Inca Social and Political Organization



the supreme authority of the Incas was the supper they was considered the descendent of the Sun God and he ruled by divine right and because he was a descendant of the Sun God subjects were not allowed to look him in the eye and he was not allowed to walk as a mortal he was carried around in the golden letter and now the Sapa Inca had hundreds of women who served him as secondary wives and these women came from that odd calluna or chosen women group a group of women selected on the basis of beauty skill and social rank to serve as a priestess or attendant to the sapa inca however the Empress or the koya came from the ranks of the Sapa Incas full sisters so from lakoi as offspring Sokka Incas selected his heir ok the koya had her own Court and reputation for taking and unofficial but discreet role in imperial affairs below the Sapa Inca were the nobles and these were the catback Incas who were in knoebels blood by blood these caprock Incas controlled land and valuable resources they were leaders of the bureaucracy the government army and priesthood they also became the governors of the four quarters what that means is that the Empire was was broken into four sections so that there was a governor on each section that report back to the Sapa Inca below the noblemen were the government officials and to administer the vast empire the Inca broke down the populace in two decimal units and so what that means is that every ten households were governed by the head of one household thus leaders reported to the heads of groups of 50 households above them were leaders of hundreds 500,000 5,000 10,000 households so at the bottom of the the government official list were the leaders from Concord regions and they continue to rule groups of households in their areas despite its size and complex organization the Inca ruled the Empire without the use of a written language as the Mayans did they developed a substitute for writing known as the quipu and this is unique among human inventions and well suited to their needs it consisted of knotted strings of cotton or wool and drew a little rough sketch of a key boo here the system used to keep records of numbers of llamas quantities of corn the number of days commoners worked for the government so each number would be a knot on this string and they used a decimal counting system and so the Inca placed the knocks on the stream to indicate their place value for example 1705 llamas would have been court recorded with one not in the thousands place seven knots in the hundreds place and no not in the tens position and a five loop knot in the ones positions so that was their complex way of keeping track as I mentioned in the government official slide the Inca Empire was was controlled by the household so every ten households governed by the head of one household who reported to the heads of other households so what that means is you have ten neighbors okay one person on your block is in charge of all 10 of those houses that one person then goes back to the other heads of house heads of ten households they get together and then they go to the next set of rulers then they get together and go to the next set so it's kind of this chain of people reporting events till it gets to the sofa Inca and this way Inca controlled economies of diverse communities and were able to collect taxes more easily because they understand what was going on in each household throughout the empire strict laws regulated the lives of commoners the state demanded that everyone work and and designated jobs for every man woman and child starting at the age of five Imperial officials oversaw where people lived what crops they grew and how they dressed in addition to working the lands that they owned commoners were required to work in the inca fields paid taxes that supported the Empire's bureaucracy priesthood and other officials each household also had to work in state-run enterprises and this might include spending a year in the Army or a month repairing local roads or doing services such as in a ceramic shop the Inca also demanded that people in diverse parts of the Empire produced enough food for their community and for state needs commoners grew an enormous range of plants producing corn the most valued crop as well as beans squash peanuts cocoa cotton and canoa a Highland grain and potatoes which were which the potatoes there were more than 200 varieties when not planting harvesting or preparing storing food peasants especially the woman spent time spinning and weaving cloth for the families need and for the state's need for their toil commoners benefited from living in a stable state in which threat of warfare was diminished a large portion of food that they produce went into storehouses to be used by the Inca to feed his administration and armies as well as those paying labor tax to the state the storehouses also kept tools clothing sandals and other assorted goods for distribution to an individual associated with the state bureaucracy




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