Socialism in Europe and The Russian Revolution



socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution the French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the way in which society was structured not everyone in Europe wanted a transformation of society some were known as conservatives others were liberals or radicals liberals they wanted a nation which tolerated all religions they argued for an elected parliamentary government subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials but they were not Democrats radicals they wanted a nation in which government was based on the majority of a country's population they disliked concentration of property in hands of a few not the existence of private property many supported women's suffragette movements conservatives they had been generally opposed to the idea of change they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process the Industrial Revolution it was a time when new cities came up new industrialized regions developed and railways expanded industrialization brought men women and children to factories long work hours low wages and unemployment were common housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing rapidly economy and society most of the Russian population were agriculturalists industries were being set up which was mostly private property of industrialists workers were divided into groups but they get United to strike work when they were dissatisfied Russian peasants were the only peasant community which pooled their land and their commune divided it socialism in Russia all political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914 the Russian socialist Democratic Labour Party was formed in 1900 it struggled to give peasants their rights over land that belonged to Nobles as land was divided among peasants periodically and it was felt that peasants and not workers would be the main source of the revolution but Lenin did not agree with this as he felt that peasants were not one social group the party was divided into Bolsheviks and mensheviks the 1905 revolution Russia was an autocracy there was not subject to the Parliament liberals wanted to end this state of affairs they work towards demanding a constitution during the revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday prices of essential goods rose so quickly by 1904 that the real wage is declined by 20% during this time for members of the putti la vie and works were dismissed action was called for over 110,000 workers in st. Petersburg went on strike demanding a reduction in working hours and increase in wages this procession was attacked by the police and Cossacks the First World War and the Russian Empire in Russia the war was initially very popular but lay to the support-group thin anti-german sentiments ran high Russian armies lost badly in Germany and Austria there were 7 million casualties and 3 million refugees in Russia the war also affected the industry there was labor shortage railway lines were shut down and small workshops were closed down there was shortage of grain and hence of bread a February revolution in the winter of 1917 Petrograd was grim there was food shortage in the workers quarters on the 22nd of February a lockout took place at a factory workers of 50 other factories joined in sympathy women also led and participated in the strikes this came to be called the International Women's Day regiments that mutinied and voted to join the striking workers gathered to form a council this was the Petrograd Soviet a delegation went to meet bizarre military commanders advised him to abdicate their czar abdicated on 2nd March a provincial government was formed by the Soviet and Duma leaders to run the country the people involved were the parliamentarians workers women workers soldiers and military commanders effect of the February Revolution restrictions on public meetings and associations were removed soviets were set up everywhere in individual areas factory committees were formed which began questioning the way industrialists ran their factories soldiers committees were formed in the army the provisional government saw its power declining and Bolshevik influence grow it decided to take stern measures against the spreading discontent it resisted attempts by workers to run factories and arrested leaders peasants and the socialist revolutionary leaders pressed for a redistribution of land land committees were formed and peasants seized land between July and September 1917 the October Revolution on 16th of October 1917 Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and Bolshevik party to agree to a socialist seizure of power a military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet to organize seizure the uprising began on 24th October Prime Minister ear and sky left the city to summon troops military men loyal to the government seized the buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace in response military Revolutionary Committee ordered to cease government offices and arrest the ministers the Aurora ship shelled the Winter Palace other ships took over strategic points by night the city had been taken over and ministers had surrendered all Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd approved the Bolshevik action heavy fighting in Moscow by December the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow Petrograd area the people involved were Lenin the Bolsheviks and troops pro-government effects of the October Revolution most of the industries and banks were nationalized in November 1917 dot the land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility use of old titles was banned new uniforms were designed for the army and officials Russia became a one-party state trade unions were kept under party control a process of centralized planning was introduced this led to economic growth industrial production increased an extended schooling system developed collectivization of farms started the civil war when the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution the Russian army began to break up non Bolshevik socialists liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising they were supported by French American British and Japanese troops all these fought a war with the bolsheviks making a socialist society the Bolsheviks kept industries and banks nationalized during the Civil War a process of centralized planning was introduced rapid construction and industrialization started an extended schooling system developed darling and collective farming Stalin believed that rich peasants and traders stocked supplies to create a shortage of grains hence collectivization was the need of the hour this system would also help to modernize farms those farmers who resisted collectivization were punished deported or exiled global influence by the 1950s it was recognized in the country and outside that everything was not in keeping with the ideals of the Russian Revolution though its industries and agriculture had developed and the poor were being fed the essential freedom to its citizens was being denied however it was recognized that social ideals still enjoyed respect among the Russians but in each country the ideas of socialism were rethought in a variety of different ways




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