Mod-01 Lec-04 Beginning, growth and decline of Western psychology in India

Well, this afternoon I am going to talk about
history of psychology in India. I will be talking about its beginning expansion and
decline in the last one century and before I
begin my talk, I would like to make a distinctions between psychology in India and
Indian psychology. Psychology in India is a term, which is used for the, what we called,
the western or scientific or modern psychology, modern psychology in India and when
they are using the term Indian psychology we mean the psychology, which is of Indian
origin. And with this we I would be doing is that, I would be testing its history from
the beginning of the twentieth century and I will
see what kind of developments, which have taken place in the whole century, one century,
because psychology in India is will be completing hundred years of its existence
by 1916 to 2016, because it is begin in 2016. And I think this is the appropriate time for
us to also to understand what we have been able to achieve contribute and where we need
to go now. Before I begin I would like the psychology as a one of the most ancient country,
one of the ancient country in the world psychology was a disciple it begins much earlier
in this country and he had a long tradition of studying mind, consciousness
and human behavior. As in the old as older, if
we look at the voyage old text of Vedas map Upanishads and other c c scriptures, which
have a repositories of psychological knowledge and theories and in this context we can
say that, the primary goal or objective of these in this psychology was interms of the
self realization and elevation of human suffering.
Yoga system you all sophisticated mind control techniques for the purpose of in a growth
we can say the geetha in the way is one of the most ancient book on counseling
psychology where Krishna is exhorting Arjun to fight rather than giving up. Now, in that
sense I can make term that psychology, which was studied earlier psychology, which was
discussed earlier was learnt the psychology was using the presently mythology a kind of
mythology, which was using was of different kind. Second that during that period no
distinction was made between philosophies, psychology as spirituality. So, when .psychology made in new beginning in the last
century in the beginning of the last century during the British rule it had no continuity
with the knowledge institutions of this country.
Psychology with a laboratory experiment a laboratory studies was a novel idea new
approach, which facilitated many of the Indian scholars in the beginning and during the
colonial period a large number of teachers were required for colleges and the schools
should teach and I think psychology made its beginning if you look at the historically
as a subject in the teachers training colleges.
In the beginning of the last century it was initiative of the vice chancellor of Calcutta
university sir Bajanlal sig, who was the professor of mental and mother psychology
in Calcutta university, which is initiative the
first laboratory of psychology was started in though 1905. And if you know the history
of this country after that in the 1905 the Calcutta was that Bengal was divided into
east and west Bengal and because there is lot of
hesitation, which taken place for almost six seven years and no put further development
could takes place during this period. So, the first psychology department in this
country is a started in 1916 in Calcutta University and the first chairman of this
department was Professor Annensen Gupta. Annensen Gupta, if you look at the history
of Bengal that was the time when the naxalite movement was very prominent and many naxalites
group collected money and send the number of Indian scholars to west for the
study, higher studies they thought they when they will come back from the west this start
in this country and establish university; however, when these scholars came back that
group had disintegrated. And as a resized Professor Annensen Gupta joined Calcutta university
and the department, which this restarted, because he stunning was with mustember
who was a student of William vont. So, if the first department of psychology
in this country was a department of experimental psychology not the department
of psychology. And in that department the kind of work, which was doing was primarily
of experimental nature, because they taught at that time I think the forward the
idea was that, there is the experimental work in
the areas of presumption, commission, learning, memory is easy to have transfer of the
knowledge from the west to the east. And these are the areas where cultural factors are
not playing very prominent role and because of this reason this kind of work, which by
the Annensen Gupta began to conduct and in the laboratories in the department at
Calcutta. So, because of the very beginning the scientific nature of psychology in this .country psychology became a part of the Indian
science congress in 1923 as earliest in 1923.
And Indian general of psychology they psychological association was started in 1924
and Indian general of psychology was started year later. So, that was the development,
which took place during that particular period, but Sen Gupta did not stay in Calcutta for
a very long time, he moved from Calcutta to Lucknow as he did not stay in even
academy see move to administrative position in a Lucknow, but there he worked with a
very famous sociologist Radha Kamal Mukarjee. And with Radha Kamal Mukarjee he
brought out a book on social psychology in 1928 and that book was published from UK.
And then we look at that the first book of social psychology by Albert just I came in
24 this book was quite condemnatory of the earlier
work earlier books in the area of social psychology. After Sen Gupta living Calcutta,
it was give the Shekar Bose, who became the head of the psychology department in that.
In Shekar Bose was not a psychologist by training, he was the doctor, he was a psychiatrist
and he was in the close contact with Sigmund Farid. So, because of his five six
students because of his constant communication with him psychologists became
the main first area of the department he started the Indian psychologist society and
the society, which became which got associated with the international psychologist
society. That was the period when in the west Sigmund Farid was very controversial,
many of the countries, many places where almost men, not talk in the universities and
this books were not available and that was the time when India in Calcutta, he was his
work was readily accepted in taught in the academic psychology.
He also started the first mental hospital in this country, we call the lumbini park
memorial hospital and it mean 1940 and in 47, he started in journal very famous journal
of name of samiksha, there was journal he started. And later on when the when u mayer
and spearmen came to India to attend the Indian science congress in 1938 the department
started another wing, there was a department that was the wing of a plight social a plight
psychology, but prior to the independence from the British rule, there was two other
departments to started in this country. One was at Mysore University and that department
was headed by professor Gopal Swamy. And the Gopal Swamy was trained at
Gandham university with spearmen and so .actually his work was in the area of mental
testing and he was the person who started the
first element laboratory at Mysore. The other department before independence was
started at Patna. And Patna had a very ambitious prong of having a teaching department
a psychological discharges and services center. So, that they could coordinate the active
research in teaching with the services, psychological services that was the India, which
Vethi who was a person, who inspired all these development at Patna was working,
Vethi was also trained with he was trained with Mr. Shekar Bose and in that sense work
which they are doing in the Patna was of psychiatric and clinical psychology.
In short Patna these were the three centers we can say which of functional doing is only
three department of psychology before independence. Research during these period as
we can understand was primarily in the area of experimental psychology in
psychoanalysis and the work, which was work doing in the areas where cultural factors
are not very important this is good that talking about. and the primarily working on the
misuse of the laboratory work and the value free kind research that kind of which are
prevalent during that particular period and that was British government never paid any
attention to the development of psychology. For primarily they have where the lot of
investment in the establishment of the department of sociology and topology primarily
for the reason that they wanted to understand Indian culture and society, because they
knew that 1857 move that rebellion movement was, because they have failed to
understand the culture and sensitivity of the people in this country.
So, there was the concern and this was the primarily trust areas, which Britishers
promoted for first then psychology was not at all individual society, individual behavior
was not importance subject, but during that period one important work, which you can I
can cute that was the work of Prasad, which was published in British general of
psychology in 1935 and that work was based on there was a big earth quake in those on
part of the country in Bihar and Prasad studied what was kind of rumors you people are
spreading in that area. And to his amazement he found as the most of the rumors he
collected almost thirty thousand rumors and most of the he found that most of the rumors
you people are spreading around was fear arousing. And you are rending why people
who are afraid already scare of the earth quake are spreading these kind of rumors and,
but this is the kind of work, which he did collected and analyzed these rumors and later
on when feasting the about thought is studio cognitive dishonest, he has categorically .mentioned in the interview who took other
people that he is primarily inspiration or ideas
of people coming at dishonest curious come from this work of Prasad and later work by
Durana Sena, there was why inspired his betterment of the theory.
One more thing I would like to mention before what happen development before
independence much before independence was the close association between contact
between William James and Vivekanand. William James is considered to be the father of
modern psychology in America and when Vivekanand went to states Chicago for the
world religious conference after the conference he stayed at Harvard for almost one
month and during that period William James used to go almost every day to attend his
discourses and he had a many times the meetings with Sri Vivekanand and that
continued almost for a month. And it is said that when the William James talked about
stream of consciousness the whole idea of stream of consciousness his idea of stream
of consciousness inspired by the his discourses
with Vivekanand. But later on in 1911 when William James wrote
the book varieties of religious experiences is his famous book, he had no
mentioned when once the of Vivekanand though many of the ideas, which took he took
was from his discourses. Now, after independence the government was really concerned
and interested in expanding and developing higher education in this country.
And for that purpose the government has may this initiative of starting new department
tending the faculty in psychology and that was the time when the many of the bureaus
and other government bodies were coming up for the purpose of expanding high education
in this country. And during that period one event I could say
is that the because of the most Hindu, Muslim violence in communal violence during
the partition time government really got concerning that concern that why such much
violence can take place and why people kill each other. And for that government approach
u n e s c o and from u n e s c o, we have with the collaboration of u n e s c o they
conducted a major project in the under distribution of Gordon Murphy and they later
on Murphy bought out a book also on many researches also collaborated and the
book was in the minds of men the violence is
here, not outside. And there was a important work in a period then the stands there was
so much expansion in the beginning that after within fifteen years of independence
almost twenty, thirty new universities were started. And when these universities were
started they did not have the faculty for psychology, because they was not so many .trained and educated psychologist are available
during that period. So, most of these departments was started by bifurcating or
taking faculty from other states departments once of department most of faculty which came
to psychology during that period was from philosophy department. There was one
of the development, I think which has serious me taught is important development
of psychology. And what another thing, which government during did during that period
apart from setting up new departments was the cultural exchange program.
And the cultural exchange program with the west particular the u k and the common
wealth in the America during the Canady and Johnson period that common wealth is
scholarship of full back scholarship and these type of other scholarship can this will
achieve large number of Indian scholars, Indian students went to America, Canada, u k
for higher education. In fact, he will used to be the pen loads from students were going
at the time, because large number of these people
even fellowships to go and study and come back establishes the departments. So,
that was one of the major developments, which happened during that particular period
in the early years of the independence and when now so when these scholars went to states
or west for the studies when they came back earliest in the early seventies or during
that period and they started with the work in
the academic department. They were trained better trained in terms
of mythology in terms of conserves in terms of
scientific science we are doing scientific psychology, because of that turning, because
of the vertex parties this area. What actually
happened that in doing late sixties when most many of the header departments in this country
we looked at the history came from the philosophy departments, but later on the turn
that these people who came from the west he took over the leadership rule and psychology
was started growing in this country at rapid place as a scientific discipline. Now,
this is also period during which I would say psychology was growing outside the universities
system also, because university has limitation of research facilities and opportunities
and many of these IITs and IIMs and re cultural institutions and you see you choose
a where number of prominence psychologist where studying, where teaching and doing research
and that was the period when psychology was expanding rapidly in different
domains and different regions as when the institute started this clues of special
assistance in advance centers and that also helps
psychology to its growth in the later decades and years. Now, this I would say, because .of this rapid expansion of psychology in
this country in sixties and seventies and psychology was a good expectations of the
people actually this was government extend that psychology is really coming up to contribute
to the nestle development in the growth or weak reconstruction of the country and
there was the period when because of the presence because of so many universities were
psychology student was studying and teaching researches are going on.
It was expected that psychology will going be going to make a big mark and contribute
to the national development, but these expectations were gradually in later I would say
mid seventies, you would imagine this expect the expectations are not being met,
because psychology was still an alien discipline in this country. Disciplines which are
primarily concerned about as well aliens that I hope was observed by many psychologists
at that time he is the discipline, which is on the imitating, replicating, duplicating
the western golf. And in the social reality Indian
problems and social Indian issues are not becoming part of the research concerns of
the Indian psychologies. And that was the time when it was there was
some kind of a doubt attain into Indian psychology was really crisis that the, that
it may be constrain the crisis of identity. That
what psychology you can contribute and what how psychology can play a more
meaningful role, more propulsive role in the various government bodies in the prefer
places and in terms of the social development and social issues and problems. And how
they can contribute and there was a time Nandi like Nandi road very categorically that
Indian psychology has become really imitative and subservient, but also dull in the
applicative there was a very famous statement, which he made in the paper in 1974 in the
who was Dhukan Seena and other people said psychology is nothing, but applicative is
a carbon copy of the western work.
And that was the kind of ethos and which you know psychology was lot of soul
searching and thinking was going in that how psychology can be made more viable
efficient more we choose the through this concern society and first to the country and
many of the analyzes was done during in the period that why psychology is not able to
make this kind of contribution. I think one of the explanations there are many
explanation we were given during the later period and one of the which I develop much
earlier is that Indian psychologist live in two different worlds. There was one of the
thesis one of the hypothesis that in spite of all these kind of developments what was .emergency when the western psychology started
low aside as well started during in this particular in this country there was role
lot of hopes and expectations. And there was an excitement that mistake in
that psychologists in this country will make important discoveries in terms of understanding
on social reality. And this hopes that a positive science, a science which was not
existing this country earlier before the British period you will have something new explanations,
new interpretations, new ways of thinking, new ways of understanding our own
problems, which our traditional Indian psychology could not provide those kind of
explanations. And keeping that in mind that another thing, which was to that before the
expectations from a psychologist, but you look at that the academic psychology, which
was within the academic setting was not consistent or not compatible with the values,
beliefs, practices, social systems, social family and other systems within this country.
So, that kind of a gross incompatibility he was that Indian psychologist as a professional
was a different person then as a social being as a creative person as a creative being.
And that kind of demarcation that kind of division
of the psychologist split over somebody says use of the let of one I say that in a
psychologist suffer from a kind of split personality as a professional he is at one
person and as individual as a social being as a
creative being is a different person. And cord looking this two verse would say this
professional and foster cultural Indian psychology had the problem in balancing how to
balance this two worlds and so there is the problem of making a kind of division between
meta physical and empirical. These are one of the thing between clinical
and experiential between inductive and objective all this kind of device or this
kind of delay mass, because in real life they are
doing something else. And the academic setting they are doing something else and
because of that what is said very statement that Indian psychology is another thing is
that Indian mind works in the different weather
the whole the book, which occur note and he will not early also that Indian mind does
not try to reconcile or the opposites are different
way text the word Indian mind is that they live them convolution existence that the
coexist the both realities are considered to be accepted as the way of nature works.
And he made a statement that a static section of a Hindu met is in a full slavering of both
the extent rather seeking a synthesis. So, that kind of ethos was not in this culture,
which .was very much in the western culture and
that kind of a bloom mindset that you have to
study the subject with a very objective and objective way that kind of ethos and that
kind of mindset Indian did not have. Indians we
have more use of a kind of a more humanistic and more holistic and that kind of approach
which Indian has was not very relevant or mark very conducive to the growth of academic
scientific psychology, science existence is understand understood in terms of the scientific
practices in the network sciences and then in social science. Now, how Indians psychologists
lived in two different worlds, I will give you some examples; I think that
will make this point clearer that how they lived.
And if you look at the first the bojanath c who wrote who started the first psychology
laboratory, he was an eminent scholar of ancient Indian sciences that was he was the
thing he wrote lot about how Indian involving system about he wrote. And he was the
person who he one way he was starting in the laboratory, psychology laboratory other he
is he really in curries Jagudath Sena he was one of the scholar of that time to write a
volumes on Indian psychology, he was mens idea behind him. If you look at the work of
Annensen Gupta, Annensen Gupta wrote on a wide variety of subjects, he wrote about
the mystical experiences also, he wrote about the western dance also, he wrote about the
all kind of different Indian thoughts, Indian concerns and these was published in the
jungle of that particular time, which was of different natures of an experiments
psychology if the permanently he started. And if you look at another as I wrote in his
biography of Sen Gupta, the Sen Gupta turn religious and got interested in mystical tradition
and published work in that area, that was another stream which he followed apart from
the experimental works he was doing in the department. Jiendar Shekar Bose, his work
was as I said was in the area of psychoanalytic and he started mental hospital
also, he in the in the kind activities, he was
and he wrote as a scholar a series of articles and a long series of commentary on
Bhagavath Geetha in the very famous Maxine of that period, which is of pravesh, pravasi
was one of the very prominent Bengali Maxine of that period he was same writing series
of articles in that which are nothing to do with the psychoanalytic work no conjunction
raised why would you are doing in the professional areas.
And same thing, which I am say about the Gopal Swamy also that he was a laboratory
started, but at the same time he also started radio station at that time. And he got more .interested in the cultural activities; I
am giving those these courses talks on the Indian
culture. So, that was the before the independence if you look at the after independence
also when the psychology departments was started by bifurcating philosophy department
then lot of philosophy department people from philosophy joined the psychology
departments. So, there was an expectation that they will bring their background academic
background to psychology, background of their knowledge of philosophy and Indian
psychology and activity they would be they did not happen that all. In fact, most of
these philosophy faculty from Indian psychology
the more interest in learning the research new mythology being work in the scientific
area and they almost is to show that the almost ignore what they whatever background
they had because they wanted to develop a new identity as a scientist.
So, this is what I think you will look at the work which has done even doing before
we do they hardly any difference of Indian in
the world freedom movement, during that period. So, means in this that Indians movement
was Indian freedom national movement or freedom movement was got a concern of Indian
psychologist. And if you look at the as that the political scenario and the kind
of society which had that it is not it has not got
reflected in kind of work, which Indian psychology was doing as a professionals.
So, all these if you look at the later period also that they creative talent they have what
they was doing they was they assume they were living in two separate worlds.
Something which was close to the heart you are doing somewhere else and for
professional work they were doing as a part of the job or activity professional, but may
be that the heart was divided in that sense. And I think this is only reason that they
could not put their whole energy and effort in developing
the faculty discipline at that time I am saying this is to the for everybody, but
I am talking about the generally ethos of the
period that this is the crisis with psychology that was psychologist, which will they been
doing his as academic discipline and what they see outside the world there is not much
compatibility between these two and to and there no way they can recognize these two,
most of the criticizes they have no to able to recognize these two different worlds.
So, this is about from one of the arguments Indian psychologists have always live in two
different worlds. Now, this may be ok, in the case of physicist or chemist or chemistry
or biology in these subjects, these alright if
they live you know different laboratory and as
in real life they will have different, but psychology as a subject, which is concerned .about human behavior, human attitude about
consciousness about you. Then if it is that is the associated from they what they observed
outside world it case a kind of a problem, but you know, if you looking at the point
of views psychology was going in any case because one these of one of the resin, one
of the thesis, which have this one of major called, but psychology in this country was
growing in any case. And if you look by do not have much data the
whole problem this country we do not have data and somebody some j n he collected
some data in 2001 he published some work he said they may be around fifteen thousand
psychologist working in this country, which concludes clinical and all other field
toss as well academic all other fields also we
may be around two hundred universities where psychology is being taught. And so in
terms of expansion, in terms of research and I think one famous western psychologist he
say India is a eighty seventh India is a publication joint outside the western world with
the kind of we work, which we have been doing research, which have been doing and
there was quite substantial in the terms of publication, but in terms of the impact and
in the terms of the continues they have early
any work of that period if you look at the of
this period of history that we have they have some kind of continuity.
What we echoing maybe we can very few of scholars like Ramadass seeing how did a
work in the particular following a particular stream or particular theme, but not they are
not such people in this country, because Indian psychologist was supposed to play
diverse rules you have to do research in different with areas there was very few ahead a
particular thrust area in which they had they could make any particular mark. So, this is
what one of the concern as the thesis that, but beside of this expansion what was
psychology was going that I would say in later years in eighties and later period
psychology give in three different directions. And I think there was a lot of special for
Indian psychology to become more and more concerned about the problems and of this particular
of this country to participate in the developmental process. I would recall the
new memory started at the movement of indigenization that faculty should be indigenized.
And indigenized indigenization has different connotations of course, but there
was one of the concerned and one of the trust with was visible in the around eighties in
the later period. And Indian indigenization may
mean two different things. One the what we called exogenous indigenization and an
indigenous indigenization, exogenous is the indigenization is what we these terms are .used by Durana Sena and exogenous indigenization
is that taking the theories western theories and concepts how they can be indigenized
you can adopt it and solved in the within the context.
This is what that how with they we can indigenize them how we can make them useful
for studying our own problems. An indigenous indigenization was the kind of
indigenization that we taking our own heritage our own traditional psychology which
was therefore, thousands of years the how that psychology can be examined understood
and may be make the relevant for the present society for the present times. So, this was
the two different kinds of streams coming up and because of that I think the three
movements in this country. And the first movement was I would say cross cultural
psychology it is also in the big way this country that many of the Indian psychologists
joined this cross cultural movement is started in the seventies and grew in eighties and
later period. And work not only part of this movement they part of the you know they
were president of the two president of international association of cross cultural
psychology was from India two presidents many members many members in their
executive members are from India. So, that is was the way Indian I though Indian
psychologist thought this is one way they could make find a way to test western theories
or if you expand the knowledge psychological knowledge in country and different
areas, but as Durana Sena said later on that what cross cultural psychology was doing
in spite of all popularity and all participation in the cross cultural psychology.
Cross cultural psychology was primarily testing the western modern centuries in different
countries. They hardly shown as instances they may be instances, but very
few instances were theory is in concerns which was part of the third world war other country,
but a state cross culturally very few examples, such examples. So, cross cultural
movement in the became in the way for against to mark internationally for at the
same time that did not help us in understanding and developing our own concern.
Another movements would say would started, because cross cultural psychology has
own problems now I think there was the lot of by say that cross cultural psychology
movement is also internationally are declined. The another well movement was what we
can call problem oriented research, they were won among the by their p b c in who
thought that western theories can be brought in India, but these choice can be used for .the purpose of understanding and studying
in the Indian problems and bringing the mythology particularly the western mythology
using this mythologies in this country and expanding the you know making element for
the full society for society here, there are one thing.
Another thing which movement is started was of Indian psychology, another way we say
indigenous indigenization in the Indian psychology in the science that we should need to
know our own heritage, we need to know our own traditions, our contribution, our own
theories and concepts, which may be useful for the present society and that we also how
the old movement of Indian psychology started. Indian psychology movement is not very
old, I would say twentieth, fifteenth or twenty or thirty years old though the book was
written much earlier by Durana Sena, but not they would not much has appointed during
this period only is resent times this movement is now catching up. So, this another
movement was of the movement of Indian psychology that is understand types examine
our own heritage, our own knowledge, which we have been we can expand. I think the
whole idea which is coming up with the sent times I would say that can we develop a
psychology, which is alternative to the western psychology is not that western
psychology is useless, the whole idea is not that western psychology is not applicable
or useful in this country.
But there may be another ways to understanding the problems other way of billing with
these problems, because western psychology has not been able to handle the problems
with the best also. If you look at the w h o reports as we look at the before that the
way depression is increasing worldwide and w h
o data shows suggest that by twenty, thirty the fifty percent of the world population
will be suffering from depression, half of the
world will be depression suffering from depression by twenty thirty, this is the w h o
data. You look in terms of mental health problems, you look at the at the kind of crisis,
which has been the world is going few of the west even the west is going through these
western theory and consists of even not working within in the western system. So, the
whole idea is that is it possible to develop an alternative a new way of thinking, a new
psychology a psychology, which can be more conducive more.
I think in this is the area we are Indian work, Indian contribution can be significant
not are all the Indian, but the traditional societies,
Chinese or the Indian societies are getting over societies were they are in the own knowledge
they are traditional knowledge can .these be will become together and provide
a kind of alternative to the western psychology. This is one of the theme which
is emerging from the present discourses in this particular area. Now, we can think that
western psychology also declining in this country this is big concern of everywhere
that the psychology is not going the western the psychology we start it in 1916 in this
country is not doing in this country. In case it is going down now, after all these
expansions and all these developments, if we
see the psychology is has not been able to make any impact rather than in terms of the
quality of the student, in terms of the faculty, in terms of the research output, because
recent data six months back the data, which is come that with analyze publishing nine
papers, we are publishing two papers. And ten years back to fifteen years back we are
publishing ten papers Chandras publishing nine papers. So, that where do we should look
at the rapid decline in our contribution in our work. So, number of papers I has not
bought the data today, but the more of Indian publishing in the western journals in the
standard international journals even number of those Indians scholars is declining from
India there may be outside who are working, but whose were working within India the
publications of Indians in the international journals, extended journals is declined they
petty declining this declining is rapidly. So, they so we can so the easy I think there
is a kind of concern anxiety that the psychology, which started hundred years back
almost that is psychology is now and we need to think very again and understand that
what factors are, what reasons are there how this psychology can have been regenerated.
Now, this psychology is declining maybe there are many reasons you know people have
heavy work the whole analyzes, if we look at these analyzes that why this psychology
is declining there are many reasons. There is no supporting one is our main important
point, which is read in as many papers is that there is no supporting intellectual
climate. If you are doing some work and you want to do find people who can look at your
work and look at his work review it give you a kind of feedback and understand you
appreciate what you are doing that kind of culture and that kind of support system is
not there. Psychology is profession has remained, but
psychology in the, that is sense suppose within the academic community and outside
both ways that kind of support system is liking. This one of the point, which is made
that and they may be other point is met that there is a skewing spelt population look at
the university system and you go university .citizen using that they we are do not by
the students one class two hundred students, three hundred BA student and there have been
a small laboratory where you work. And if you look at the date is very interesting
that somewhat I collected data in the eastern u p
and up an part of the Bihar the study shows that they produce more than thirty percent
of the students in busy in India, if you the
production is more than thirty percent college is
small college have psychology student how many six hundred students they was fall in
laboratory somewhere. So, this mass production there, but in terms
of quality of education, quality of teaching, quality of environment that is sadly missing
in this country and the kind of will to do it.
Another point which are making is decline is that we have not been able to make much
progress in terms of mythology in this country, how we can develop the mythology,
which is more appropriate for studying the problems of this country. Keeping in mind
the kind of you know ethos and the kind of culture
from which we come that let that kind of imperialist and the experimental methodology
work in some cases in some areas, but if you want to do research at the at the global
at the hoisting level or kind of a more what we see level that becomes a problem how we
do it. I just see that problem that kind of methodology, which works at the individual
level we have, but which can work at a larger group level of societal level or that
kind of methodology we are is not able to develop, because psychology has always individual
analyzes of individual subjects. Another point is that psychology it has become
as the point which is made very restricted we seen that they are all disciplinary boundaries.
You know we can do research for the purpose of research for rebut we want to understand
the social problems then we cannot just remain confine within the psychology
boundaries and that is becoming problem the sociology or anthropology or economics unless
that kind of cross disciplinary research takes place, this kind of problem oriented
research does not become very meaningful purpose in this country. Even those passages,
where people of the different disciplines are together, they stayed in the same on the
same floor as I can see here the various department this very much very less inter
disciplinary work will goes on. And in the university system they are different
departments and this departments are confined to all the, what they keep doing,
but that kind of an approach, that kind of concern is completely missing. Any way these
some of the points I thought I would make that how now pushen, which before us
and this challenge for us that how we can .rejuvenate psychology in this country. How
we can psychology to paradox is that the demand for psychology is increasing here elsewhere
whether he is a clinical or professional or social or other areas these
is a demand good psychologist and these psychologist are not available. Now, there
are not many students the other maybe there is
the there is need for students for good research programs and these are not available. So,
this kind of that we have people, we have students, but that quality is sadly missing
and I think what we need to do need is that we have
need we need really a good thinking about it, I think that given in the present scenario
what we can do. And I think this is the major question or question mark, which will have
been put on that. .

  1. While studying psychology I always felt the need of awareness about development of psychology in India. Thanks a lot.

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