The Cold War – summary of main stages of conflict


During the second half of the 20th century, the world’s two major powers were engaged in a face-off without direct confrontation for almost 45 years. Let’s trace on a map the chain of events that
shaped the Cold War. At the end of World War II, major European powers are weakened after more than 60 million deaths over 6 years of fighting. Two superpowers remain in the world: the United
States of America and the USSR, who fought together as allies to defeat Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan. The USSR or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a vast area covering one-sixth of the land surface of the planet. It is a federal state under a communist regime,
consisting of 15 republics and headed by a single party. The United States of America is a liberal
democracy based on capitalism. It has a military edge being the only power
with nuclear weapons, and also boasts the world’s strongest industry and economy. Both powers try to peddle their influence
In Europe. The US, under its Marshall Plan, offers substantial loans to European countries to revive the economy and establish trade links. The USSR, for its part, wants to protect its borders and set up pro-Soviet governments in liberated countries. Europe is found divided into two blocks and
separated by what is called the Iron Curtain. In Germany, allies merge territories they control, in violation of agreements signed with the Soviets. In response, the Soviet Union imposes a blockade
on West Berlin, which is still under allied control. An airlift is set up to bring supplies to
the area. Henceforth, both powers harbour a fear of the other. On both sides begins a witch hunt. In the United States, federal employees sympathetic
to Communist ideas are fired. Even Hollywood is used as a tool to produce
anti-communist propaganda. In the USSR, any form of opposition is suppressed. Beyond ideology and clout, the two powers battle for influence in the fields of science, industry, space, sports and military. The Soviet Union invests heavily in industry
and arms, and in 1949 tests its first atomic bomb. The same year, the United States sets up NATO, a military alliance between countries of the Western bloc. Throughout the Cold War, there would be many indirect confrontations between the two powers and their allies. The first one takes place in Greece where
a rebel communist militia from the Second World War, supported by the Soviets and armed
by Yugoslavia, enters into a civil war against the traditional monarchist party, supported and financed by Britain and then the United States. However, following tensions, the USSR breaks
its alliance with Yugoslavia. As a result, Greek communists lose vital support
and are forced to lay down their arms. Greece then becomes part of the Western bloc. In China, after 3 years of civil war, the communists prevail over the nationalists who retreat to Taiwan. The USSR wins an important ally in the region
that would influence two wars in particular. The first was fighting alongside Communist
North Korea against South Korea, which was supported by a United Nations-led international force directed by the United States. After 3 years of fighting, a ceasefire leaves
the Korean peninsula divided in two. China also intervenes in French Indochina
where it supports a rebel communist militia against France, which after struggling to regain control of its former colony, is forced to leave the region. Vietnam is divided in two at the 17th parallel,
with communists in the north and nationalists in the south supported by the United States. This marks the beginning of the Vietnam War. In response to NATO, the USSR organizes its
own military alliance through the Warsaw Pact. The following year, France and Britain unites
with Israel in a surprise war against Egypt to regain control of the Suez Canal. The United States and the USSR oppose this
attack and quickly impose a ceasefire, marking the end of European dominance in the region
to the benefit of the USSR. The Soviet Union, which has now caught up
in military and industrial technology, installs hundreds of long-range missiles pointed at
Western Europe. In response, the US points its missiles towards
Soviet territories. Following disagreements, China breaks its
alliance with the USSR, as the country aims to distance itself and become a new world power. On the other hand, many countries break with
the two main camps and choose to remain neutral by creating the Non-Aligned Movement. In Latin America, the United States plays
its part to ensure no room for communism. But the country fails to militarily overthrow
the new communist government in Cuba. The USSR takes advantage of the American failure
to diplomatically influence Cuba. Soldiers and Soviet military ships are sent
to the island and missiles are installed and pointed at the United States. Tensions build to a point where the marine forces of both sides get ready to face off against each other. The whole world holds its breath and many
countries prepare for an eventual World War III. But after negotiations, the USSR agrees to
withdraw and remove its military facilities if in return the US promises not to attack
Cuba and removes its missiles in Europe. This deescalates the situation. In Vietnam, the United States fearing a Communist takeover of the south, organizes a military invasion with more than half a million soldiers. The decision antagonizes France, which prefers
to find a peaceful solution. France decides to distance itself from the
increasingly assertive United States and leaves NATO. In 1975, communists win the war, inflicting a heavy defeat for the United States, whose image is tarnished globally. The USSR took this opportunity to revive its
political influence in the world. On the one hand, it supports communist militias in Africa which takes over power in newly independent countries. On the other hand, the country sends its army
to Afghanistan in support of the Communist regime fighting the Mujahideen, a group of Islamists supported and funded, among others, by the United States. The USSR also upgrades and replaces its missiles directed towards Europe with more precise ones. This marks the beginning of the Euromissile crisis which threatens Europe and pushes the United States to install new missiles of its own. This sparks an arms race, with the USSR investing
up to 14% of its gross national product on the cause. The Soviet Union begins to run out of money. At the height of the crisis, it tries to implement
economic reforms but to no avail. The two global powers eventually meet to begin
disarmament negotiations. The USSR withdraws from Afghanistan and stops
funding communist militias in Africa. It attempts to open up to reforms and boost transparency, but it is already too late for the Soviets who can no longer quell multiple revolts. The Berlin Wall is destroyed and Germany is reunited. In 1991, the USSR implodes, and the 15 republics
become independent states, marking the end of the Cold War.




Comments
  1. USA and America were allies during the cold war only the media and government made up lies so they could spend money and both build their armies without anyone asking questions

  2. France never withdrew from NATO, they're still in it to this day, they simply withdrew from NATO's integrated military command.

  3. Good video. Can't mention everything due to time constraints, but I would note nuclear submarines and Star Wars as big military factors that gave the US the edge and pushed the USSR past the brink.

  4. Um America is literally a constitutional Republic. Not a “liberal Democracy” says a lot about the synopsis within the first minute.

  5. Over all well balanced but do you realize that you still have Sakhalin island and the Kurlin islands as part of the Japan I notice this in the 51 to 53 map and the 61 map.

  6. If PRC didn't break up with USSR, Soviet won t have to deploy 1 and half million well preapred troops accorss the border with China.

  7. Why does no one count eastern austria as soviet, I mean they invaded it and it was under soviet control for years

  8. You had a "crimes against humanity" segment in your WWII video, but somehow you leave out the USSR's gulags which worked to death and executed far more than Hitler and the Japanese's genocides combined. Was this intentionally left out, or do tens of millions dead not get even a foot note?

    The stats vary, as governments tend not to care about exact documentation of their genocides. It's estimated Stalin's Soviet Union is responsible for up to 60M dead, though probably closer to half that (still over 3x Hitler's concentration camps). Mao Zedong's regime is anywhere between 40M to 100M. By comparison, the ENTIRE death toll of WWII was 60M, and that includes soldiers in open warfare.

    So again, how do you talk about the Cold War and NOT mention that during that time period the damned communists murdered more people than all of WWII?! Even the conservative estimate of 40M murdered by the communists is still staggeringly high when you consider out of WWII's 60M, up to 25M of those dead were soldiers with the means to fight. Nearly all the murdered people of the cold war were civilians, yet historians seem to skirt around this ugly truth about communism/socialism.

  9. You forgot to say about the Greek civil war that the democratic party of Greece defeat the communist party of Greece and this is the reason for why Greece was with NATO

  10. The world is just a damn dust compare to the universe. And over 10000 years of humanity history, people just killing each others for same reasons over and over again from land, money, resource,… and religion. After they run out thing to kill for, they created ideas to believe in and killing again. WTF wrong with you peoples ? You idots just keep sitting and typing key board, arguing capitalism/ communism is good or bad? You fucker keep creating hater for yourself, just stop and think about your children and their grand children will they have to suffer for your hater?

  11. USSR did noy withdraw from Afghanistan. It made to do so by the Talibans supported by Pakistan and USA. After a decade, same Taliban became nightmare for USA and it started war against them and lost heavily even after having military/technological and economical edge over taliban.

  12. Okay 1 united states did not lose the Vietnam war they removed its troops from it cause south Vietnam to fall that's what happened.

  13. To be honest, it was the USSR and all it's banana states that retreated from the Warsaw Pact. After the death of Stalin, Khrushchev started making revisionist reforms and these were not accepted by the strictly Lenininst-Stalinist China, Albania and Cuba. China did the same some time later and Albania remained the only "communist" country in Europe until the fall of Ramiz Aliza 1990-1992.

  14. Please make another video about all the "minor stages" of conflict. You should mention all the proxy wars the US funded, the dictatorships it supported, the coups it organized, the dictators it installed and the elected leaders it assassinated or overthrew. They wreaked havoc in Africa, Asia and South America by helping fascists murder people, from Batista to Trujillo, from Pinochet to the Contras, from Reza Pahlavi to Suharto, from Noriega to Chung-Hee and so on and so forth…

  15. You‘re wrong,democracy is the sign of USSR,western countries only say they are liberty before USSR collapsed,western countries stole democracy from USSR

  16. The funniest thing about this video is the no mention of how the US financed the whole USSR industry from 1917 up until the breakdown of USSR. For example, providing the communist regime with tools and machines to manufacture and mass-produce precision ball bearings for missiles besides which they would never, ever had been able to make just one missile during the missile crisis. The list of American know-how support, export of technology, direct assistance to build factories during the whole Cold War is endless. And one thing more: The communist revolution in 1917 was financed and controlled by western powers, especially the United States. Look up the historian Antony C. Sutton from Stanford University. Then you will know that this is the truth. Begin on Wikipedia, then go to Youtube and watch interviews with Sutton. From there go on to read his books. They are all available for free in pdf form (see his bibliography on Wiki). If you do your research you will come to the conclusion that the Cold War was a totally fake, fabricated conflict.

  17. European well being was pushed as a deterrence in order that the population didn't embrace the communism. Now USSR is gone and there is no motivation for the elites to hold and finance this well being. We are witness of the deterioration and end of the well being in europe. But the European dumpasses don't realize of this.

  18. This mother fucker forgot the indo pak war of liberation of Bangladesh or east pak. The Russian saved them and it almost started a world war

  19. 1:59 – 2:01

    ”You came down to this southern town last summer-“

    (Edit: the quote came from this —> https://youtu.be/0XxYwWg7F8I )

  20. Might've been a good idea to also talk about Chernobyl. Chernobyl, for anyone who is unaware, was the largest civilian nuclear disaster in history. Radioactive fallout from the explosion in Pripyat was able to travel all the way to New Jersey, and hundreds of thousands died from Radiation Poisoning. The key thing about this, however, was that, because of how much the USSR tried to cover it up, it ultimately became a factor in the breakup of the USSR.

  21. This was when war became a joke. Maybe we should give intense socialism (communism) a chance. It could be earth's saving grace. Healthcare, good affordable housing, good infrastructure, healthy food, education, and land/resource management for everyone. Innovators can be rewarded perks here and there like a house a top a hill, a great ocean view, a leadership position, maybe a tax incentive, a rare adventure, etc. Pretty much capitalism without the criminals. and just to be fare to everyone have lottery system for the unlucky ones.

  22. … Another mistake

    In the 1980‘s, Yugoslavia was still Communist (SFR Yugoslavia) and wasnt in the Eastern Block from 1948 (TSS)

    That alliance slowly broke apart and the Soviets did have a secret invasion plan of SFRY, Albania and Greece (Tito-Stalin Split in 1948)

    The leaders of SFRY were against the Soviets and they saw it as an opportunity to set up a powerfull COM state in the south.

  23. MAJOR Issue. The U.S. is a Republic, Not a democracy! Guess I shouldn't be too harsh since many citizens are confused as well!

  24. They keep saying that the image of the US was tarnished after the Vietnam war, I don’t see how. All countries have lost wars at some point in history and it seems that the USA gets grilles the most over it. You could count on one hand how many wars they’ve actually lost. The US was fighting a mainly defensive war against the north and didn’t want to escalate tensions with the Soviets.

  25. Us: Hey USSR your bad you stupid kid
    USSR: no u
    Us:Fight me idiot
    USSR: Plays soviet music
    Us: still wins
    USSR: Dies
    Us: Spits and pees on USSR's Body
    USA WON!!!!!

  26. Hey woah wait. American presence in FRENCH Indochina did not allow the French an ideological disagreement to leave. They just fled. They had no moral highground as a colonial power. The narrator is dumb of history.

  27. Hitler wanted to invade Switzerland but Nazi generals had there wealth hidden there paintings ,money and gold that was stolen from Jews that’s how Soros made his millions

  28. Alexander’s empire fell apart somewhere on art , so does Soviet and British , 3 most powerful empires of the time fell apart in the same place on art , so COINCIDENCE. That place is called the graveyard of empires .

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