place of residence like any other start being independent the kibbutzim was still socialist communities but practical problems were forcing more and more compromises between the ideal and reality tanzania brought far greater disappointments it was beginning to seem that Julius Nyerere his version of socialism was not as Democratic as his supporters had hoped in 1965 three years after he was elected president he amended the country's constitution to ban all political parties but his own theory was asked whether a one-party system included safeguards against the abuse of power to be a dictator this is a dilemma of this movement sometimes you build the leader to the extent that at the end will you have you think you have become free the feather has become so powerful you don't know what to do a new era was looking away from the West for a model of socialism more suited to a poor country like Tanzania in 1965 he made his first visit to China see India we went to China Tanzania was in famine and by the time we were only 15 million people we went to China with 1 billion and everybody had their first honor 1 billion think of it they were making their own rails and they were engineers building their own houses building their own roads see and here we we couldn't even make a bridge China began to take a special interest in Tanzania's development it would eventually contribute more than two billion dollars in economic aid more than it gave to any other country as the friendship between the two countries deepened near Aires vision of socialism seemed to veer more and more toward the Chinese model and life in Tanzania began to revolve increasingly around merarys single party after the one party is a system was implicated the country became more and more authoritarian the party youthfully for example was established that would go around sort of imitating the Red Guards in China and the major newspapers were a party paper at the broadcast media was entirely under government control the independent trade union movement was absorbed into the ruling party all virtually all independent association life was either suppressed or brought under the control of the party in 1967 the country began to overhaul at schools casting off the old western sister students would now learn practical trade skills and socialist ideology practical education in science physics chemistry and biology ceased and they say this is now triumph but as for us it was the end of everything Christopher M tequila is the pastor of the full salvation church in Dar es Salaam and the leader of a Tanzanian opposition party he has been arrested more than two dozen times for his political activity his problems with the government began while he was in secondary school the Ola teachers were from the West and they taught us the sanctity of human life and dignity and all his sins then all of a sudden we were told those people who were who were told to call as our brothers because they loved democracy human rights now we should call them imperialists and halogens I was confused the Tanzanian people did not embrace all aspects of merarys socialist experiment as much as he urged them they simply were not moving to the jama'a villages in 1973 near a lost patience he ordered all Tanzanians to relocate to the planned villages within three years there were problems from the start Daru the execution of the program and there were seven mistakes sometimes the village could be taken to a place with no access of water you see sometimes they're people who performed the tasks were too brutal at times it happened like enemy requests in oil kick up some occasional casual Jota we were taken by surprise when the trucks came to relocate and Samia come there but let it go from Atlantic Ocean but we had to leave the cashew nuts in the orchard just when they were ready for harvest site unni abbas his village was relocated to diesel only in 1974 not everyone wanted to go while he never ahijah some of them were happy to come here and are with us through to this day but others tried to escape and run away that's why that place over there is called the mango tree of the militia it's because the militia had to be deployed at that mango tree to keep them under control and keep them from escaping the villages were disastrous for food production in 1970 tanzania have produced enough surplus corn to export more than half a million tons a year just four years later the country had to import nearly as much just to feed itself Tanzania's government-owned industries were in no better shape typical was the massive morgue world shoe factory by the early 1980s it operated at 4 percent of capacity conflict on Tanzania's border with uganda and an international warrant crisis struck a further blow to the economy after the war things got tough there was a shortage of a lot of things I remember personally walking to Kenya to come back with toothpaste bathing soap and things like this there is also shortage of food to the helping families so things were bad little bit Jurgis nari had succeeded in creating a nation but socialism had failed to make it prosper for many in the West mostly on the left side of the political spectrum third world socialism seemed an antidote to soviet-style communism but nations that took this path like Tanzania did not leap forward in contrast those that embrace private ownership and foreign trade like Taiwan South Korea Hong Kong and Singapore ruled these so-called little Tigers provided a vivid rebuttal to socialist rhetoric be sure to join us again for the concluding episode of heaven on earth the rise and fall of socialism for our think tank I'm Ben Wattenberg to learn more about heaven on earth the rise and fall of socialism visit us online at pbs.org you'll find complete interviews and more about the people and events that shape socialism around the world next time in the East Communism Volans while social democracy is reinvented in the West what shameful socialism take in the 21st century find out next time on the conclusion of heaven on earth




Comments
  1. 38:58 They (being the labour government) needed a year of very, very low inflation. They imposed a "norm" on trade unions
    or on all workers of a 5% increase in wages in December 1978. What is this "norm", how is it legally binding, how is it enforced, all workers including those outside collective bargaining units and contracts with the government? Next taking a look at data from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound_sterling#cite_note-98. 1971 base £1.00. British pound lost about 70% of its buying power in 9 years from 1971 to 1980. Looks like this to me in year to year comparison in % change per year. 1971 to 1972 -6.5%. 1972 to 1973 -8.56%. 1973 to 1974 -14.04%. 1974 to 1975 -19.46%. 1975 to 1976 -13.85%.
    1976 to 1977 -13.92%. 1977 to 1978 -7.29%. 1979 to 1980 -12.04%. 1980 to 1981 -15.36%. Yes one may debate the data,
    the causes, the politics and all sorts of equations. Please do so, but what is the solution? The table shows that from 1971 to 2015 the British pound lost about 92% of its buying power.

  2. Capitalism isn't an economic philosophy, it is merely the default. Capitalism is the absence of people with guns running around forcing people to do things they don't wish to do. Socialism is nothing more than people with guns forcing their will upon you.

  3. Socialism with democracy is what makes a society equal and stable. It's what they were supportive within capitalism.

  4. Oh, I visited your channel. "Politically Incorrect". This all makes sense now, you're some right wing nut haha. There are literally a million of you anti Marxist/anti progressive right wing Conservative retards all over youtube.

  5. 20 seconds in to this video and "Lenin's dictatorship" is mentioned. Under four minutes to the video and Nazi Germany is equated to socialism. People really buy in to this stuff?
    Lenin had no dictatorial power and Nazi Germany did the first mass privatization in the human history we know of. Hell, the word "privatization" was literally invented by The Economist magazine in 1930's when it tried to describe Nazi Germany's economy.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_democracy
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Privatization

  6. Keep the King’s Command
    1 Who is like the wise?
    And who knows the interpretation of a thing?
    A man’s wisdom makes his face shine,
    and the hardness of his face is changed.
    2 I say:a Keep the king’s command, because of God’s oath to him. b 3 Be not hasty to go from his presence. Do not take your stand in an evil cause, for he does whatever he pleases. 4 For the word of the king is supreme, and who may say to him, “What are you doing?” 5 Whoever keeps a command will know no evil thing, and the wise heart will know the proper time and the just way. c 6 For there is a time and a way for everything, although man’s trouble d lies heavy on him. 7 For he does not know what is to be, for who can tell him how it will be? 8 No man has power to retain the spirit, or power over the day of death. There is no discharge from war, nor will wickedness deliver those who are given to it. 9 All this I observed while applying my heart to all that is done under the sun, when man had power over man to his hurt.
    Those Who Fear God Will Do Well
    10 Then I saw the wicked buried. They used to go in and out of the holy place and were praised e in the city where they had done such things. This also is vanity. f 11 Because the sentence against an evil deed is not executed speedily, the heart of the children of man is fully set to do evil. 12 Though a sinner does evil a hundred times and prolongs his life, yet I know that it will be well with those who fear God, because they fear before him. 13 But it will not be well with the wicked, neither will he prolong his days like a shadow, because he does not fear before God.
    Man Cannot Know God’s Ways
    14 There is a vanity that takes place on earth, that there are righteous people to whom it happens according to the deeds of the wicked, and there are wicked people to whom it happens according to the deeds of the righteous. I said that this also is vanity. 15 And I commend joy, for man has nothing better under the sun but to eat and drink and be joyful, for this will go with him in his toil through the days of his life that God has given him under the sun.
    16 When I applied my heart to know wisdom, and to see the business that is done on earth, how neither day nor night do one’s eyes see sleep, 17 then I saw all the work of God, that man cannot find out the work that is done under the sun. However much man may toil in seeking, he will not find it out. Even though a wise man claims to know, he cannot find it out.

    Footnotes:
    a 2 Hebrew lacks say
    b 2 Or because of your oath to God
    c 5 Or and judgment
    d 6 Or evil
    e 10 Some Hebrew manuscripts, Septuagint, Vulgate; most Hebrew manuscripts forgotten
    f 10 The Hebrew term hebel can refer to a "vapor" or "mere breath"; also twice in verse 14 (see note on 1:2)

  7. Nothing like the Commie SOVIET JEW Bullshit coming Out of the JEW Hollywood Home of every Fucking PERVERT that walks the Planet. Where they PLY their PERVERSION to Other Parts of the World in their PORN of SEX and VIOLENCE they call Entertainment and Movies.

    Berlin after WWI became a CESSPOOL of POLISH and RUSSIAN JEWS Plying their Perversions to GERMAN CATHOLICS like Hollywood Today Sells to CHRISTIANS in the USA. DECENT Women and young Girls could not Walk the STREETS Safely. Than a CATHOLIC leader name HITLER came on the SCENE in the 30s,Took back CONTROL of Germany and Gave It to the PEOPLE.

    While the JEWSA and the COMMIE JEW Shit hole that was Russian SLAVE States were EATING DIRT in the "DIRTY THIRTIES",GERMAN CATHOLICS under Hitler's LEADERSHIP was building the GREATEST NATION on the Planet based on Hitler's CATHOLIC Teachings. Of Hard Work, Family VALUES , CARING for the PEOPLE and FEARING NO ONE BUT GOD.

    JFK was trying to do the SAME in the USA,But the SOVIET JEWS could NEVER let a POWERFUL Nation with a HUGE Military show the World What True 'SOCIALISM' could do to the World.

    The USA Died when they Soviet JEWS murdered JFK and turned the Republic into the JEWSA. IsraHELL's Killing Machine and the "TRILLION DOLLAR BABY" FED Reserve to PAY for all the JEW Wars.

    As Henry Kissinger said 'USA Soldiers are only CANNON FODDER" they feed the JEW War Machine ,just USEFUL TOOLS.

    RT and Russia are making the JEWSA the BIG BAD "EVIL" because their COMMIE Soviet JEWS in IsraHELL think that the JEWSA is Still too CHRISTIAN.

  8. National Socialism and Fascism were Corporatist and based on neo-feudal ideas of the reactionaires that opposed the french revolution (especially Adam Müller the advisor of Metternich who wanted and feudal/monarchist alternative to capitalism). It's not realy socialism in the marxist sense but more a revival of traditionalist and 'organic' viewpoint that looks at Economics in terms of family units and 'Organs' of the state instead of individuals and individual interests.

  9. at the 12:00 mark they talk about the brit politician, but that is exactly what hitler wrote in mein kampf, literally the exact same thing, about wanting to help poor family's so their children grown up in a positive households, that is not worried about food and their houses are big enough so family members can get time apart after arguments, so those arguments don't become big arguments with violence, and so the only escape does not have to be to the pub for alcohol,

  10. The book has been accused of factual errors and right-wing bias. Some criticism of conservative bias comes because many of the people involved with production of the documentary are self-proclaimed neoconservatives. Host Ben Wattenberg and author of the companion book Joshua Muravchik were scholars at the conservative think tank American Enterprise Institute. Michael Gove, who appears in the documentary film as a participant at the "Capitalist Ball", says, "I don’t believe that socialism is dead because I don’t believe that the impulse which drives people towards the Left, the desire to control, meddle and interfere in other people’s lives, can ever die." Noa Shamir-Ronen, daughter of one of the founders of Israel's Kibbutz Ginosar opines, "If in the past we used to work because of values, now there are new values. The supreme value – we are ordinary human beings – is money."

    Classic uneducated redneck…

  11. Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production;[10] as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim to establish them.[11] Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective, or cooperative ownership; to citizen ownership of equity; or to any combination of these.[12] Although there are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them,[13] social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms.[5][14][15]

  12. Lol. So many butthurt socialist thieves how are unwilling to accept the pattern of events that are grounded in socialism that have repeatedly lead to suffering, on record, unmatch by many. I will be the first to admit that the bankers military industrial complex has played a major role in ruining areas and economies. However, a vast percentage for why debt continues to cripple economies is to much government control/power. And the relentless push for equal outcome/collectivism, unwilling to accept that mankind are individuals with freewill. This means that some will work hard and others will be lazy. The enabling of laziness by way of generalization of individuals through tax funded government programs has opened a revolving door of for bad decisions with little to no individual responsibility. Much of this is done by those who claim moral high ground, while they use the government to steal/ use threat of force to any that doesn't pay for such programs.

  13. The head Jewish BolsheviksGrigori sokolnikov, Isaac Bernstein, Isaac Steinberg, Meir Finkelstein, yakov sverdlov,, moisei uritsky, yakov yurovsky, Adolph joffe, yakov blumkin, Karl radek, yakov genetsky, Genrikh yagoda, filip goloshchyokin, David riazanov, Isaak Rubin, Nikolay krestinsky, Lazar Kaganovich, Otto katz, Lyubov Axelrod, grigori Zinoviev, Samuel Dickstein, Leon Trotsky, Lev kamen, moissaye olgin, Victor Serge, Leo Deutsch, Gyorgy Lukacs, Samuel Ginsburg, Jeno Bamberger, Iona Yakir, Boris Feldman, arkady pavlovian, Isaac Abramovich, Jozef unszlicht, Evsei Lieberman, Yuri Raizman, naftaly Frankel, Solomon morel, Yuri Andropov, Solomon lozovsky

  14. But the Kibbutz went "Kaputz" in 2005, people got frustrated with having "carry" those who wouldn't pull their own weight and refused to contribute to the common wellbeing …

  15. At 32:00 minutes it say "socialism is to be the way to independence". What a joke. That did not work did it.

    Marxism always fails, BB

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