Indus Valley Civilization Part – 2 | Harappa | Vignan Sarvas


hi guys welcome to my channel
vignansarvas this is a sivaramu darlanka today we are
discussing about the second part of the Indus Valley Civilisation we already
discussed in the first part in this part we are discussing about the other
important features means in the first chapter we are discussing about the
discovery of the civilization and geographical and bounties of the
civilization in this chapter we are discussing up or the all these factors
people date of the civilization town planning economic life social life
political life religion disposal of the dead and finally decline of the
civilization or decline of the Indus Valley first we start from people
many archers believed in his people or not belong to a single race they are all
belong to that different races based on the archaeological excavations conducted
on Indus Valley sites and based on the skeletal remaining archaeologist and
anthropologist believable they belongs to the mainly four races one is proto
asteroid second one mongoloid third one alkaloid forth one minute Aryan
generally the South Indian order billion people belongs to the military and race
present in a partisan also bravi bravi tribal you probably driving now you prova time in Pakistan treat it as a
successor of the Indus Valley people finally out of fortresses most of the
Harappans building belongs to the military in Ruiz second data of the civilization
regarding the date of the civilization there is no animus opinion among the
archaeologists different person proposed different dates based on their findings
first one is multimeric villa he proposes the date means around between
2500 to 1500 BC and John Marshall who is the chief engineer chief archaeologist
of Indus Valley Civilisation proposal around 3252 2,750 between its time Indus
Valley Civilisation was begun along with Sumerian or Mesopotamian civilization
but the nature of the nature of the Harappan space belongs to the 2500 to
1500 BC and next Aggarwal DP Agarwal he proposes that date based on the
radiocarbon tests or C 14 he proposed it from 2500 BC to 1750 B disease not the
c14 dating or radiocarbon dating method invented by w f b WF o Lippe invented
the c14 method finally most of the Occulus believed the indus valley never
loved it between the 2500 to 1750 from 1500 onwards vedic civilization is big
marty-mar wheeler believer that indus valley decline due to the our innovation
so that’s why he proposed the date of 1500 BC after the Indus Valley are in
culture or vedic period culture is double by his opinion of course one
person was believed that or no one person agreed that okay
next an important feature is town planning compared with the other means
platter people means audience indus valley people lead a urban life
the totally almost all sides are the designed for ameno Arbonne method under
in the designing of their planning they followed the grid pattern grid means
intensity divided into the different actor angle applause like this here you
can find the the narrow gap is like a roads one road cut the another at right
angles so is a simply mortal of the indus valley sites also almost all sites
are followed the grid pattern except John hood are oh here we find the
irregular pattern of course there is no clear shape okay and also the second one
the most of the roads located in north to south direction here also given the
top is not under the South the south so the mostly important roads are laid them
not to salt and also the yeah for the construction of the buildings happened
people’s use it the bunt bricks are clean but tricks but in Lothal and Kali
monk and people they use the sun-dried bricks for the construction of the house
and whatever may be after they use the burnt bricks only further construction
of the trainees okay and another important is a system
of the time planning is underground drainage system the harpin develop given
importance to the sanitation yeah here I give the picture regarding the training
system you know Monserrat they use the underground drainage system every host
connected with the drainage the drain is directly linked to the main river so
that’s why the given importance of the sanitation every try names linked to the
bathroom or toilet of every house and also regarding the granaries in her
happens they stored that grinds in no different forms of course the largest
Grand in Arab I Indus Valley founded Harappa here we find the three rows of
six degrees two rows of six lines totally twelve but we can call as a six
grand please hear the remainings or win suffer
granny wrists okay but the largest grantee single can be located in a mu 0
at Harappa granary located outside of the foot but in Monster Oh granny
located inside of the fort for Tom okay and also the construction of the walls
but buildings they used the English bond method like our present method here
which if i am i given method ease so for one line laid after one line but the
bricks arranged in this form of course we are producing this form only
so probably – our pants were the earliest inventors of the English born
method and come to the entrance later in the every house generally the main
hunter the house had aim tight entrance to the
means it means house located near the road but
they had a side entrance to the road but in law all they had a direct entrance
from the main street the house means directly like our present our housing
pattern okay come to the Citadel city pattern so every import happen cider
divided into the mainly two divisions one is for top and it is law or town the
best of the every spider raised a high mound and the eastern part is low
probably on the high mount we find some buildings with two two or three four
floors probably they belongs to the rich person
or vilnius class and common house and Ellora means one or two rooms building
found on the lower division probably the a belongs to the artisans and common
people so that’s way here we find this manner in almost all cities of Harappa
come to the oliveira in Dholavira we find the three divisions three regions
of the city one is for town second one is middle and third one is the lower
town whole in Talavera of course at chanwoo thirupu we didn’t find any fort
a means entire site is flat it is differed from other in the sites
only at chunkathara we didn’t find any foot or spotless city okay come to the
economic life in the economic life can divide into the ten categories one is
agriculture second one the irrigation third one is domestication of animals
fourth one trade and commerce fifth one exports and imports sixth one is
crafts and industries sounds upon pates and majors transport poetry and seals
first we start from agriculture agriculture based on the evidence we
find on the different Harappan sites the archaeologists estimated that the some
of the crops which were cultivated by the harpin people one rice at Lothal
rangiku we find the rice husk means that top layer of the rice at bonnie bonnie
we find the barley and Gujarat we find the millets and a girl
you know crystal region we find the cotton probably happens all the yeast
validators of the cotton so that’s why the Greeks who are imported the cotton
from interest or Sindh region they called the cotton as a cinder and also
returning the agricultural practices we find the evidence of bluff at Cal a
bunga here we also find the evidence of the ploughin limit or for Roland of
course he heaped only we also find about the evidence of earthquake so whatever
may be the harpoons no daha agricultural methods which are followed by the
present life prov course we only learned from the Harappans
okay these are the key cultural methods and generally they shown the seeds in
the month of November probably after the southwest monsoon season and they
harvest the crops before the floods arrived means in the month of April or
May okay next irrigation here irrigation or call-up government’s on Nala’s tanks
in Afghanistan region in their policy analysts of course I’m here MA here in
India also called as a Nala is tap and government also also means here thanks
of course in Indus Valley sides we didn’t find the canal irrigation is
almost two in all most sites cannon irrigation is absent except that traces
of can also only find it too short game is also located in Afghanistan condition
and am tada in a Indian industry Jensen’s at the Ollivier
amigos that we find the water is the wife
probably the all over the oliveira people known for the unique water main
is mint it is the reservoir at the whole of you
can find the steps and also the how much depth it is located okay next
after that we discussed about the domestication of animals of course we
don’t know that exactly what are the animals what about the animals
domesticated by the hard ones but based on the evidence like bones and also the
terracotta toys and also from the seal supermajors we estimated a some of the
animals from based on the bones we find that some animals like rhino sauce if I
find at hungry ok and camel bones I find a collie punkin and host hot spoons
Atsuko Dada here one thing is a very important means in harpoon Valley we
didn’t find any hostile of course not evidence but the available evidence not
belong to the exact are up and paste but a latter piece so that’s far but it is
know about the host but he a circuit or a troublesome our case is believed these
are not or not a horse but it is healed donkey of course both are seems look as
the same and coming to the from the pasta the sealed or pasta Cecil from
mohenjo-daro estimated some of the animals because of the seal they
represented some animals around the a if we may a male died team tiger dus
buffalo Austin dinosaurs all animals visible on the scene and second one is
copper at time about we find the sum of the
in copper alloys like rhino sauce and it different these are the copper ties find
it as I’m up on it and also they members also find the Bravo Buffalo again the
copper ox founded Kali pungen and a copper dog better lost all and tooth
probably they also like the same as found it a chronic unda a and here
regarding the unicorn and some mean some books they mentioned humpable treated as
a unicorn but some authentic books like our Sharma like these books they
mentioned complex Bulls are the unicorn okay
and also they also worship the other like a dog on all these things and here
not happen people didn’t know about the line and horse okay here given some clay
figures of animals like elephant oops and these animals next coming to
the trade and commerce harpin people who only had a trade relations with the
condom one of the corner civilization namely mist domion or Sumerian the must
remain records indicated around 2,350 PC also mentioned the same they mentioned
the they trade relations with Aloha probably Malou he is the oldest name of
our master omean name of mohenjo-daro okay it is evident to us but either in
number of seals happens use the seals in a square and rectangular and most human
people uses the cylindrical seals so some cylindrical seals were found at
mohenjo-daro and some Harappan seals were found at tuff mesh – mean cities so
that’s where both are intact changes it seals of course those seals are found at
moon and makan probably they acted as an intermediate
station between them and computer some of the Muslims it is like guru
Kushinagar here we find some harp instills and another said namely at uma
uma oh my no must immensity here we find the a bundle of cloths cotton cloths
probably at that time was too many people didn’t know about the cotton
glass so they import that cloth from mess put mouth from mohenjo-daro so
that’s why it’s also one of the evidence further trade and commerce between them
and come to the exports and imports of course her my exported input so many
things and particularly important thing like gold lead silver tin from
Afghanistan and Iran of course also known as a Pasha and lapis lazuli from
but action and Kashmir of course the master Mian people also imported the
lapis lazuli from here here only and carnelian which was used for making of
build beads also imported from South Astra these are the main exports and
imports next coming with the crafts and industries of course happens now so many
crafts and industries the pro foremost and important is waving industry the
evidence of waving industry was founded Mohandas ro here we find the bundle of
spindle rules under needles so that’s where archaeologists estimated that
waving is the one of the common craft among the next one is be admitting build
making these farmers in the Lothal and Chavez ro next bangles bangles for
making that Bala could endure chanwoo darou these are the main iam
crafts and industries next weights and measures of course are upon northern
different measuring system normally sexagesimal under dismal system and
based on their weights and measures we can estimate that 1616 has a standard of
you teat of course October in fast funnier I mean since
repack 16,000 pages as a standard your of unity course at the time meaning
roughly a minimum 40 to 50 years back 60 Anna’s equal to one rupee
so probably we also use the same standard of unity 16 Anna’s equal to one
rupee next a bronze scale was found at Lothal
like that scale also founded monster also you are given some of the seals and
weighing stones cane again they were made by the
different type of all special stones and cutting in accurate manner of course in
almost all sides we find the accurate being stones coming to the transport the
main transport system is the planned transport miss wrote a transport easy
Bullock cuts here they call the Bullock carts as a kike ikka a cause and the
Dawson of the chariot means the copper chariot found at a time Abad under the
first man-made doctor at Lausanne probably a law son became the prominent
and import into port town of IPC in this valley civilization at loss are also we
find our terracotta ship model here a user
little we find the marker the seal can find out that these are the both better
action of the ships total second place the goods okay like that we find the
data courtship model on seal found at mohenjo-daro ones that also we also find
this next pottery happens were well knowledge in making of pottery like on
the pottery they use different type of designs mostly geometrical patterns here
some on the point you can find that they use the different curved lines different
shapes and different lines and also they produce different type of for tonight
realize it water free Polycom pottery Norberto pottery incisive watery out of
all the pottery glass report is important probably happens were the
earliest producers of as a reporter image like a shining pottery probably
they use the a type of metal war so that’s why the glazier water is produced
by again coming to the seals yeah happens over script Harper’s
knowledge almost most of the things or gaining or known to us by the seeds the
Ilyas to a seal from Harper was sketched by redone by the Cunningham Alexander
Cunningham who treated as a for other of Indian or Keala see the first here only
this is the seal read run around by the Alexander Cunningham known as a father
of Indian ecology under another ship of Shiva Shiva seal also founded monster
next for making the seals harpoon user is a type of stove
called steatite steel today is very soft stone so that’s why they can come out in
any manner most of the seals made of steel a stone of course they also use it
a chatter jasper carnelian also but important is a stated this is a soft
stone and also the cutting and polishing with the white luster it is the unique
method invented by the serpents exactly they were cut in the shape okay so this
is a unique method of the happens and also the mainly happens inside the two
types one is square and the reason rectangular types generally that’s clear
like here I mean I show them one picture it is a square seal you can find in
square seal can find both inscriptions as well as image okay you can find in nu
square C’s but most of the rectangular scale means like terms the scenes you
find only the inscription like this manner okay and these are the
cylindrical scenes this image is the cylindrical seals half of Moscow Mian
people these also belongs to the most domain people’s these are the our Indus
script or in the seals can find the rhino elephant DS and a bull all seals
are produced by the harpoons coming to the social life in Josh live you can
divided into the three categories one is general life script and games general
life you know indus valley you didn’t find any caste system or warner system
but you find that class system already when we discussed when else we are
cussing over the Town Planning and we explained that one
is the high mound and it is a lot long probably rich and poor and uh regarding
that present ornaments from different images and different scenes we know the
idea of the dress up for happens and also the coming to the ornaments
they use the different of stones beads and metals for making the different
ornaments these are the example of the ornaments found in a harpoon region and
also the regarding the here we also find the lipstick and ink pot at Sun food are
eternally find both in for Tonto lipstick and in their toilets we also
find the progeny asunder I just probably she was used by the man okay
these are the things generally no Punk people next script
the earliest script are noted by the Cunningham I don’t know 18:53 of course
the company script is known to us by from the 923 it consists of nearly 400
to 500 and some in some books they mentioned nearly 600 signs are signs and
symbols are available in those script but it is not an alphabetic it is a logo
syllabic like it contain both symbols signs and letters there Pickler method
of their fighting style this is known as a boss trophy Don Bosco freedom still is
simply means the first line start from left to right and second line start from
right to left Netherland left to right is simply like a snake crawling so
that’s when tell you it is known as a Sur Paula Akana
means like a snake walking okay this is founded upon and also a traitor
the old Veera here you can find the some of the signs
of course in attending the different assignment trips like this manner of
course due to the vast signs and symbols re-passed signs and symbols in law no
one deceiver or no one read the Harappan script completely of course some of the
archaeologists like Mahadevan s ranga know how our announcer their decipher
the script of course no one recognizes that because they didn’t completely
explain the – script okay so that’s why it is unknown are not this effort till
today of course the content script like a halo graphics of Egypt and a cuneiform
half to Macedonia down to the known to us but we didn’t find the unscripted
cuneiform in Macedonia and our holographic scene now he zipped coming
into the games of course the game of gambling known from the IVC here we find
the gambling and also we find the like a chess board at a lotta here like this
here we find the like a chess board model found a lot huh and also toys the
toys are all move with the moveable limbs like like a they move their limbs
and also they are made up of different type of stones like marble
mainly marble and also they also know the fishing and hunting so one of the
game an amusement and here we didn’t find any weapons means war weapons like
SWAT under armour probably that’s why somehow because is
believed they are the peace minded or peace-loving people that’s why we didn’t
find any smart of course we find ax dagger spearhead but we didn’t find
swats under our body Parma also they also interested in dancing here that
monster we find the bronze statue of a dancing girl like in this pose they find
that dance dancing girl started Manju potaro the chess game yeah click
heart probably they also maybe Chari trees also practiced by there or block
or trees coming to the political life regarding the political life corner
ruling there is no single opinion among the there is no single opinion among the
archaeologists because Harkins leader Herbalife and very nice planned manner
but how how it is possible without any organization or without any authority
how it is possible so they are say the archaeologists believe there is a maybe
your type of other party is there that’s why they they Li da a plant in a manner
probably based on their own different opinions all more on our college period
may probably three types of administers are there one is whether municipal
administration or please careless or traders muncipal means so probably they
give you the importance of Sanitation drinking water facilities and also the
town designing pattern so this is also possible in normal administration and
coming to the priest because we find the sum of the image here I show that some
image of their different priests probably
priests are the one of the rulers and coming to the another opinions and some
person assumed that the traders are the rulers because Harappan civilization was
developed because of the trading only because they exported her so many things
to the near the civilization is master Tom
insulation so probably predators acted as rulers of course there is no single
opinion regarding the political life coming to the religion based on the
earrings are clearly assumed the different type of worships probably six
type of worships one is mother goddess mother goddess worship is very famous in
the Indus Valley area because almost all in sites except some Carly punkin and
Lothal almost in all sides we find the statue powerful mother goddess here he’s
dumb mother goddess image like this manner under second one is wash with
Mahadeva or possibly Mahadeva the seals are already disgusted he still found at
mazda row he was surrounded with elephant rhino sauce buffalo to deal his
feet here Tommy means is there you can find he is the tiger Bryan oh sorry
elephant rhino buffalo here some deists on the top we find some words
inscription latest he seated on cross-legged seated on the sun rising
storm and we feared some three-horn dresses so probably I believe the posh
Bathsheba later Sir John Marshall told that he pees the call as a prototype of
Shiva baby from this period onwards the Shiva was ship was beginning in India
and second one is the third one is a palliative worshiper our palace
worshiper political means they worship the
reproductive organs of male and female of course in India
present we are also the father the pollak worshipers in no Stryver religion
because most of the shiva temples shiva possibly in the form of Linga
probably in lignin is a reproductive organ of Shiva oh sorry the product Oh
me so probably you also worship the pollak worshipers and next the fourth
one is fire worship or fire either because in Lothal and Kelly began we
find the plenty of fire and us means a Nevada car probably they offered them
some things to the gods so that’s why in the fire worship also prevalent in Oh
Indus Valley Civilisation next one is a recent animal motion please like papal
tree debris and animals like birds like Douw pigeon and cow accomplice bull
these are the common worshipers in this period and in some houses we find the
use of amulets means in Telugu it is called as a title so generally based on
that can assume that they believe in own existence of course or evil spirits so
to get rid of these evil spirits they use the EM –let’s of course we don’t
know exactly and another thing is that in more
thorough we find the great bath some archaeologists believe that the great
bath probably using for religious ceremonies so here it is the 39 feet
length 23 feet to the bed and 88 Peter depth here on the surround of the
surrounding of the great bath there is rooms for a dress changing there is a
facility for hot water and all this then after the based were also went to the
Indus River so this type of facilities 500 great one probably great what is the
largest public building you know Mohan is our own public building but largest
building in Maharis granary Krita granary
and last one is coming to the disposal of the dead of course in Harappa before
they followed the different methods for the disposal of the dead but based on
some evidence we assumed the day forward without different methods for example
from Harappa we find the coffin method wooden coffin present that Eva method
usually no Christians probably in the coffin method is adopted from Masterman
people because Macedonia people they use the coffin Marian and second one is a
circuit or da-da-da-da-dah we find the bones along with the pot pieces probably
they use the pot very means we don’t know exactly after the decomposition of
the body they put the balls in the pot or they cut the body and put in the pot
random but we don’t know exactly probably we don’t know probably this
gossip what is a Arnoff you are an unbearable and third one is lot on this
joint where your joint means – we here we find the male and female skeletons in
a so probably here we find that is a one of the example of safety but I yell
method and fourth one is the Kali phangan it can’t even can we find
chamber means they constructed a Chomper with the help of bricks ladder they put
the body in the chamber the type of variable pounded cardi baingan next
petrol power and even also in her power we find the a dog buried along with
human so probably in like a teaser – they also worshiped in
they also believed in the rebirth because in most of the graves we find the skeleton along with
the different of utensils or a different of bronze vessels next jewelry different
type of things I find you know different degrees so that I believed in no
existence of so means rebirth of the sound under Harappa we find our 37 by
any means also known as a it’s symmetry in the form of H they’re buried so
probably hit symmetry and at one Dodaro we find the group of skeletons at one
place we don’t know exactly what happened after I did am largest man or
no vast massacre or large burial method we don’t know that but at Mons are we
finding the group of Gilligan’s at one place and finally decade of the valley
Declan of indus valley civilization of course we don’t know that what is the
exact reason for the decline or end of the civilization because this is located
hosteria nearly 1.3 billion square kilometers
so that superior nuts weight is not possible by the one reason is the main
reason for the decline of the entire value so based on evidence different
archives is proposed two different theories the first theory are in
invention or external aggression mainly proposed by marty-mar villa he proposes
this theory based on the mangy dog group upper ear here on the group of barrier
on the skeletons we find the marks of warsaw
schwartz schwartz the spots were not used by the Harappans
because we didn’t find any swans but because of schwarz only used by the
Hodgins so they came and killed the hard ones unoccupied the host regime he
proposed the theory the same time the same thing means the
nearest thing you want something mentioned indicated as the word Hara
p.m. probably Harbor the region of helping people build inner palace
worshipper means actually the our hands are Ignace the palace worship a big
because they worship pradana forces of nature so that’s where they destroyed
the palace worshipper another thing the important god of
audience is Indra who was also known as a rata
purandara porn theater means destroy off for means fourths so because her pants
were mostly famous 4/4 so that’s why I only destroyed the IVC he proposed the
theory of course in something is correct but orally it is not correct second one
is earthquake proposed by Robert Reich’s already we discuss that the evidence of
earthquake found after Carly Bunga maybe it is one of the reason the third one is
ecological imbalance proposal whether voltar face of it’s illogical means
gradually the means the Indus area gradually lost its fertility and
gradually people moved other regions because of the climate and development
this is decline and fourth one is unstable reverse system proposed by HT
Lambrecht he proposes that initial P this civilization located on the banks
of the river in dust but due to the floors under dry due to the floors under
excess flow the rivers shifted its course to the other regions so gradually
they is shifted to the other region of course in some you discovered but it’s
not a complete correct and next one is fire accident at code Z code Z at codes
a we find the evidence of the fire accident based on
that de cochon be proposed on fire accident is one of the reason for the
doctrine of indus valley a next one is in the splits
based on the evidences at a mangia taro the john marshall proposed antennas
let’s see the main decision at moons the row we find that the outer wall of the
moons are seven times destroyed and reconstructed probably the indus flow
river flow nearest to the monitor so probably because of the indus floods the
city is Vonage to seven times he is one of the reason these are dryness of river
probably the a curveball so based on his view some of the indus
like even some river what everybody sarasvati present is right up so because
of the dryness suffer reverse and other things the indus fear is the decline
proposal of course the same theories proposed by the different persons but
here I mentioned a few persons only ok so whatever maybe we are maybe all the
reasons are the causes of the decline of Indus Valley and finally the other facts
present in India after independence important sites of IVC or Indus Valley
Civilisation went to Pakistan present the largest site in India he please rock
eager he in you know Haryana region probably it is the largest site you know
Indus Valley educational sites of India the second largest is Talavera in
Gujarat and next time the munathara means a mountain of dead because of this
the largest massacre area Carly Bunga means black bangles of course the couple
in Hindi D’s means black bangles bangles probably black bang it
next one is a yachtie this also called as a mini Harappa cosmopolitan CP even
know this also called as amount of dead but the mound out that only used for
modular okay and next is grinding stones are saddle once these are found at a
monster by archaeologist Maquis ships mark a next one at mother I find that
different things the important is branch dancing on Idol next trade bath and a
great agree so right gland is the largest public building in a modular
means that’s construction monitor next cylindrical the copper since Mesopotamians is found at authorization
board and also regarding the seals maracas seals are the earliest
precursors of the harpoons means the first Harappan seals were produced
greater measure latter the seal making is known to the other regions these are
the important facts okay thank you thanks for watching if you like this
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