Marine social-ecological systems



hi I wouldn't say a few words about brief social-ecological systems and the ecosystem approach in a simple term raised so if i call it the system if rain system has society course human consume fish and because this approach could mean consuming less dish to leave mortgage for other components of the system another time sufficient or consume directly by humans by fault by fishing vessels that are impacted by market demand which in turn different products to the consumers as well as external drivers such as fuel prices subsidies policies are inverting the behavioral fishing several different types of fishing fleets may be targeting the famous fish species but also different species different kinds of fish pieces may be eating each other and the computer which server of course for resources and those resources could be so abundant further down the food web or phytoplankton even further down to where fish may also be prey and food to see birds or marine mammals seals or for business or dolphins or whales and of course these types of dynamics are very complex because there are so many different types of interactions in this system when the fishing fleets are impacting fish stocks this may call ripple effect sticks on cascading effects throughout the food web and as human byproducts and agricultural production of land generate nutrient runoff to the sea this nutrients may act as fertilizer stimulating phytoplankton production intern stimulating joe blanton production which in turn may stipulate fish productivity so these types of sites may also cascade up the food web and on top of all these dynamics were also course have finally change in variability that's impacting all the different aspects of the cover to make this a little bit more concrete I want to stay a little bit about some of the dynamics that we have studied in the Baltic Sea in the 1970s and 1980s we had a very dramatic increase of called the main territory fish species in the Baltic Sea but after the climatic conditions for code deteriorated in the late 80s and 90s and we became a creative increasingly efficient in catching called the stock decreased pretty dramatically at the same time what happened was that the main prey of called sprat increased somatically as a result of a decrease in cost and this largely systems change has been referred Resident Evil ships where some of the interactions I talk to you about before the strength in the direction of the interaction between species may have changed dramatically so that instead of called being able to dominate the Spencer who made me we may not be in a situation where this path is to a large extent able to control the cosmic so these types of dynamics are increasingly studied by scientists but really it's only the last 30 years that we have been talking about so we could put this done ever since some perspective some other interesting issues may emerge in the early 1900s the system was completely different from what it is today humans were not as efficient as they are today in catching fish and instead seals for the main predators in this system so we started to increasingly realize this and started to shoot seals which resulted in a large decrease in the co stock and later on fri the cultural and the industrial production became more efficient polluted toxic pollutants were having a negative impact on 20 stocks which again decrease in the late 1970s now we're seeing an increase in the field stock and we don't know yet to what extent this will implement that the pooper dynamics in addition to change in sealed box we also throughout this pier have increasingly loaded the system with nutrients really we've been fertilizing the system for a retired century and in the early nineteen hundred the system was very low in nutrients and very high in co and now we have a completely different system with very few seals and very dilute your building so really what is happening is that the drivers have change over time from CL relation to be from being an important drivers of change in the system we now have increasingly nutrient loading toxic pollutants and fishing pressure at different riders the driver to take over time of course drivers can also change over space if you imagine the Baltic Sea with Sweden here finland here total gear and all the other nine countries around the region the numbness that I talk to you about here basically those into central portal volt DC but we're in recently start to understand how deep or similar dynamics are occurring all over the region in different suffering is different 2 components of the Baltic Sea or experienced our exhibit similar types of regimes but was interesting is that here we're seeing in the summer Baltic Sea we seen that perhaps climate variability and fishing pressure are important drivers have changed where is another Preakness maybe nuclear loading very important private should change so drivers don't only change over time they also change over space and of course depending on what types of ecosystem service that would prefer we need to respond to different types of drivers to be able to respond to regime cheers and avoid undesirable regime shift so being able to do this we have to develop governance capacity at local sub-regional and very entire regional scale and that's pretty much what the ecosystem approach this video about being able to monitor and respond to ecosystem dynamics of multiple and interacting scales




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