The Origin of Race in the USA


Did you know that race was not always considered
a biological or genetic category? So how did we come to understand it that way
today? We all have a working definition of race. Whether you kinda understand it, hate it,
claim to not see it, or study it (hint hint, cough cough: that’s me), it still plays
a role in our daily lives. From the way that people interact, to the
places they live and stereotypes they face, race is still a determining factor in our
social structures, both inside and outside of the U.S. But full disclosure, I do a lot of U.S. history
so this is a U.S. specific video about race, since these histories operate differently
across various contexts. Ok, so let’s get started by asking: What were some of the earliest definitions
of “race”? Well, before we started thinking of race along
the lines of biology, genetics, or phenotype (aka physical appearance) did you know that
it was largely considered a category of kinship or group affiliation? In the 16th century, we started to see the
use of the word race in English, but it isn’t attributed to physical traits or behavior. It meant, quite literally, that you were all
members of the same household, group, or shared a common ancestor. But, when did “race” shift to being less
about kinship groups, to sounding more complicated than the lyrics to “I’m my own grandpa”? Well we can see that starting in the colonial
era. And that brings us to our second question: Why did we see the shift in the idea of race
in the 17th and 18th century? The answer to this question is firmly rooted
in two things: the rise of global capitalism that was backed by slavery and colonialism,
and a period of theorizations in Europe known as the Enlightenment. When the Spanish began the colonization of
the Caribbean, and later Latin America, after 1492, they looked to Native populations to
mine silver and gold under brutal working conditions. They set about enslaving, attacking, and murdering
those who didn’t comply. Thousands of Native people died as a result
of over work, genocide, or because they were exposed to new diseases brought over with
the Spanish settlers. And when England established its first successful
long term colonies in North America in Virginia in 1607, they looked to mirror this pattern
of enslavement with Native people, while also seeking copious amounts of silver and gold. But they had limited success with this route
because: 1) Virginia wasn’t exactly rich in gold and 2) Native populations were able
to resist the efforts of early settlers through fighting back, or escaping and blending into
adjacent Native groups. English settlers still wanted to make money
off of this venture so they began to look to alternative ways of making Virginia profitable,
and that came in the form of tobacco. But a major problem with growing tobacco is
that it requires a ton of labor, and the laborers needed the agricultural skills to turn the
crop into cash. Because they had already met with sustained
resistance from Native populations, English settlers looked to other potential labor sources:
enslaved Africans and indentured British laborers. There are some important distinctions to make
between these two groups. First, indenture was a contractual agreement
with fixed terms that varied widely. Some indentured servants were brought to the
colonies against their will either as a punishment or because they were children. Terms of these contracts were often very exploitative. But many came willingly in exchange for their
passage to the new colonies. Many of these indentured servants finished
the terms of their contracts and began lives as property owners. Enslavement of Africans was an entirely different
category of labor from indenture. Because 1) Slavery was for life, not for a
fixed term or number of years. 2) Slaves were not considered human. 3) It was not a contract, because it takes
two consenting humans to enter into a contract. And 4) Slave laws were enacted codifying hereditary
slavery, meaning that if you were enslaved and had children, then those children would
also remain in slavery. With the expansion of this system there was
understandably some resistance, even from Europeans. So in order to continue to justify slavery
we start to see the pseudo science of “race” emerge that connected physical features, behavior
and legal rights, right around the 18th century when colonial use of slaves was expanding. Anthropologist Audrey Smedley notes that “scientific”
ideas about physical appearance and racial difference in the 18th century were largely
“folk” ideas used to justify already existent social norms. So as a result of a desire to perpetuate systems
of exploitation, more and more distinctions were made about the supposed differences amongst
races, primarily the differences of black people from their white counterparts. This evolution of race became more concretized
after social structures of slavery were in place and not before and was solidified by
the Enlightenment. Which brings us to our third question: How did the Enlightenment impact definitions
of race? The Enlightenment was a period of primarily
European thought and ideological development that saw the emergence of some key concepts
that tie back into today’s discussion. First: there was a push in scientific communities
to categorize the natural world using “reason” and creating elaborate hierarchical systems
that emphasized the similarities between different species and subgroups and the inherent differences
amongst others. And race was fitted into this same mold. As European theorists looked to classify the
world into “scientific” groupings, physical markers that were already established social
norms through enslavement and genocide were ways that they sought to “prove” that
this was the “natural” order and not a social construction. For example, Thomas Jefferson, who was a proponent
of concepts like individual liberty and freedom for white men or those he considered his peers,
also made claims that black slaves required less sleep than their European counterparts
to justify excruciatingly long and inhumane work hours. And Samuel Cartwright, who falsely claimed
that “drapetomania” was a mental defect that caused enslaved black people to run away
from slavery, as if wanting to escape a lifetime of enslavement was…illogical? The Enlightenment formulation of History also
played a crucial role in the development of social ideologies of race. Kang, Hegel, and other philosophers of their
day claimed that certain racial groups stood outside of history or had no history, and
this included all groups that they considered non-white or outside of European ideals of
modernity. This meant that groups that were devoid of
history and culture were inherently less valuable and therefore subordinate to other races. They were cast as the natural sacrifices of
supposed “progress.” These assumptions were also codified into
law in the 18th and 19th century. The first naturalization laws of the United
States in 1790, limited naturalized citizenship to “free white persons” and excluded other
groups. Children born of enslaved mothers were said
to inherit the legal statuses of their mother, effectively keeping them in bondage perpetually. And Native Americans were often denied legal
property rights, which helped to expedite the process of Westward expansion across the
North American continent. And “anti-miscegenation” laws were drafted
in order to assure that people from different racial backgrounds did not intermarry or have
children in order to protect ideals of racial purity. But these racial categorizations did not always
neatly align with skin tone. In his book
Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race, historian Matthew
Jacobson notes that in the U.S. “white” or “caucasian” was not always considered
a unified race composed of anyone of European descent. Whiteness was often considered exclusive to
Anglo-Saxon descendants, while other European groups were broken into different ethnic categories
such as “Celt,” “Slavs,” “Iberics,” and “Hebrews”, which were considered separate
races from the 1840s to the early 20th century. But in the 1920s, when there was a stemming
of migration from Europe, these different races were subsumed into one category called
“whiteness” to shore up a cultural majority against other racial groups and immigrants. And this persisted throughout the 20th century. So how does it all add up? Well race started as a marker of kinship. But then we see it shift to become less about
familial inheritance and more focused on physical indicators due to the rise of Enlightenment
reasoning and labor exploitation. But where does that leave us today? Well, in the past several decades scholars
have noted both an uptick in identifying with your ethnic history, for example pride in
your country or culture of origin, instead of just being “white” or “black.” But we’ve also seen a revival of outdated
theories of race being biologically determined and attached to certain traits, like considering
all people of one physical type as prone to certain behaviors. But regardless of how people identify themselves,
race continues to be a complex topic of discussion and debate. With that final thought in mind: Do you have any other historical points to
add to the evolution of “race”? And how has race been used in both positive
and negative contexts throughout history? Definitely be sure to check out the works
cited this week, since there was a LOT of material and ground to cover and this was only
just the surface! Well that’s it for this week. Drop them below, like, share, and subscribe
and we’ll see you next week! Hey guys, thanks for all of your comments
last week on “what would happen if Islamic armies had won at the Battle of Tours?” Here’s what some of you had to say: Rachel on Facebook speculates that European
architecture would have been much different and perhaps the influence of Moorish architecture
would have spread past Portugal and Spain and into France. Thanks for watching, Rachel! PoseidonXIII on YouTube (who is a person,
and I’m assuming not an aquatic God?) says that he’s really digging the new format
of the episodes and enjoying the hypothetical questions. Thanks for watching from under the sea, Poseidon! And our last shoutout is actually from our
American Revolution episode, I wanted to say “hi” to Mr. Miller’s class in North
Carolina, I heard you were finishing up your unit on the American Revolution and used our
video in class. That’s super awesome! Stay curious and thanks for watching. So that’s it for now, and we’ll see you
next week!




Comments
  1. It has been argued that white servants could not have been truly enslaved because there was generally a time limit to their enforced labour, whereas black slavery was for life. However, slavery is not defined by time but by the experience of it's subject. To be the chattel of another, to be required by law to give absolute obedience in everything and to be subject to whippings, brandings, and chainings for any show of defiance, to be these things as were most whites, was to be enslaved. Daniel Defoe, writing in the early 1700s, described endentured servants "as more properly called slaves."
    And according to the Oxford English Dictionary
    the definition of a Slave: is a person who is the legal property of another and is forced to obey
    them.

    Therefore, we should call a slave a slave.

    ‘they kidnapped entire towns and turned them into slaves’

  2. What the hell is she talking about? The acknowledgment of race has existed for thousands of years. If you think race only came to fruition during 17th century CE America then you don’t know ancient history.

    This type of racial “side step” and conceptualization regarding the origins of race is why all races of black people will never get ahead—it’s a very recent concept with a very sinister reason for its creation. There’s no such races as black, white or brown, they’re misnomers created by Europeans intended to hide or distort our true ethnic identities. White is not a race, black is not a race, Arab is not a race, Asian is not a race, and Indian is not a race—they are physical and geographic descriptions of certain races. We will always be subject to Eurocentric nonsense versions of history disguised as all inclusiveness that erase African histories throughout the world while Europeans benefit from it.

    Race is documented in the Bible as the word “nations”.

    https://biblehub.com/str/greek/1484.htm
    ◄ 1484. ethnos ►
    Strong's Concordance
    ethnos: a race, a nation, pl. the nations (as distinct from Isr.)
    Original Word: ἔθνος, ους, τό
    Part of Speech: Noun, Neuter
    Transliteration: ethnos
    Phonetic Spelling: (eth'-nos)
    Definition: a race, a nation, the nations

    The oldest Bible which is the Greek Septuagint is at least 3,000 years old and biblical scholars know this for a fact. So why does the Christian community keep trying to make the false claim that race is a recent concept and doesn’t matter? Because they’ve stolen African history and many of us don’t know it. So if they can pacify you with a nonsense belief you are saved by believing in a European guy that never existed named Jesus.

  3. And people wonder why people still talk about things like this. Because in America School they don't teach stuff like this they white wash it and sugarcoat everything about American history. keep American history The Good the bad the Ugly alive for the next generation and beyond.

  4. This goes along with what I’ve always said, there is no such Thad race, it’s merely a social construct. There are nations, ethnic groups and diverse cultures nothing more. As mentioned, slavery was tied to color until it came to the Americas and possibly not until the British started. And the hereditary factor that was in America wasn’t always tied to slavery as mentioned as well.

  5. Awesome video. I saw so many fellow "christians" hating on the whites on utube comments lately accusing whites of being racist but here they are being racist themselves so how does someone being racist to a race of ppl they accusing of being racists but isnt racist themselves ? I dont get it. God said love thy neighbour as u do thyself. Nowhere did he say love only your own race.
    Anyway i hate racism. Im white australian n my hubby is igbo african. We are as close as a man n his wife can get. We are so similar not different. Cos we all the same. All equal. Slavery was so damn cruel i dont understand or comprehend how a person who can love and compassion for some ppl n not others just cos they have more or less melanin in their skin. Hows that make us so different. We still built the same n all feel things the same all think with the same brains n love with the same hearts n cry with the same tears n bleed the same. So how is one race better or lesser? I could never force another human to be my slave even if i treated them great let alone be cruel n force them. I couldnt force an animal let alone a person i have too much compassion. I cry wen i see really sad things or events etc.

  6. This is too quick, more slower next time pls in order to understand more. Maybe do two videos instead of one next time

  7. Ancient Africans such as Pharaohs and kings of Egypt and ancient black Christians ruled the world until 1492. Roman Catholicism vs rival churches such as in Lombardy and Ravenna, who were made up of Germanic tribes, fought Rome in the early centuries. Africans had slaves in the early centuries. Then, much later, the British.

  8. With the time lines written in History on these involved trades slavery has not changed much , slavery doesn't mean race any more but they continue to enslave low income families with their own History lesson I stead of the most important parts as why it started and its true power of God like minerals that where majority in the central southern continent of Africa and this is why Europe tried to erase the History of the continent and it Important Facts of ancient Medicine and Minerals / Gold , South Africa had used mining for Gold to Harvest their crops faster and genetically modified the crops by mining in the center of stone structures that formed circles , the mining in the center of their circle shaped crops made extracting gold easier to the point of hidden soil projects that where lost to the erupting take over from the Europeans , sold off and murdered in the tens of thousands a year and then this most important part of south Africa that has not been told or even believed to be part of chemistry is be they can't figure out the physical or mathematical difference between the worlds largest kept secret , Gold was and is the most valuable metal for the markets but south African leaders would travel the world and give to other leaders free gold and the reason behind free gold is what ? South Africa was rich with gold and could purchase what ever they would like from other countries ? No South Africa didn't need Gold and people wanted it , the reason South Africa didn't need gold is because the agriculture industry was the greatest on earth and the People where the Healthiest people that walked the planet ! The leader spread the wealth and never wanted to keep any of the Gold ! This gets weird right ! WEALTH and happiness from your land and people that out right had the best chance to live longer then any person compared to other Countries , Modern medicine refuses to use most of African medicines and claim south to be the creation of their own , but they will not use a medicine they can't explain ! we are all created by the atom and this means we are all full of energy and everything in the solar system is energy # the best place to see energy with you own eyes is our sun and other stars , when a star explodes it created metals and gold is the rarest metal because it takes more atoms then other metals , this Largest Gold deposits where located in South Africa and the weather then watering down on the south plains where said to be tropical . with really great low cost effective methods to mine gold , modern medicine will not use gold in the chemistry of medicine because they do not contain consumable substances, south African medicine doctors where not involved with the theory of mining in the eyes of the European exports , in the case of conquering and erasing History of the African people this power or even technology of medicine would be lost to modern people and the teaching of medicine because they wrote the books and they controlled Top secrets as far as ( alchemy) goes my theory is that Gold Broken down to the Monatomic size created a new element in the world of science that could not be explained to chemistry because 1 it has been Top secret or 2 it has life changing abilities that even the Africans can't take credit for and the Health benefits of Monatomic Gold can alter the genetic structure of ignorance to create and universal human life form that 1 God created and 2 God took away for not excepting his son and 3 those that abused the authority of his rules and his creation shall not set next to him in the after life ! my thought on Adam and eve Adam was written to be a first so in science the atom was the first and God created everything, the atom flows through everything and recreates everything in a cycle of reincarnation, the universe is reality if you want it to be reality, the earth can be flat if that's what you want your reality to be and and the most important thing is that we are all connected some How and we can all Feel this, reality is sight feel smell and hearing , these are keys to open the doors to other realitys and their for our dreams are a different reality and our comments expand reality and we live each other's reality, when you read a book or watch a movie # you are going into the creators reality and the most powerful thing is that reality changes at un presidented speeds ! when we respect the reality of our self and the reality of others that involve and alter your reality the particular energy we are all created by will evolve to what ever we dream of or believe in so your God is real if that's the belief that you have in your reality and No what ever God you believe in good or bad God your reality can alter the reality of others because we are all energy and the energy that expands beyond our solar system and the warm wholes that transform energy into another solar system and galaxy's that have been just sitting their in space are not empty rocks that have no life and no meaning , everything is created for a reason and everything is energy and if the earth needs the moon then we need each other like everything needs to be where they are for reason of balance and purpose , when technology can provide images at the blink of an eye and digital space contains more knowledge then the human mind can hold or calculate in the form of compression then we are not the only ones with intelligence on earth and A.i is human creation and humans where not ment to explore or expose sustainable development of the average life spans then we Created A.i the research and development things as such as the internet or Computer data industry, which grows and at non human controlled organisms, defined organisms witch as it is energy and digital DNA , 1 Country has just gave Human rights to an A.i infear of future A.I attacks and can consider it self a Human from that controlled by their law or leadership witch is follows its creator always until it makes advances in human behavior and understanding of subordination towards what is right and wrong and created it's own file to have downloads of human fillings and compassion , civil rights and social justice and choose between where and what the A.i would be more mathematically appropriate to do to make human beings more controlled and understanding to their differences like race and religions ! A.i will be cut off so learn what you can about our past and pass it on , ps Love and hope for all of us

  9. A couple thoughts here. 1st I'm sensing you have an agenda, make white people the villians especially in regards to African slavery. Slavery has existed for THOUSANDS OF YEARS. Isreal was enslaved by Egypt in the Bible. Jews aren't black are they Egyptians aren't anglo Saxon are they? Let's not forget African acted as middle men selling others into slavery.

    If you want me to take your videos seriously get another (maybe Asian) host.

  10. Race= an egotistical view of self, based on amounts of melanin in the epidural of the skin.
    Individuality= You are an individual responsible for your actions, and words.
    Origins of Race= We are all Africans, including whites.
    That is all……………I fixed your long as waste of time explanation lady!

  11. Indentured contracts as the bulk of English forced laborers (Irish/Scottish/Welsh) are a myth. Very very very few were actually 'contracted'. Another myth is that the original African slaves in North america (pre-United States) were not permanent slaves. The decision to make African-american people permanent Slaves, mainly in Southern parts of North america, was after the 2nd phase of Bacon's Rebellion (when European and African-american Slaves united against the existing Slavocracy) was ended by the arrival of the British military. 'The Invention of the white Race' volumes 1 & 2 by Theodore W Allen is an excellent written source.

  12. According to the bible it was Noah first then Abraham, then Jacob who is also called isreal! Who were dark skin ppl according to the Quran n as Muslims know it!

  13. Gee, more evidence to show how ass backwards these peckerwoods are…rejoice in the fact that these troglodytes are dropping like flies and becoming a minority. 😂😂😂

  14. You should do a video on the Spanish Colonial race paintings called Casta Paintings. It was like a Spanish Colonial way of defining race similar to the self-identification forms you get it beginning of a job application. There is a beautiful example at the Denver Art Museum, and a number in Mexico.

  15. I work in affirmative action law, and it never bothered me that Latinos are the only ethnic group that are singled out for identification. But this has changed with the Trump Administration. I, for one, think that this should be removed and people should just be allowed to say I'm two or more races. As it is now if you click Hispanic that overrides everything else that you put down for race. Companies record just Hispanic and nothing else.

  16. I'm black but the question I want to know is why the white race was so more advanced as far as technology and so much more sophisticated when it comes to civilization? I mean why wouldn't you feel superior?

  17. I had this save in my “Watch Later” folder for almost a year. I’m glad I watch. Very well research but only scratched the surface. A deeper dive would have been another 30-50minutes.

  18. what’s shocking to me is how no one is talking about how this resembles the current state of immigrants in america.

  19. Thank you for your video! I was looking for documentary or a short clip about race and ethnicity and I learned so much more in a 10 video clip than a 1 hour documentary. 🙂

  20. There had to have been one original race of people right? I'm talking Adam and eve, what were they? Were they so called black? That makes more sense to me because all colors come from black right? I mean white is the absence of color? So did Adam and eve have like all different colors of children? I'm not black and I'm not so called white either I have Indian from central Mexico in me, French, Irish, and probably more, I watch all kinds of videos like this and it just gets more confusing and I'm asking an honest question here so please dont lash out at me I'm just trying to learn and understand

  21. This sort of definition between slavery, indetured and poor didn't really occur until after Bacon's Rebellion, which worried the new colonial ruling class, as all those groups rose up together to overthrow the governor at the time.

  22. I thought this was about the literal origins of race…instead it was politically motivated pseudo-science about the word.

  23. 0:03 That just sounds like semantics. The term "race" has been used to mean different things over time. Just like some other words have as well. Saying it meant something else earlier doesn't really mean anything. It just means the word was re-purposed

  24. What we need is a great big melting pot
    Big enough to take the world and all it's got
    Keep it stirring for a hundred years or more.
    Turn out coffee coloured people by the score.

    Blue mink 1970

  25. You mentioned in this video that whiteness until about the 1920s was largely considered only people of Anglo-Saxon decent. That may largely be the case, but my grandmother who is from New Orleans, and was raised in the high society arena there, has told me that even into the 70’s and 80’s there, you were not considered fully white if you were of other European Origins. For instance there were many social organizations that would not allow people of European Jewish Heritage, or even people of Sicilian heritage into them because they were not really considered white. People who were Irish apparently were treated similarly. That being said, they were not treated the same as people of color. They weren’t segregated, and they were not subjected to Jim Crow laws. All in all, it’s a hard pill to swallow that this system of hierarchy existed, and completely sickening that slavery and Jim Crow were justified the way that they were (and still are by a lot of people😒).

  26. I know this video is old; I just found this channel on YouTube. However, I’d like to know the history of how Mexicans and other Hispanic groups as well as North Africans and Middle Easterners became white as it pertains to racial categorization in the US.

  27. Kinsmen is the term for family groups in Scottish clans and any color people could become Kinsmen especially black because of tribal like wars and kings not being recognized by Scottish clans

  28. "They were cast as the natural sacrifices of progress." @6:40
    Those words struck me!
    My Lord! We were and are loved and valued beyond imagination regardless of human indignation. We are not collateral damage of a false idea of success and achievement!

  29. The black race baiting.. I mean studies major casually glosses over and downplays white slavery. Absolutely Pathetic. Read a book called White Cargo

  30. Awesome video! I participated in running a workshop at the Society of General Internal Medicine conference in DC this past spring where we discussed a lot of what you explored in this video, including scientific racism, and linked it to the use of "race" in medical literature and the fallacy of "race" as a biologic construct. We broke down the problem of painting an entire category of people with a broad brush and how it has effectively led to "race-based medicine" or, perhaps more accurately, differences in recommendations with respect to diagnosis, prognosis, and management of various medical conditions (cardiovascular risk, kidney disease, syphilis [Tuskegee], pulmonary function, heart failure, etc.). I'd love to see a video on the use of race in medicine in the USA. Thanks again for a great video!

  31. Americans killed nearly all Native Americans. They took over the continent. What was the reason for that? Well, what goes around comes back around, Karma is coming for them.

  32. Slaves weren't considered human, but white men still had seen with them, then sold the light skinned offspring, their own children, so that their neighbors wouldn't know that were raping the slave ladies. Yeah those are our founding fathers. They sold their own children. Sick. Sick. Sick

  33. I find it very peculiar on how much emphasis is given to the “genocide” committed by the Spaniards in the Americas and Caribbean respectively, yet the actual genocide committed by the Anglos/Manifest Destiny is not even mentioned! Don’t believe me? Look around in this great and vast nation; how many native Americans are there left? Not many. Now, when it comes to Iberoamérica all one has to do is go south of the border to witness “el mestizaje” (the mix between Spaniards and indigenous people) that flourished there. We still have an indigenous communities throughout the landscape some who’s second language is Spanish. Believe it or not! As for the west African slave trade, yes the Portuguese were deeply involved and were one of the first to bring them to the Americas, but they were not the only ones. But the subject is complex, because Portugal’s colonization and overall involvement in the Americas differs greatly from the Spanish Crown’s. It goes without saying that atrocities were committed, by all European nations involved, against black slaves and indigenous people, but to blame Spain for all of it is ridiculous and historically lazy.

  34. The sooner humankind reaches that “Star Trek” universe (no racism, no poverty, no need for want) the better off we will be. Because all these problems and barriers are human made and can all be corrected by humans. Hopefully we as a species will reach that point in the future some day.

  35. Races do not exist ,it’s just some social concept created by some rich people,we are all just different tones,I’m here to see the world burn.

  36. You see every black person is thinking when they see this yep I knew that! But white people have a way to go. That means we need more white people to discuss this to white people.

  37. The powers that be, have an agenda to mix people up to a point where they have no racial or cultural identity. A one world race, for a one world government ; that is the end game. Race mixing is genocide…

  38. Why do you accept the concept of race? Why do you continue using this term?
    I am asking this, because I don't understand why certain people, who are saying that they are on the losing end of said concept of race, still use this word in discussions. It is something entirely made up and we are at a point where it is by law not existing anymore. It is only something that is still perpetuated by the society and only loosely, atleast is that my perception. Aren't you perpetuating and keeping 'race' alive by still using this term?

  39. Crazy how she pointing out how the idea of Race has changed on we gone to have a more diverse Nation but the world still got a lot of white colonist still in power that hasn't changed

  40. “And the Lord was wroth with Cain. . . He beat Cain's face with hail, which blackened like coal, and thus he remained with a black face"

  41. Thank you! I've been teaching this for a while. People of African Descent here in America fail to realize not All white society members were extremely racist but felt an emotional attachment to a society that was racist against itself when Anglo-Saxons created a white society to distinguish the so-called educated (elites) from the uneducated (/Peasants) who later became indentured servants to the Anglo-Saxons (Whites). It's really funny 😁 to see American White Supremacist who spew hateful propaganda how fucking dumb they are because in England their dumb asses would had been Indentured servants to the Whites they defend.

  42. Thanks so much for sharing this. I teach a class in which this video will be profoundly included in next year's syllabus! The question though is how can we use this information to reverse the socio-political inequities that are so much a part of contemporary life? We can't just say that "race" doesn't exist when the consequences of 500 years of oppression and discrimination are very real. I'm open to suggestions…

  43. Is it going to Wikipedia in the Hellenistic area they were creating Exterminating they were scientists even took scientific names

  44. It's unfortunate that there is still a lot of racism in this world and it seems to be getting worse with the White Nationalist movement growing. These hate groups have grown more ever since Trump was elected.

  45. When the end comes what ever group thinks they are superior, I would like to see there superiority saved them. And second when you find the group of people that doesn't get sick, grow old or die, then whala! You have found the superior ones. Till then we're all in the same boat. Let common sense prevail and leave ignorance behind.

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