Systems scientist | Wikipedia audio article


Systems science is an interdisciplinary field
that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition,
engineering, technology and science itself. To systems scientists, the world can be understood
as a system of systems. The field aims to develop interdisciplinary
foundations that are applicable in a variety of areas, such as psychology, biology, medicine,
communication, business management, engineering, and social sciences.Systems science covers
formal sciences such as complex systems, cybernetics, dynamical systems theory, information theory,
linguistics or systems theory. It has applications in the field of the natural
and social sciences and engineering, such as control theory, operations research, social
systems theory, systems biology, system dynamics, human factors, systems ecology, systems engineering
and systems psychology. Themes commonly stressed in system science
are (a) holistic view, (b) interaction between a system and its embedding environment, and
(c) complex (often subtle) trajectories of dynamic behavior that sometimes are stable
(and thus reinforcing), while at various ‘boundary conditions’ can become wildly unstable (and
thus destructive). Concerns about Earth-scale biosphere/geosphere
dynamics is an example of the nature of problems to which systems science seeks to contribute
meaningful insights.==Theories==
Since the emergence of general systems research in the 1950s, systems thinking and systems
science have developed into many theoretical frameworks. Systems analysis
Systems analysis is the branch of systems science that analyzes systems, the interactions
within those systems, and/or interaction with its environment, often prior to their automation
as computer models. This field is closely related to operations
research. Systems design
Systems design is the process of “establishing and specifying the optimum system component
configuration for achieving specific goal or objective.” For example in computing, systems design can
define the hardware and systems architecture which includes many sub-architectures including
software architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data, as well as security,
information, and others, for a computer system to satisfy specified requirements. System dynamics
System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behavior of complex systems over time. It offers “simulation technique for modeling
business and social systems,” which deals with internal feedback loops and time delays
that affect the behavior of the entire system. What makes using system dynamics different
from other approaches to studying complex systems is the use of feedback loops and stocks
and flows. Systems engineering
Systems engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary field of engineering, that focuses on the
development and organization of complex systems. It is the “art and science of creating whole
solutions to complex problems,” for example: signal processing systems, control systems
and communication system, or other forms of high-level modelling and design in specific
fields of engineering. Systems methodologies
There are several types of Systems Methodologies, that is, disciplines for analysis of systems. For example:
Soft systems methodology (SSM) : in the field of organizational studies is an approach to
organisational process modelling, and it can be used both for general problem solving and
in the management of change. It was developed in England by academics at
the University of Lancaster Systems Department through a ten-year Action Research programme. System development methodology (SDM) in the
field of IT development is a variety of structured, organized processes for developing information
technology and embedded software systems. Viable systems approach (vSa) is a methodology
useful for the understanding and governance of complex phenomena; it has been successfully
proposed in the field of management, decision making, marketing and service.Systems theories
Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field that studies complex systems in nature, society,
and science. More specifically, it is a conceptual framework
by which one can analyze and/or describe any group of objects that work in concert to produce
some result. Systems science
Systems sciences are scientific disciplines partly based on systems thinking such as chaos
theory, complex systems, control theory, cybernetics, sociotechnical systems theory, systems biology,
systems chemistry, systems ecology, systems psychology and the already mentioned systems
dynamics, systems engineering, and systems theory.==Fields==
Systems sciences cover formal sciences like dynamical systems theory and applications
in the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as social systems theory and system dynamics.==Systems scientists==General systems scientists can be divided
into different generations. The founders of the systems movement like
Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, James Grier Miller, George J.
Klir, and Anatol Rapoport were all born between 1900 and 1920. They all came from different natural and social
science disciplines and joined forces in the 1950s to establish the general systems theory
paradigm. Along with the organization of their efforts
a first generation of systems scientists rose. Among them were other scientists like Ackoff,
Ashby, Margaret Mead and Churchman, who popularized the systems concept in the 1950s and 1960s. These scientists inspired and educated a second
generation with more notable scientists like Ervin Laszlo (1932) and Fritjof Capra (1939),
who wrote about systems theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Others got acquainted and started studying
these works in the 1980s and started writing about it since the 1990s. Debora Hammond can be seen as a typical representative
of these third generation of general systems scientists.==Organizations==The International Society for the Systems
Sciences (ISSS) is an organisation for interdisciplinary collaboration and synthesis of systems sciences. The ISSS is unique among systems-oriented
institutions in terms of the breadth of its scope, bringing together scholars and practitioners
from academic, business, government, and non-profit organizations. Based on fifty years of tremendous interdisciplinary
research from the scientific study of complex systems to interactive approaches in management
and community development. This society was initially conceived in 1954
at the Stanford Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences by Ludwig von Bertalanffy,
Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, and Anatol Rapoport. In the field of systems science the International
Federation for Systems Research (IFSR) is an international federation for global and
local societies in the field of systems science. This federation is a non-profit, scientific
and educational agency founded in 1981, and constituted of some thirty member organizations
from various countries. The overall purpose of this Federation is
to advance cybernetic and systems research and systems applications and to serve the
international systems community. The best known research institute in the field
is the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) located in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, dedicated
to the study of complex systems. This institute was founded in 1984 by George
Cowan, David Pines, Stirling Colgate, Murray Gell-Mann, Nick Metropolis, Herb Anderson,
Peter A. Carruthers, and Richard Slansky. All but Pines and Gell-Mann were scientists
with Los Alamos National Laboratory. SFI’s original mission was to disseminate
the notion of a separate interdisciplinary research area, complexity theory referred
to at SFI as complexity science. Recently, IIT Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India
started inculcating system science and engineering to its students through Bachelors, Masters
and Doctorate programs. This makes it the first institution to offer
system science education to students in India.==See also




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