Social Hierarchies: Russian Social Classes

hello there people in YouTube land welcome to world history with mr. sin so today we're gonna be talking about social hierarchy in Russia and I am NOT going to talk like this the entire time because this would be very boring for you so without further ado let's get into Russia where we're gonna be talking about a variety of different things from the Czar to the Communists to revolution all that fun stuff so starting off with Rush of what we're gonna be talking about is Tsar Nicholas now there's many czars before Czar Nicholas and Czar Nicholas actually is Russia's last czar but we just don't have time for the class to go into all of Russian history so we're kind of starting here and then we're gonna kind of continue on and we will be coming back to Russia throughout our course so Russia and essentially what is ours it's just kind of a monarch rule the Czar is in charge of Russia and at this time Czar Nicholas is the one who is the Czar now the Czar Nicholas was seen as kind of a weak ruler people didn't have as much respect for him as they did for others are so we have that as have an uphill battle another thing that's our Nicholas had that really was hurting him was that Russia was changing it was going through rapid expansion with that we have a lot of different growing pains whenever a society expands very fast and we're not just talking population size here but infrastructure work all these different things social hierarchy actually as well is all changing under Czar Nicholas and that's causing tension throughout Russia so Russia has poor infrastructure during this time they're struggling with famine there's crime there's poverty and all of this is happening under Tsar Nicholas now it wasn't all of his faults a lot of this he kind of inherited but he wasn't good at really fixing in in these problems so things kind of kept festering and growing which causes more conflict so Russia while the Tsar was in control have been going through industrialization this switch from agrarian lifestyle rural farmers to urban so everyone's starting to move to the cities factory jobs are starting to become more prominent less people want to be on a rural farm and more wine to be in this city so we're seeing a lot of changes happen and right there because Russia had kind of a feudal system before this already starts to change the social hierarchy because it creates kind of two new classes the booze wah G which is a fun awesome word to say or you could call it the booze wah so the rise of the bourgeois which is essentially for us today to be in the middle class for them back there that's the upper class that's the people who are owning the factories the people who are in charge of all these things though wealthy you could say and then we have the proletariat which is the working class the poor they're not the serfs that we've talked about before they're not peasants they have jobs but they're the ones who are working in the factories they're doing all of the manual labor they're doing the hard work and along with all of this happening we need more education because with more people now with her industrialization going to urban cities working in these factories education starts to become very important and a lot of people in Russia lacked education so we're starting to see it shift there as well and so a lot of times people are starting to now move peasants are leaving their farms leaving their rural communities going to the cities and that's because of lack of food although in the cities there still was a lack of food but at least they had a more stable job so Russia your Czar Nicholas right here nice picture pretty intense man but living conditions in these cities that everyone was merging to and moving to migrating we're not good to say the least the work was very dangerous there wasn't protection for workers a lot of the people lacked the skills that they actually needed to work these factory jobs although the bourgeoisie were in charge room didn't really care they would hire you anyways because if you got hurt let's say you got an arm cut off while you were working today in society there's workman's comp there's all these different things to protect him ploy and to him protect the company back here though there was nothing nothing to protect the employee so let's say you got your arm cut off because it got caught in the machine and it got ripped off you would probably just get fired and they would replace you because there's plenty of people that wanted to work so that was kind of what was going on people are being very frustrated they're getting frustrated with this they getting tired of being treated poorly they're tired of the poverty and the famine and all this started to kind of calm you late in two strikes and riots and people started to revolt and they wanted better conditions now during this time Russia for at least the global standpoint with the world was feared Russia is a huge country and a lot of people other nations were afraid that fighting against Russia meant all these Russian people were gonna come after them in this Grand Army the reality was though because of all these things happening under Tsar Nicholas Russia was still a pretty kind of medieval nation you could say they weren't that developed they were just starting to get industrialization they didn't have a strong military force that could go out globally and could conquer other countries and the Czar during this time was an autocrat so this is important to understand because essentially what this meant was the Tsar what he said goes you could think of it kind of as a dictator so the government it was controlled everything was controlled by the Tsar so autocrat means a ruler who has absolute power even the smallest decisions I might not even be that important he was our Nicholas ultimately had to approve and say so it's very inefficient and took a long time and also you could do kind of whatever he wanted so under Tsar Nicholas this is kind of our social structure that we have or the social hierarchy that we have in Russia now for our tests and everything you don't have to remember any of the percentages or stuff like that where do we focus more on the concepts but this is kind of what was going on yet the Tsar you're having the people govern from the Army the church you will have eventually the people on the bottom and you have down here the proletariat's and the serfs this is a whole breakdown so Tsar Nichols you can see the urban workers these are people who are starting to switch over due to industrialization is not high still the majority of the people are serfs so the majority the people are doing all of the farming and all that stuff this continues to change under Tsar Nicholas more and more people start going into urban lifestyle going into these factories so let's look at the autocratic system how Russia was kind of ruled and what was going on so political oppression was rampant throughout all of Russia the Tsar did not allow any other political parties no one could even openly express so freedom of speech doesn't exist your beliefs if you didn't like what the Tsar was doing you had to keep that to yourself if you said that in public you might be getting arrested you might be getting taken out you might something's going to be happening to you that wasn't allowed censorship was everywhere there was no freedom of the press media was controlled books there's a lot of strict things with even books that were allowed and not allowed Western ideas were completely banned the Tsar did not want anyone in Russia to get influenced by the West he saw that's a very negative thing that would lead to the downfall of Russia serfdom so a lot of people as we saw in our last slide about 83% we can do a quick fact check Oh 84.9% little off there so eighty four point nine percent of people are in serfdom they're SERPs and this is that whole system where they're tied to the land and so the Tsar ultimately was in complete power these people so the majority of Russians had no personal freedoms at all even though this system kind of died out in Europe it still existed in Russia that's why really where I was kind of a medieval nation Russia was still operating on very old ideas where Europe had started to go in a very different direction for their government and also leadership czars and Russia still kind of back in the 17th century instead of the 19th century and the church the church is a very interesting thing with Russia we're not going to go too much into it but the russian orthodox church essentially closes this gap between God and the Czar their goal was to promote that the Tsar is the head of the church the church is taught that God commands us to obey the Tsar and the church gave hope to everyone at the bottom of the social hierarchy so all these people who are in serfdom and everything it provided hope that there was a better life so that they would not revolt and they would not strike and get upset so it's kind of a nice thing that the church did backing up and supporting the Tsar ultimately though their goal was to make sure that people follow the czar I kind of contained the kept the status quo couple other things too which are interesting with the autocratic system and the Czar is the army was completely loyal to those are now in the United States you might think our army is here because it's to protect the people so one person in our government couldn't order the army to come in and kidnap people in the middle of the night or they couldn't order the army to just take over a city because the army would refuse they're loyal to the American people they're protecting the United States the president is the commander in chief and does have a lot of power over the army but ultimately they're here to protect the United States the army for the Czar was different they were loyal to the Czar and they would go against the Russian people they would put down any rebellions any thing that would a strike anything that's going against the government or anything that the Czar wanted the Czar had ultimate control of the army and they were loyal to the Czar not to the Russian people with all of the stuff going on Russia and with the Czar being an autocrat through the autocratic system the Czar has lots of land that he's trying to take care of so a lot of these different things what he did is he had people in charge of different areas but he promoted them with nobility and they used were people that he trusted and ultimately they still had to report to him so the people he reported and he hired got known for corruption they delayed things they're very inefficient this bureaucracy system that he had set up just didn't really work well but it kept him in power and kept him as ultimately in control he also used secret police these were to kind of check on political opponents to crack down on people if he needed if he heard rumors of certain communities that were starting to talk against him he could send the secret police in to kind of attack them and take him out and interrogate him so all of this system was done and what it was kind of developed for was to keep Russia together to keep the Tsar in power to crack down on anything that would threaten this and the Tsar I mean you know legal autocratic absolute power and ruler and this is all what's going on during Tsar Nicholas and to the Russian people and this is ultimately what leads to this change in the social hierarchy so we have a couple different forces for change happening here and we also have some forces that are keeping continuity keeping the same Russia so with education being needed mile this led to a higher increase in literacy rate which meant more people could understand what was going on they knew that what they were being told wasn't always true they needed education for their new jobs in the cities and with education they started thinking more they had critical thinking they said hey I don't want to be treated like this no this isn't right this doesn't make sense why is this happening with that then we start seeing revolutionary ideas trying to spread they wanted to change the status quo they didn't want this to be the same anymore and that's start to become a popular mainstream idea that they were having secret meetings and trying to avoid the Tsar but all this stuff started to happen eventually to with more and more people coming in to urbanization into the cities the middle class started to grow people start to get more money they start to get more resources they started to not live in just absolute poverty and could accomplish more an industrialization helped lead all of this ultimately to war especially world war one which we'll get into in a little bit was the kind of tipping point that led Russia to revolution to go against the Tsar now there's all these things are great things that were helping kind of start change but we also have a bunch of stuff that was keeping everything the same and they were powerful things as well so there's a kind of a balancing act so the majority of people were illiterate still even though education was on the rise more people were being educated a lot of people they couldn't read they couldn't write so they just would accept whatever they were told as the news because that's all they could do we also have a lot of censorship so the information that was getting out was not correct even for the education and the schools it was not an unbiased source you're not being taught both sides you're being taught what the Tsar wanted you to know so they were trying to control what the people thought by controlling what the people say even though also the middle class was growing they were still pretty weak they didn't have a lot of money they didn't have a lot of things and so they're still trying to grow and become more popular and be able to eventually hopefully rise up they still weren't able to do that military as well was very poor not the army actually but this is any leadership within the people because anyone who had military experience or experience with the army was in the army and they were loyal to the Czar so they would not be supporting this revolution so even with this industrialization development the majority people didn't have any leadership skills with military and then a lot of people like we talked about before the majority Russians are still in serfdom which means they're bound to the land they don't have any resources they don't have anything they're connected to the land and all they can do is work so this was the stuff that's kind of keeping everything the same in Russia so kind of a quick recap of what's going on because now Russia is about to see some dramatic changes with the industrialization and the class structure and it's gonna kind of flip everything over industrialization these are the things that led to all these changes in this class structure the rise of the booze Raji so these middle classes we know them today or for that maybe the upper class and they were the ones eventually they wanted more say in government they had gotten a lot of money through this system through working the factories through owning them so they wanted more power they have money now they're educated they are not accepting the system anymore they want change the proletariat the working class they want to change they wanted to be treated better by the bourgeoisie they wanted to also have a say they started to get some money they were tired and frustrated of working so many hours and being treated so poorly and they wanted a revolution for them and all of this still we have that stronger educated workforce which as more people got educated more people were able to express their frustration more people were able to organize against the Tsar and this started helping and supporting these revolutionary idea so the population became very unhappy with the Czar the living and working conditions were so poor the strikes that workers were having often were met with the army coming in and deadly force and violence which further frustrated the Russian people because they were rejecting the Czar and were upset that he was attacking his own people and still even with more people working famine was rampant poverty was at a food was hard to get and so this also was pushing people to kind of the brain key breaking point so we have World War one that happens now and we're not gonna go that much into World War one we will at a later date in the class but we have all these different things building up its building and building this tension all this conflict and then we have World War one so during World War one the Russian armies they suffered a lot they did not do well I mean they got their butts kicked in World War one they got defeated and if he did and defeated and it wasn't looking good and this was frustrating the Russian people so Russia entered as kind of partner of agreement to back siberia and also kind of in this war with Austria what happened the first time the Russians fought they lost 95,000 people to being captured and 30,000 soldiers were killed they didn't it didn't go well the Czar wasn't happy the Russian people weren't happy the Russian army was constantly retreating Tsar Nicholas eventually he decided what needed to be done was to lead the Russian troops he needed to go there so he left Russia he went into the battle so on this picture on the bottom left right here this is the Czar kind of talking to the troops before they went in kind of give me a pep talk so hopefully they would win this ultimately becomes the Tsar's biggest mistake because they will lead to the downfall of Tsar Nicholas because what happens is Russia still loses over and over again and now the Tsar is personally responsible for it the Russian people and the army lose all trust in him because they see oh he can't lead we're still losing whereas before he could blame it on the generals or blame it on the situations but now that he was personally leading it he is blamed and seen as the reason why they lost and this changes everything for the relationship there so in the end when after later on with world war one as a continued the Tsar and his family when the Tsar went back to Russia they end up being killed by the Russian people we have a revolution and the social hierarchy that has been in place for so long is about to just get changed flipped upside down almost so the Communist Party is what starts this movement and ultimately is what is going to end to the czars downfall so this is the kind of opposition to the Tsar that started to grow especially when he was out fighting and one of the biggest around Kenya and all the different political parties that tried to take out the Tsar we're just gonna get it coming to the Communists because they were the biggest ones so they believed the communists and the idea of Karl Marx and we're gonna get into what communist is in just a minute so communism but all of it was focused on the struggle between social classes which resonated with the Russian people because remember the bougie we have the proletariat we have the army everyone is divided everyone has one everyone's struggling in different ways but everyone feels cheated by the other and so there's a lot of tension so this led to a support of the Communists so Marx claimed Karl Marx the father the founder of communism that the capitalist system the feudal system all of these different systems that pit people against each other they're not fair because ultimately the pooja-ji are going to make all the profits that the proletariat are working for that the top of the social class will always benefit and they don't have to do the work the people on the bottom they're the ones that are gonna have to do all the work and they're the ones that get the short end of the stick this especially with the majority of Russia and poverty made a lot of sense to them they're like yes that is our life we are stuck here this is that makes sense this Marx guy he's smart man he's smart that's what we've been going through we should support that and we start seeing this movement start to grow and predicted that the proletariat this working class would eventually get so frustrated with the top that they would rise up and they would overthrow the bosses they would overthrow the government they would overthrow the country on behalf of the people they would do this to support the Russian people and by supporting the Russian people they would create a new order that would lead to stability in happiness and prosperity for all people in Russia not just the top again the Russian people heard this in like man this guy is awesome he is a genius we need to we need to listen to him he can fix this we need a leader now we need someone who can do this this is what Russia needs we will finally be heard and be protected we'll finally be happy and most of all we'll be able to eat we can have food all right so what happens is with the Communist Party it became divided we have the Bolsheviks and they were led by Lenin and the Mensheviks who were led by Trotsky and these became the two kind of main political parties both supporting communism both with different ideas the big thing that happened here is some of the kind of propaganda posters Lenin and the Bolsheviks ultimately win so you can see Lenin here a big thing that he ran on was pit bread and peace and freedom he's just this idea of just getting food was the big stuff that everyone got and that's what they wanted was food so kind of what is communism kind of talked about a little bit before which is kind of redefining it so you have a good understanding of what it was supposed to be because what happens in Russia is not actually true communism right here on the bottom left this is Karl Marx he's got an awesome beard he's a legit guy he is the father of communism so communism is a social political and economic system is ultimate goal and if you remember nothing else and about communism its goal is a classless society everything is supposed to be equal in the same there's no division there's no upper there's no middle class there's poor it's all supposed to be the same and the government originally is gonna be big but then it will go down and you won't need a government this is always where it fails because the government never goes away so Karl Marx created this he did not like feudalism you know like capitalism he liked these things he said they support the top and they hurt the poor that there was too many losers in capitalism and feudalism the majority that people would be at the bottom of the social hierarchy and the few on the top would just benefit from the many on the bottom and when they needed to be fixed so what he saw is that this was kind of his progression of he believed a society capitalism you're gonna have capitalism or feudalism it's gonna start a revolution people will be eventually so upset they'll be so sick and tired of living these poor lives of struggling to eat of struggling to live paycheck to paycheck trying to pay that mortgage trying to support a family and then what they'll say is they'll see all these people who are rich in it they're not doing any work they're benefiting off you off you working for that minimum wage for that low income and this will lead to a revolution because more people are in the bottom percent than they are in the top and eventually they will band together and they will rise up against the top against the wealthy against that top social hierarchy and they will overthrow them and create a new system which will eventually lead to more of socialism where the society is supporting everyone through wealth distribution of taxes or different money ultimately though communism where it goes to a classless society so this is this whole thing that's supposed to be happening according to Karl Marx and how this happens is the government becomes huge in the beginning and the government is going to take everything they will control every aspect of life they will control how much things cost what is going to be produced where it's going to be sold all these different things and they'll make it society equal now once they get equality the government then is supposed to get smaller and smaller and smaller and smaller and smaller until eventually the government goes away because ultimately the government is a social class in itself and with the government disappearing then everyone's supposed to just you manage yourself with everyone being equal and everyone being treated fairly and everyone having what their needs there wouldn't be conflict anymore you wouldn't have as much competition because it would not be needed you can all live then in happiness and that was ultimately Karl Marx's goal and vision of communism so all of this stuff was supposed to happen Russia the Bolsheviks have art you going to take over and they're gonna try to promote communism and put it in time so what happens though and we even happen with Russia is the government normally doesn't want to decrease so you were supposed to have the government decrease because if there's people in the government they'd be ranked above others and I would counter the idea but with corruption and greed that never really happens we haven't really seen a successful especially large-scale communist society that has worked because normally with human greed and corruption people don't want to give up their power the dominant class once they get in power they don't want to give it up they say well we're better we know a little bit more we need to regulate this we need to keep it in check a lot of times you'll get dictators that come from this other governments that can be very abusive especially against freedom of speech and things like that so communism is seen as great on paper but it doesn't really work in real life we haven't seen a lot of examples of it successfully working so revolution in Russia here's have a propaganda poster yeah Lenin up here the people are out in the streets let us have freedom let us have the Communists the Bolsheviks are going to take control and they will bring prosperity to the proletariat down with the booze huazhi whoo and that's what happens Bolsheviks take control they take power they are now in control of Russia and what they did once they took power they work to restore order so a couple things they did the economy of Russia is just I mean it's in shambles it is destroyed Germany is advancing into Russia so World War one Lenin and also World War two eventually Lenin immediately calls for an end to the war they start restructuring the government and society Russia poles fighting the army ends up being disbanded because the army was loyal to the Czar so right there social change happening factories were transferred they took it away from the booze Raji the government for state state countries same thing controlled the working areas now they were controlled by worker committees the people were the proletariat's saw this is a huge win originally that hey that's right the wealthy can't be our bosses anymore now it's gonna be fair social welfare programs start to be introduced including pensions maternity leave divorce a bunch of other social procedures too if you want to get married and all these things were eased so is a lot easier to do so there's support system starting to be put in place for the people to help them out and the Russian Orthodox Church all of its land was taken away it's well religious imagery was removed so they didn't want people Lenin dense the Bolsheviks and this happens pretty much with all communist countries they want you to be loyal to the Communist Party to the state so a lot of times religion gets attacked because they don't want you loyal to other things that you should be loyal to the Communist Party to your country and that's it so all of these things are happening and essentially that pyramid or that kind of structure that we saw with all the percentages so the social hierarchy under the Tsar is being flipped upside down and a lot of change is happening in Russia all at once with the Bolshevik Revolution so we are gonna continue more into the Bolsheviks and also a Russian Revolution at a later date when we get into the revolutions unit which will be a very fun one and exciting but that's all for now with Russian history and social hierarchy in Russia hopefully this helps you learn a little bit I'm mister s'en this was world history and I think yeah we're done here so have a great day afternoon evening night whenever you're watching this I'll talk to you later that is all folks enjoy

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