Rise of the Communism | 1905-1961 | Documentary on the History of Communism and the Soviet Union

at the road then the wall these are the people who move along the road some walk some ride some are well shod some are barefoot some are so young they must be carried some are old of the hundreds of millions who take this road some do so willingly others hope that the road leads to bread for the hungry peace for the weary land for the landless some protest openly it doesn't matter some were born on the road many will die along the way you in the beginning the road exists in the mind of a 19th century philosopher and scholar Karl Marx who maintains that only through a system he called communism can the worker and farmer avoid starvation and exploitation we declare openly Marx writes that our ends can only be attained by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions thus the road begins many who walk the road know its origins well many do not some things must be known about the road by those who do not travel it this is a one-way street the signposts along the way do not describe the true destinations and nearly everyone who sets foot or wheel on this road goes all the way to the end well there are a few exits only difficult dangerous escapes this man is burnt Lutins a resident of East Berlin his right to free passage into West Berlin is guaranteed by international agreement but on August 13th 1961 this right has been set aside to cross into West Berlin luden swims the canal that at one part divides the zones on reaching the western bank he takes his first few steps into freedom and is promptly shot down by rifle fire from a border guard on the Communist side to know why burnt Luden's was shot down across an artificial border by a man who bore him no personal malice we must look at the road we must go back along it many miles and many years back from Berlin 1961 to Havana 1959 to Budapest 1956 Koyuk on 1940 Kronshtadt 1921 st. Petersburg 1905 Sunday January 22nd under the tsar nicholas ii russia is ruled by a government of absolute powers these people the workers and peasants of st. Petersburg are not here to protest against this autocracy but to appeal to the autocrat under the leadership of a priest Father Georg egay Paul they have come to preside a petition to the Tsar we the working men and inhabitants of st. Petersburg come to desire to seek defense we have become beggars we wait one quarter of a million people stand before the Winter Palace but the Tsar in fact is not there nor is it his will that the petition be received instead said the Czar Nicholas the second my autocracy will remain unchanged said father Kapaun we no longer have a de long with the fight for freedom the bearded young man who immense father gay pawns words is VI EULA North party name Lenin long live the revolutionary proletariat the Tsar will never be a success as a ruthless autocrat he doesn't even look the part and he's busy busy with elaborate ceremonials that no longer interest hungry people busy with his family including his son a hemophiliac who nears death whenever he cuts himself and is kept alive according to his mother by the alcohol powers of Gregory Rasputin Rasputin is a holy man he says so himself world war 1 may be held in the West it is pure ten times over for the Russians for them no plumber no airplanes divisions without artillery companies without rifles rifles without bullets the Russian casualties from typhus alone exceed the total casualties of the Germans at the front defeat this organization and lonely dead at home starvation and poverty exceeding even previous Russian experiences finally in March 1917 a demonstration in st. Petersburg starts over a simple demand for a higher bread ration gets out of hand includes a new demand transfer of power from the Tsar to an elected parliament the sorry item customary faction turns his troops loose on the demonstrators but something goes wrong the army joins the people with incredible swiftness the Tsar's regime Falls a and Kerensky a young lawyer is made Minister of Justice in a provisional government in which many parties are represented the revolution belongs to the people I proposed to defend it against any attack whether from the left or from the right Kerensky arrests the Tsar and his family and announces that free elections are to be held political prisoners are freed and some food is distributed but in a country without experience in self-government dissident elements of all shades struggled to convince steel hungry people that their particular road leads to salvation Russia's participation in the European war is unpopular when it becomes clear that Kerensky means to continue it the German General Staff arranges for the return of Lenin who has been exiled by the Tsarist government Leon Trotsky arrives a month later from Canada summer 1917 Kerensky becomes head of the provisional government and proclaims Russia a republic universal suffrage power to be vested in an elected Constituent Assembly freedom of speech and press equal rights for women Lenin speaks on the Kerensky Republic a Democratic Republic more free under war conditions than any other country in the world but in November Lenin and Trotsky as leaders of a huge farmer worker army Union called the Soviet call for destruction of the Republic they imagined that serious political questions are decided by voting as a matter of fact they are decided by class war the class war is quick and relatively bloodless Lenin's Bolshevik he sees the railroad stations telegraph lines electric plants and government offices and declare themselves in business on November 25th the election koretski had called is held under the control of Lenin's Bolsheviki fool to their amazement lose three to one the assembly the selected meets under the guns of Trotsky's Red Army refuses for a time to turn power over to the Soviet but finally leaves the building the following day a few thousand citizens gather outside the building to protest against the dismissal of the assembly they have elected and are promptly shot down by Trotsky's Red Army citizens of the Soviet Union still vote but not since November 1917 has more than one name per office appeared on the ballot the assembly never reconvenes power passes to the Soviet which Lenin controls and from there to the Council of Commerce ours where Lenin's power is absolute this is the dictatorship of the proletariat a power one and maintain power that is unrestricted by any laws resting directly on port keep this well in mind Lenin makes peace with the Germans but now a genuine civil war breaks out in Russia the White Russians repel against the Reds peace effort allied troops fight to keep Russia in the war Cossacks fight for both sides Sarris rise up to restore the monarchy the Tsar and his family are executed and the chicken first many Soviet secret police groups becomes active arrest without charge imprisonment or exile without trial disappearance without explanation all become routine but Lenin complains there is still too little ruthlessness not because we lack determination but because we do not know how to capture enough properties Marauders capitalists the signposts along the road red peace freedom and braved because they understood that freedom and bread could be theirs only when peace was obtained the workers and sailors of prawn stock have fought a bloody civil war now on March 7 1921 they mill in the streets asking for freedom and brave finally at 6:45 in the evening Trotsky commander of the Red Army who ordered the slaughter gives the only explanation it was necessary Lenin and Trotsky are now firmly in power the checker is abolished in its place comes the old GPU or political police and to check on the old GPU there is Rob cream the workers and peasants inspection group whose chief is Joseph Stalin he disputes Trotsky's position as Lenin's second-in-command and heir apparent in the struggle Stalin has the support of synovium chief of the Communist international and of Cunningham City leader of Moscow who could make you a judge or send you to Siberia now with the Civil War one Lenin eases the demands for belt tightening in public sacrifice out of economic necessity he Institute's a new policy emphasis is placed on production of consumer goods but the state maintains control of heavy industry even private enterprise is permitted within limits and a new phrase American aid enters the Russian vocabulary by March 1922 the American Relief Administration under Herbert Hoover is feeding ten million Russians but in March 1923 Lenin suffers a stroke the following January is dead Stalin Zenobia and communion forced Trotsky into exile then Stalin overrules is two associates and ends the new economic policy in its place come three successive five-year plans all designed to emphasize productive capacity especially heavy industry and power output from 1928 to 1941 Russia's industrial capacity rises nearly 300% our hydroelectric output is up nearly 800 percent agriculture production lags however and housing actually fails to keep pace with the population increase if you're an average Russian this means more work not enough to eat and less and less living space per family if you don't work hard enough or if you complain there are plenty of trains to Siberia where many hydroelectric dams are being built these are also the years of the great executions called your job China in honor of Stalin's executioner and I a job how many people are permanently removed from circulation no one knows in some provinces as much as 4% of the population vanishes Kamenev and cinavia who helped stalin seize power are quickly disposed of to have been a friend of either one of them is now a crime for this and related activities well over half of the top communist leadership and thousands of lesser officials vanish as do most of the army officers a very few of your jobs victims are given trials some of the trials are remarkable for example several defendants are convicted of conspiring with Trotsky in 1936 in the hotel Bristol in Copenhagen in actual fact in 1936 the hotel was no longer in business next case in 1938 yesh of himself is purged together with many purged judges labor camp operators and the like Koya Khan near Mexico City August 20th 1940 a young man plunges a mountain climbers axe into an old man's skull the exiled Leon Trotsky is dead in the West meanwhile another dictatorship arose devoted to world conquest complete with infallible leader secret police and cattle cars that carried men and women to the grave or worse come on this is the time of the Popular Front all who would make common cause against the fascists are welcome but even as the pickets march the Popular Front is changing on August 23rd 1939 Molotov and Stalin for the Russians and von Ribbentrop for the Germans undertake to divide the world between them on September first eight days after the nazi-soviet pact is signed German troops crossed the Polish frontier and the world learns the meaning of a German word lit screen on September 17th the Red Army crosses Poland's frontier on October 5th Poland has disappeared but with the fall of France Hitler decides the pact has served its purpose and ends it by invading the territory of his recent partner Russia the turning part of the German invasion of Russia comes at Boulevard then called Stalingrad when the war ends Russia acquires a spoils of war eastern Poland Bessarabia subcarpathian ruthenia East Prussia northern Sakhalin the Kuril Islands and portions of Finland Latvia Lithuania and Estonia are incorporated as Soviet republics and much of their native population is deported there are Russian zones of occupation pending final peace treaties in Germany Austria and North Korea and the Russians have the right to maintain Garrison's in Poland Hungary Romania and Bulgaria how did we get to the present situation with an Iron Curtain dividing Europe and communist outposts throughout much of the world what is the secret of communism post-war expansion what methods do they use the answer is they use them all occupying troops remain until political domination is achieved in Poland Romania and Hungary zones of occupation become zones of influence and control in East Germany and North Korea along with their political and psychological efforts economic aid and trade agreements help spread the Soviet influence in Africa and in the Middle East force is avoided wherever possible but when it is needed it is used the expulsion from the mainland of the Chinese Nationalist government is a military exercise complete with artillery tanks infantry and fibia stopper Asians casualties and refugees subversion is of course an important technique of communist conquest Czechoslovakia in 1948 is an established democracy in Eastern Europe suddenly a rash of strikes conservative elements are forced to resign from the cabinet communist deputies found their deaths as the street demonstrations reach riot proportions police brutality and putting down the riots is charged and the Communists take over the police [Applause] On February 25th informed that the alternative is civil war and aware of unmistakable threats of invasion from the Soviet Union if he does not capitulate president Danish accepts a communist cabinet but yarn mazak son of the country's greatest hero will not go along and remains in the Foreign Office two weeks later his dead body is discovered whether he was murdered or killed himself is not known to this day three months later a constitution Soviet style is adopted by Parliament vanish refuses to sign it and is forced from office before the year is over Czechoslovakia like its heroes vanish and Mazurek is dead and Eastern Europe in the words of Winston Churchill from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an Iron Curtain has extended across the continent behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe but human freedom dies hard uprisings and strikes in East Germany in 1953 and in Poland in 1956 are put down with local police augmented by Russian soldiers Budapest October 1956 these demonstrators are not anti-communist in fact many of them Hungarian students are communists who feel that they have the right to determine how Hungarian communism is to be administered on October 24th local party bosses decide enough is enough and in the interest of law and order their law their order direct police to fire into the crowd but the crowd does not melt away even when Russian garrison troops join the police faced by an overwhelming mom the Russians stage is strategic withdrawal leaving the Hungarian police to be slaughtered by their own countrymen in November Emory Nagy was a communist but a Hungarian communist speaking as Prime Minister he declares Hungary neutral as between Russia and the West the Russians hesitate the Hungarians celebrate but hesitation and celebration end soon an entire Russian army invades Hungary and crushes the revolt Nagy visits the Russians under a flag of truce to discuss surrender terms June 17 1958 his execution is announced for many Cubans the years before 1959 were hard as in many other countries the Cuban peasants barely owned the land they worked so hard to – well the urban masters life in city slums was also depressing filth and disease flourished yet most of these poor Cubans the proletarian mob suffered their lot almost as if they were unaware that there was another way to live when Fidel Castro was ready to come out of the Sierra Maestra his support is based not on the poor but on the middle-class ironically it is the knowledgeable who form the advance army of the revolution but when the Pied Piper seeks to broaden the support for bread and peace the poor are there to listen many believe few doubt the revolution is a success Castro's brother Rahl is a self-proclaimed communist his close associate Che Guevara had participated in the unsuccessful revolution in Guatemala but in the enthusiasm of the revolution few Cubans even in the middle class believe that Fidel Castro will ever turn communist at first he promises free elections he acknowledges many of the traditional rights of citizens and the established institutions of government but the elections never take place and the government quickly becomes an instrument of coercion the takeover is a success Berlin 1961 the road has almost reached the present why have the Russians built this wall why are all Berliners denied the right guaranteed them under the international agreement to pass freely from zone to zone within Berlin the communist explanation is simplicity itself according to them West Berlin is a base for intrigue an imperious assault on East Berlin and East Germany where a man has a chance to enjoy the finer things in life but Berendt Luden's was going the other way east to west and so is every other casualty at the wall the free passage of people between East and West Berlin was the only critical gap in the Iron Curtain so the Russians sealed it the wall is a solid fact and the wall remains it stands in Berlin today it stands and will stand wherever the road of world communism leads someday according to its builders it will surround not merely the world but the moon the Stars outer space the universe their objective is clear but so is ours they intend to put the world on their road we intend that the world shall be free each man and each country to choose the road that suits him best to achieve our objective we need above all to understand each new threat must be met force with force as in Korea threatened military action with military aid as in Greece and Turkey exploitation of economic weakness with economic aid and cooperation the choice is not read or dead the choice lies between ignorance and wisdom cowardice and bravery slavery or freedom you

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  2. I was born in the USSR and I am proud of it. We were happy. Stalin died and his Gulags disappeared, and we lived happily. We never paid for education , for medicine. My father got a flat for nothing as a young specialist. Everything was chip. Children could spend 1 month in a pioneer camp in summer. The payment for it was funny – 10 percent of a min salary. We worked 8 hours a day, from 9am till 6 pm. So we had a great social support and protection. No rich and no poor. It was a unique country. Don't believe the propaganda !

  3. I dont evean want to look in the comments cause i know they are gonna be full of Americans primarily born after 1990 who saddly think communism is good because i will want to bully every single one of them

  4. One of the reasons as to why I dislike capitalism is how governments share supposed to protect people and keep you safe but in a true capitalist society without any communist support, people are left starving and homeless and yet there is a government. It is the role of the government to protect its people!

  5. U.S.A. is made for industrialists who tend to dominate other people. And because communism stands beside the poor people the capitalist governments spread bad rumours about communism to instil a sense of malice among the people.

  6. Granted that the implementation of communism was seriously flawed, but the US hated communism for all the wrong reasons, maynly that capitalism couldn't take advantage of the population and enrich a small elite.

  7. This comment section is so intensely retarded I can't even explain it. All these morons pretending to know anything about communism saying shit like "read some history". History kills communists. Not even socialism has ever even come close to working. You all talk as if communism eventually becomes paradise through genocide and death but the killing never ends under this form of government.
    Stop talking about it as if you know a thing or two about it. Capitalism ALWAYS works. Capitalism gives the power to the people and naturally the people take care of each other. Al capitalism needs is morality. Communism needs apathy.

  8. So far. No country has ever been communist yet. They were different forms of socialism. Although there were communist movements in them. They were never communistic.

  9. Humans are not supposed to be Ruled by some persons' philosophies like the communists(communism) philosophy.

  10. Communism was not even a good concept in theory since theories need evidence. Communism was a good vision. Anyone that tries to continue to pursue communism is either arrogant, has bad intentions, or is insane. Albert Einstein said, "Insanity is doing the same thing, over and over again, but expecting different results." I understand some people say Marxist theory just needs a little revision. I am happy to debate that

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