Human emotions and social system.



the claws of this squirrel dig into the wood of a tree well enough to enable it to run through the trees squirrels are closely related to mice rats and beavers rather than using digging claws to grasp branches primates have hands as we see with this tarsier the primates grasping fingers support more weight allowing them to become larger animals larger animals apps lower heart rates and metabolism resulting in longer lifetimes for many species the lifetime of an animal lasts for about a billion heartbeats those would more slowly beating hearts live for a longer amount of time apes typically live 50 years the development of primates began with the appearance of prosimians some 70 million years ago one type of prosím you began to dwell in bushes and trees where it ate leaves berries and insects birds reptiles and fish often have better eyesight than most mammals many mammals are small nocturnal creatures who rely more on their senses of smell and hearing than on eyesight and so rarely have color vision instead they are able to see well in dim moonlight you see nearly nothing in an unlit room at night but your cat sees just fine and wonders why you are stumbling around primates are an exception their lives in the trees require better vision for an early Pro simian vision became more important its eyes moved forward to enable stereoscopic three-dimensional vision that could better determine death and distance and make it easier to move among the branches after some time it's digging claws were replaced by independently grasping fingers to help it move about the trees more easily this improvement in vision also makes it better at grasping food with its fingers since grasping fingers are more individually operated than as a digging claw there is an accompanying change in the brain of this animal this line of prosimians had become primates primates diverged into monkeys and apes which first appeared some 25 million years ago after that apes diverged into gorillas chimpanzees orangutangs and humans this occurred at a rate of about one vergence every few million years within each of these divergences further divergences occur about every million years and yet further divergences within those one difference between Apes and monkeys is that a monkey's arms and legs make only a forward and backwards motion no sideways movement can be made they cannot dangle and swing from tree branches instead they run through the trees more in the manner that a dog runs apes differ from monkeys and that they have developed a rotating shoulder that enables them to raise their arms out sideways when grasping for a tree branch you make this motion with your arms as you do jumping jack exercises a monkey could not the Apes rotating shoulder was followed by the development of elbows and wrists you can turn your palm right side up or downward your dog cannot do that neither can a monkey we primates have been eating eggs for millions of years making us very sensitive to the sulfurous odor of rotten egg we also share a fear of snakes and a fear of falling from Heights because those are two of a primates biggest concerns notice that phobia is only involved things that have been around for millions of years like spiders even water no one ever develops a phobia of speeding cars today's mountain gorillas live in small groups females have their first child around age 13 and then carry another child every 3 or 4 years after that when males reach the age of sexual maturity they will leave their original group and then move off to join another within each group sexually mature males compete for females and so are twice the size of females such a size difference occurs in each species that has physical competition for us human beings males are only 20% larger than females scientists look for the appearance of this reduced size difference in the ancestral species of humans mammals learn by watching their mother but in humans teaching and learning is done more intently and for several years rather than several weeks or months human children have to learn thousands of cultural details so childhood is lengthened and this results in a delayed and pronounced growth spurt at the age of sexual maturity scientists look for a delayed growth spurt in the ancestral species of humans because this indicates the extent of culture it is important to understand that humans did not evolve from today's monkeys and chimpanzees but that humans and these other primates share a common ancestor we are not the offspring of today's monkeys but are their cousins in the sequence of the Earth's animals more distantly we are the cousins of wells and birds and the offspring of reptiles amphibians fish worms and bacteria every species that has ever existed is a direct descendant of the first living bacterial cell we next look at the changes that led to the human variety of ape paleontologists have about 1,000 skeletal examples of the transition from ape to human and these have been arranged into just a handful of species a series of these skeletal snapshots forms a movie for our primate ancestors some 15 million years ago in Africa a continent a riff developed and built a north-south mountain chain all of the rain is squeezed out of the air as it moves out the western side of these mountains leaving a rain shadow region on the eastern downwind side the forests of the eastern side of the mountains dried up resulting in the East African savanna we humans develop from ancestors who were forced to change with this drying climate and dwindling food supply this climate change played a large role in our past in that it promoted shifts in our Anatomy and in our behavior today's meat-eating baboons thrive in the savanna gorillas and chimps live in regions of abundant food how would their social systems change if their food sources decline the modern Paiute and Szechenyi tribes split into single families to search for widely scattered food several families will meet to socialize did our primate ancestors adjust to the drying climate in this way we also began walking upright some six million years ago there were one dozen species of bipedal Apes in Africa and this occurred a few million years before the use of Oldowan stone tools walking also heats us and this may have caused our decrease in body hair our ancestors lost body hair three million years ago this is known because the divergence in the DNA of head lice and Buick lice occurred some three million years ago about 4 million years ago the Australopithecus afarensis species of APE occurred since males were much larger than females they were physically competing for mates the skeletons of 13 family members buried together shows an ape-like adolescent growth spurt one fairly complete skeleton is that of a three million year old female who was named Lucy by her discovers the shape of her pelvis the angle between her thigh bone and knee her slightly curved feet her two enlarged vertical inner ear tubes and her knee shape indicates that she could move through the trees but also walk upright on the ground she was a bipedal individual the frenzies diverged into two lines one of it about two and a half million years ago became Homo habilis the 800 cubic centimeter brain of Homo habilis was nearly doubled a 500 cubic centimeter brain of Australopithecus Homo habilis were the first to make stone tools these were made to cut and scrape animal hide and to sharpen stick that would be used as Spears and to dig in the ground for edible roots a natural stone was simply broken to give a sharp edge no additional modification was done to change the shape of the fragments about 1 million years would elapse before it occurred to an individual to make additional smaller breaks to refine that first edge there was little change in their tools until Homo habilis went extinct some 1.4 million years ago Homo habilis may have been the first of our ancestors to develop monogamous parenting relations and private relations this may be the time in which our menstruation cycle became more hidden then for example the foreign swelling that occurs in chimpanzees and in other mammals breasts are only temporarily enlarged while feeding babies and then they return to their initial size after weaning occurs we are unique this may be the time at which women's breasts became permanent enlarged Homo habilis were the first to use base camps daily gathering and hunting trips could be made from these temporary spots that also serve as a place for mother a newborn to stay and grow a division of labor develops with camp life Homo habilis were the first of our ancestors to eat meat this is seen in fossil teeth at first they may have simply thrown rocks to drive away the carnivore from the prey that it had just killed alone hominid could get killed while attempting this but a cooperating social group would be in less danger after learning to drive away a carnivore from its kill the group could next learn to cooperate in killing that carnivore through time and trial and error they could learn how to kill other types of even larger animals through ambush by trapping it in muddy spots or by driving it over cliffs most of its food was obtained by gathering the increased brain size of Homo habilis allowed them to build culture and their delayed growth spurt gave children time to learn it this ancestor could not live without its culture culture is our collection of recipes for how to do everything in life today our culture consists of several thousand things including the way we cook make clothes greet people conduct weddings and funerals and operate vending machine an animal needs much brain capacity to learn thousands of such details can your pet learn this number of details beginning with the Homo habilis period in our past we were no longer just molecule machines but instead began to create our own culture the evolution of life naturally leads to brain cells that remember learn and predict and that also developed culture but what is learned and the culture that is developed is not so highly determined by physics chemistry and biology from this point on we begin to choose the details of our own way of life two million years ago this species Homo erectus emerged and lived alongside Homo habilis for a while scientists find that whenever two species compete for the same food sources the one having just a 1% advantage will greatly outnumber the other after just a dozen generations have passed the brain of Homo erectus ranges from 800 to 1,200 cubic centimeters which is the size of modern humans they were as tall as 6 feet or 200 centimeters and looked much like modern humans do it is often said that if you shave a homo erectus man dress him up in a nice suit and put him on the subway then he would be unnoticed and fit right in with the crowd the culture of Homo erectus enabled them to spread from Africa into Europe India and China where the excuse of fire occurred some seven hundred thousand years ago cooking kills germs makes food easier to chew and causes big changes in the daily way of life excavations find that they ate animals of every size including rodents birds pigs elephants and hippos being able to kill the larger of these animals indicates that they are resourceful hunters they used tools wooden Spears and cooperative tactics achillion stone technology was used from 1.4 million to 50 thousand years ago and was made by the hominid homo erectus since these stone tools were made by right or left handers it suggests that homo erectus had an increased language ability the right and left handedness of humans is due to the division of our brains that is associated with speech other animals do not favor a hand they are neither right-handed nor left-handed these tools were more varied harder to make and more useful than were the previous tools of Homo habilis if you try to make these stone tools at home then you will find that it is not as simple as it sounds you must know which type of rock and exactly how to hold and strike them many specialized tools were made for example to scrape the insides of animal skins or to drill holes into hides for the first time our ancestors could cut through tough hide and form strips and sheets that could be used to make string and clothing cooking and clothing both caused big changes in our daily way of life and made us unlike any other animal on the planet Homo sapiens sapiens which is the scientific name for our own species first appeared some 200,000 years ago gene studies have found that every human alive today shares a common grandmother who lived in Africa some 10,000 generations ago our species spread outward from Africa by following game to the grasslands of Central Asia after staying there for hundreds of generations our ancestors spread to China Europe and southeastern Asia we reached Australia about 50,000 years ago we reached the new world some 20,000 years ago culture becomes very complex with the arrival of Homo sapiens from this time on humans show innovation and constant change whereas habilis and erectus cultures had each been static for a 1 million year time span not only does culture give us a way of changing as rapidly as the environment without having any change physically it also gives us a way of changing as rapidly as we can migrate to differing climates the success of culture allowed humans to spread into every region of the earth even though we were not physically matched to the extremes of climate that we encountered this is in contrast to the Neanderthal who did not spread outside of their single climate of more glacial Europe by 1,000 years ago we had spread to most every island throughout the ocean Homo sapiens show concern about the death of loved ones by burying them in the ground along with flowers this is a worldwide custom this indicates that the most amazing things to these ancestors were life and death just as we still marvel about these events today it means that you have the same thoughts as they did and that in some basic ways it is possible for you to put yourself in their place in an archaeological record art objects appear suddenly and everything is decorated from then on we make art on bones beads and clothing flutes and other musical instruments are used objects are traded for distances of hundreds of miles or kilometers cave paintings begin to appear throughout the world they depict animals the hands of the painters and many other items what would be the first things you would depict as drawing was first invented what things would have been most important to our ancestors try to imagine the first time a person was shown a drawing of an animal the drawing could be seen to actually be this animal if an ancestor painted an item onto their home or utensil it could be seen to represent the essence of the depicted item just as you feel today about a religious painting hanging on your wall at home do you have a special feeling toward a picture of your spouse or child an ancestor would have felt the same way 35,000 years ago it is likely that culture blossomed at this time because of a large increase in language ability why did this occur we may have changed physically with the descent of our learnings or our spoken grammar may have developed a couple hundred words like small blue red close and far and such is enough for Homo erectus to communicate basic needs but no real discussion is possible a variety of words and a syntax is needed for homo sapiens to disgust institutions and ideas for example that reality is only a dream notice that facial expressions are biologically older than words and can still convey more than words the climate was again warming from eleven thousand to seven thousand years ago this caused many changes the European region changed from tundra covered to forested its residents became forest dwellers and the large cold adapted mammals began to disappear instead of hunting herds of large animals we humans begin to hunt single deer pig and antelope the bow and arrow was developed for this reason fishing trapping and trade increase the first dugout canoes paddle skis and sleds appear from a piece of Flint that fits in the hand we obtain many metres of cutting edge Flint arrows are hafted in groves that are cut into bones woods or antlers a row of such arrows produced a wood salt that is used to make all sorts of everyday objects from the time of the first humans until about 10,000 years ago all of us who are living as gatherer hunter what was the daily life like during this stretch of time we were usually part of a group of a few extended families who spent a couple hours per day collecting food from nearby streams lakes forests hills and mountains we prefer to live near such a variety of food sources arranged in elevations provides foods that ripens over a range in time it is surprising to us modern people that gatherer hunters had to spend only a couple hours per day obtaining food but in just a few minutes you could pick a basket full of berries which would be a full day supply of food today each of us instead works eight hours per day at our job but we have gained many other benefits we can imagine that each morning family heads would decide which sort of food to eat that day and then head off in its direction we can hear a child ask if we can go see if her favorite fruit trees in the valley has ripened yet just as you talk with your children about what why how and proper behavior the same conversations occur between parents and children and gatherer hunter families which other conversation topics do you share with your gatherer Hunter ancestors notice that gatherer hunters are as happy as any other human from any other time or flakes we did not have to wait for the invention of a particular machine before any person was ever happy imagine that you could transport a newborn baby girl from 20,000 years ago and plop it right into your own family in your hometown today you would teach your own daily way of life to her she would take on today's way of life as well as she would have learned her twenty thousand year old way of life she is as likely to be an artist brain surgeon engineer as any other child today scientists find that we fall in love in steps first we enjoy this certain person's company we begin to pay attention to every detail of their movement and behavior and soon we can think of nothing else besides this person we have a tender first kiss which we might replay in our mind every few seconds through the next week during each replay in our mind we see the others face and feel the soft press of lips we are unable to focus on our work except for 10 seconds out of every three minute period and we can't sleep scientists find that the chemical oxytocin is being produced and released within our brains it is enabling this extraordinary power of concentration and is forging our love we are now fiercely smitten the beauty of this person becomes more pronounced and we become unaware of the existence of all other persons everything around us that used to be dull and boring suddenly takes on a new brightness we notice new details in an old familiar song finally we never want to be away from this person we feel that the universe was made for the two of us and that compared to love what does the universe matter without our love there would be no universe notice that as you replay in your mind the sight of the other person's face and the press of your lips that no words are being spoken the feeling you are experiencing is older than words for a few million years our ancestors were falling in love and being in love without holding a single conversation as you hug your loved one you feel as if you have everything needed in life everything else in the world seems to evaporate and your troubles disappear the comfort you feel at that moment has been occurring during such hugs for millions of years it is an emotional packet that travels through time connecting you with distant ancestors as you share common thoughts and experiences the same portion of DNA in each of you is producing the oxytocin for the same reason fully developed speech consisting of thousands of words began only about 50,000 years ago but we have been a monogamous species for more than 1 million years as you fall in love with your lifelong spouse which of the above steps to falling in love do you think could happen without any words at all as infants we learn language by carefully watching the things our family and group members are doing as they are speaking we are tuned to many contextual and gestural clues that accompany their words for example the toddler notices that every time a person leaves he or she says by the actual sound or word that is made does not matter it is different in each place around the planet we could just as well communicate the departure by tilting our head clapping or pulling our ear the child will do the same the toddler also notices that every time it ball is held a certain word is said within a few years the child has noticed several hundred such pairings of words and events or objects children learn by hearing the words that accompany actions as an infant we spend hundreds of hours learning to manipulate the 75 muscles that make our tongue throat and lips alter puffs of air to produce strings of alternating consonants and vowels children soon takes the production of speech for granted in the same way they take breathing for granted we speak effortlessly and forget how complicated it really is by the way it also took a few hundred hours of effort for you to learn to walk dance throw catch or do algebra and such once learned these things are automatically done with little thoughts while we are struggling to learn new neuronal connections are being made in our brain we are changing our brain as we learn when traveling in foreign countries I cannot believe the rate at which one person produces funny sounds and another person comprehends them each local group of people have a mutual consensus on the sound of speech that will communicate every specific word our use of language is a large part of being human but here too we are not all that different from our other primates and animals the bois de Bohun pansy konzi learned several hundred words the same way by being surrounded by people since birth and by watching and listening to them as they are doing things Kanzi understands spoken English for example in the kitchen a person can say konzi wash the potatoes and put them in the pan or put the green box in the refrigerator and he will calmly also communicates with a lexigram board when new scientists joined the team working with kanzi it takes them one year to learn the hundreds of symbols on the lexigram board Kanzi understands several hundred spoken words banana banana berry banana banana peanut Sherman milk milk milk Apple very good how about Su Su very good peanuts peanut peanut ace egg hey how about Chow get any channel I see I tell the shop you might have to ask job yeah you think so I can give you a job tomato there can you friend onions onion potato potato blueberries blueberry good good good that's right good very good strawberries strawberries money what do we human beings most often use our precious language to talk about studies find that two thirds of our conversation is used to talk about each other we are social creatures of the 1 billion words in the dictionary the most common words used in our conversations include person child man woman time day year week thing world life hand agree on the words used to vocalize feelings actions and thoughts we experience a feeling and then to verbalize it we search from a list of words others have used when expressing what we think likely had a similar feeling for them for example being exhilarated feeling dread or anxiousness notice words are not needed to experience our feelings or to choose actions we are adept at noticing what others are doing or feeling and what they are saying while they are doing or feeling it we have an innate predisposition to learn to use complex language but the specific form of that language is not preset within our genes we might learn either to speak Farsi or to sign Italian it has also been found out that if during childhood we are not surrounded by other people and so do not have the opportunity to learn language by the age of 10 or so then we will never learn language we also have an innate predisposition to form culture but the details of that culture are not genetically predetermined we have developed a hardwired circuit our inner voice within our brain that instantly and automatically produces the word to accompany the sight of every object whether we want it or not persons who are deaf at birth and learn sign language during childhood develop an inner sign rather than an inner voice as we recall an image of an apple we see an object that is sort of round and maybe red notice that it takes some effort to concentrate on that image to add the details of its appearance the stem and that fuzzy stuff at its bottom the detours from roundness the exact color and the graduations in color are added to our image only if we concentrate our brain functions by creating interior representations of external events a real Apple does not exist within our head but only a mentally generated representation of one this makes it less surprising that nightmare trouble children and schizophrenic s– believe that the monsters they see in their heads are real as we mentally picture an Apple it seems to be as real as any other our brain defines who we are and it produces our view of the world around us you for thousands of years people have wondered what is going on inside our brain the instant before an idea pops into our head scientists now use MRI machines to measure the pop as it develops in a split second a person is placed in the machine and then asked picture for example an apple within the person's brain there are at first very few neurons involved but with mental concentration the number keeps growing when a great enough number of neurons have become involved we feel that we have just had an entire thought our thought process involves growing regions of neuronal activity our lifelong consciousness really consists of a series of individual five-second awarenesses one after another that is we will consider one thing for about five seconds and then we go on to consider something else for five seconds you might like to keep track of the sequence of thoughts that you have during a one-minute period this means that the present lasts for about five seconds two weeks are needed for our brain to adjust to a big change in life such as getting married joining the army going to prison or moving to a boarding school the brain soon decides that the new situation is now the normal one our brain is naturally adept at handling the situations that are ancient biological ancestors continually encountered through the generations including those of our socially cooperating and mutually beneficial room for example we effort Li notice the simultaneous absence of a certain man or woman our brain makes predictions of the behavior of the others within our social group we think in terms of social cost paid not paid and of benefits accepted or denied we do not seek the absolute best solution because we do not have the time to consider every detail of every option we instead seek the most overall beneficial choice that can be made quickly we jump to a decision that feels right that is more important to us than finding the most logical solution our feelings amplify one criterion over another and assign weights to each alternative have you noticed the inner feeling of pleasantness or unpleasantness you have mo mentally selecting from a list of options for example while simply choosing what to eat for lunch we perform a series of mental steps we think of one food develop a feeling for it gauge the level of goodness or badness of that feeling think of another food develop a feeling for this one gauge the level of goodness or badness of this feeling and then select that food which provided the most positive inner feeling we make larger decisions in the same way we do this when choosing between jobs and cities the waiting of feelings is done within the cingulate gyrus constantly surrounded by thousands of things but pay attention only to those that we deem to be of biological importance because they can impact our life you might see buildings trees with swaying leaves blowing grass gliding Birds airplane tracks in the sky a line of ants two person's conversing a leaking faucet a mother and daughter walking a parked bicycle and ambulance a restaurant a big dog roaming a coin an attractive person in some traffic we are surrounded by a continual barrage of events our feelings serve to greatly amplified the importance of those events that are biologically relevant to us and help us ignore the others so that we are hardly conscious of them for example mates and predators are biologically important to us while the motion of wind blown grass is not the tiny cut caused by the doctors needle does no damage but our feelings greatly amplified the perceived importance of this an event is not remembered if it warns no feeling you probably don't remember the fallen twig you passed last week things producing strong feelings are never forgotten our inner feelings help us to learn and to remember to vent in life the entire sense environment of sight sound taste smell and touch is stored in our memory we also store our inner feeling of pleasantness or unpleasantness for each event we not only remember each experience but also the feeling we were having as it occurred just as we have an inner voice that produces the name of each item scene we also have an inner feeler you cannot turn off either of these early in life each situation is new to us after gathering some experience we avoid those situations or behaviors that produce a bad feeling and repeat those that produce a good feeling our religious say just urge that each night you should review the day's thoughts and actions and repeat those that made you happy while avoiding those that did not while choosing a response to a situation the brain circuit in the cingulate gyrus performs a summed average of innate reactions predispositions of mental recollections of past experience and of mentally imagined likely outcomes born chemical contacts the tissue of our nose or tongue chemical reactions occur that result in our sense of smell and taste the chemicals that we encounter do not possess odor the odor is not real it is merely our perception of the chemical that has contacted our sensory tissue it is the way our brain represents the chemical within our thoughts when we smell rotten food we have a repulsive feeling because those ancient individuals who did so were more likely to live long enough to have children than were those individuals who ate that rotten food this is the reason we perceive an unpleasant smell when we encounter things that have consistently proven to be harmful through many generations we share these experiences with our ancestors who lived millions of years ago there is no sweetness in sugar instead the sweetness is the reaction we have evolved to experience when we taste this food the pleasant feeling we experience while eating sugar is meant to encourage us to do so throughout our biological past sugar was found only in fruit and such the molecules of sugar react with the molecules of our tissue in a purely electrical manner our conscious experience of odours sweetness and beauty are illusions created within our mind rather than actual physical properties of objects themselves or other molecules this is the way of our mental world within our brain the circuits that handle vision and other senses are intertwined with our pleasantness circuits dopamine is released unto the nucleus occupants through a DNA directed process whenever an animal is experiencing pleasure we experience a pleasant feeling while watching a sunset because the regions of the brain that handles sight are also connected by neurons to the pleasure center of our brain we can experience pleasure through any of our senses oxytocin accompanies the experience of love and adrenaline is released whenever an animal is experiencing pain since this occurs even species of animals as ancient as the fish it means that they are in fact experiencing emotions too though they do not look like they are doing so to us mammals found it useful to communicate visibly their emotions to other individuals notice that little communication occurs between predator and prey communication is used for all other reasons why do we think certain people have beautiful faces scientists use a computer to digitally combine hundreds of photographs of faces the greater number of photographs that are averaged together the more beautiful we perceive the resulting face to be through daily life we do this mentally without even being aware of it it seems inconsistent at first that the average can be the most beautiful but it's due to an average arrangement of genes and those have been making individuals that are among the most well adapt to environmental predators food and climate an unusual face represents a genetic experiment the most beautiful face occurs when the average face is altered to have a shorter than average lip to jaw distance and lips are fuller than average however we are placing an undue emphasis on outer appearance since it results from a tiny portion of our genes only a few dozen of our 25,000 genes account for the differences in our outer appearance of people of all races basic emotions our happiness sadness fear disgust surprise anger sympathy pride embarrassment guilt and shame these emotions are evoke by events that have been consistently present throughout the biological history of our species witnessing an emotional response today to an event that evoke 'td intellect traveling back in time to observe the emotions and events that evoked them in our biological ancestors you feel the same way during the same situation as did the ancestor 1 million years ago most of these emotions occur only in social situations during the earliest generations of the primate social system those individuals who could detect and respond to these behaviors that others were more likely to live long enough to reproduce than were individuals who were oblivious to these behaviors social animals have these feelings while non social animals do not each motion occurs through a DNA directed release of chemicals during the corresponding situation notice that we feel these emotions one at a time never a simultaneously a person does not have to be taught which emotion to have in a particular situation this emotion is innate we are born with these emotions and their number remains constant throughout our lifetime we do not learn feelings and emotions anymore than we learn physically to grow you cannot invent a new emotion we have names for many emotions that are different graduations of these the intenseness of happiness goes from joy to ecstasy sadness ranges from discomfort to great depression and disgust ranges from loathing tulip Holden and contempt fear ranges from light apprehension or anxiety to intense panic or terror anger goes from mild irritation to rage surprise occurs during an unexpected event scientists most easily observe emotions and infants because their behavior is the least complicated their emotional reactions have not yet been altered by extensive life experience at first innate responses control the muscles that create an infant's facial expression but later we learn to control these muscles at will as we become able to act and pretend teenagers do not yet have sufficient experience to correctly recognize all facial expressions for example teenagers do not yet distinguish the facial expression of fear and anger the teenagers agree with adults about beauty teenagers do not agree with adults about the meaning of an expression as you first see of the upcoming facial expressions try to name the emotion being depicted in an unexpected event we show surprise for the wide-open mouth chimpanzees do the same we are learning every time that we are surprised this person is pretty happy a newborn shows happiness with an innate smile even when we are blind from birth we still smile an infant will get a sad face and cry in sympathy when another person cries love attaches us to other humans without love spines we would instead be lone individuals if a child does not have the opportunity to form a bond with at least one adult during its first two years of life then it will have trouble forming any social and affectionate relations for the rest of its life it will whine and cling to anyone this child was shown excessive desire for attention and its future relationships will be superficial it will show slow development and be withdrawn and depressed this has been determined through many studies some lasting 40 years and involving large numbers of persons we use a protruding tongue and close eyes to show disgust we use wide-open eyes furrowed and raised eyebrows and a stretched mouth to show fear even an infant shows fear when near a cliff or when hearing a loud noise in our ancient past loud noises were most often made by predators the girl is about to see a ghost in the video we show fear when faced with anticipated pain or danger later in life we feel fear from an increasing number of events that we believe might cause us harm for example we might fear the loss of our job our home or our help fear does not produce pain we use lowered eyebrows eyes wide open with tighten lower lid lips pulled back and stretched lip corners to show anger a child becomes angry when something has hurted the child might say the ball hurt me on purpose feelings of anger even in adults always come in response to mistreatment if you think of the last few times you were angry you might be surprised to notice that each involved in the situation you felt you had been wronged or treated unfairly orange Escalade we get mad for no other reason show a small smile but not a grin a slight head tilt puffed up chest and posture arms are either akimbo or in an extremely proud moment held overhead this is pride a child is first seen to beam with pride for its own actions but soon shows pride for the actions of his or her family and friends to the more pleasure we have received from an individual the more pride we feel for their accomplishments and the more guilt we feel if we have caused their unhappiness the child's social feelings of embarrassment guilt and shame first occur around age 3 when he or she has cheated in a mutually beneficial social relationship a child will not feel guilty about not returning a borrowed item unless he or she had earlier developed good feelings about having similar items the loss of an item will not evoke sadness unless that item had earlier evoke happiness the intensity of sadness for that items loss is related to the intensity of the happiness that item had brought our feelings are a bridge to the minds of our ancestors who gathered food lived and loved on the African plains more than a million years ago our feelings are precious to us our passions add love and meaning to the silent void of the universe to lose them would return us to the a moba we know how each other person feels because we share humanists we want to understand our feelings and emotions because we want to understand ourselves I've become to understand how they are products of the evolution of consciousness we are all more amazed by them brains combined senses remember learn understand and decide using nothing but chemistry and electricity our neurons stormed the moment-by-moment collections of sensory information and search for cause-and-effect relationships between moments an animal remembers the experience it has had with the rest of the world because it will live longer if each experience does not continue to be its first and if it's understanding of past events can be used to predict what is about to happen in a new situation human being that has ever lived anywhere on the planet shares these feelings and emotions others are not toy people but thinking and feeling human individuals who are just like you and me and that they shared the same desires and concerns for love and family and for community injustice each of us hopes for a pleasant future we simply want to laugh and joke with our spouse family friends and neighbors raise children and pursue life and the limits of our talents and passions we expect our society to be mutually beneficial for all of us and we will react against any unfairness or injustice in any interaction within our community we all agree that the proper behavior between the family friends and neighbors of our society is to do as the other did and to expect the other to do what you did a couple million years ago our our ancestors began to use stone tools to hunt other animals for food while a lion hunts mostly with its feet and teeth our ancestors use their increased intelligence to find exploitable behaviors in the prey here is a description of the approach used by those of us humans who are a melaka and live in the Amazonian forest before leaving camp to pursue a specific animal hunters mask their own odors by rubbing their bodies with some roots when hunting a specific animal they cover their bodies with the scent of that animal next they do a dance consume a potion and then off they go the hunter does not wander aimlessly in search of animals but instead harvest animals from the neighborhood the hunter knows sounds footprints activities nesting habits and favorite foods of each species of local animals he wants to eat the hunter knows that if the leader of certain animal pacts is stabbed or darted then there will be a few moments of confusion giving time to shoot more after spotting a monkey band in a distant treetop the hunter will make the sound of a fallen baby monkey this may bring the monkey troop close enough to be able to dart one Lions never make the sound of human infants to trick people into coming near the hunter also knows to be aware of the seasonal condition of the monkeys troops favorite fruit trees and will wait near a just ripening fruit tree for the arrival of the monkeys since Jaguars are known to eat a certain bird the hunter will sometimes attract a Jaguar by making the sound of that bird fallens like to hide in a particular type of bush when hunters see tracks around one of these bushes they will wait nearby until the fawn returns the hunter then shoots the fawn but leaves the mother unharmed so she can continue to produce more fawns in the future Hunter's also note the location of each hunted animals favorite food source whenever they then hear a certain animal they want to catch the hunters have only to walk towards that animals nearest food source similarly the hunter will notice the favorite tree stump of a local owl upon return to the village hunters discussed the amount of game and collectible food any animal gathering or nest sites the movement of the local bands of monkeys and of pigs and any sightings of the neighboring peoples or strangers they've encountered they then know which areas have more game in which have less if one person is having bad luck at hunting or fishing the others will examine and discuss that person's equipment and techniques youngsters are being trained as they listen to the daily discussions of hunting techniques and results and of animal tracks behavior and sounds it does not happen very often that these forest dwellers hear a sound that they cannot identify an unidentifiable sound is assumed to come from a spirit similarly detailed knowledge is used in gathering edible plants from a region the plant animal contents within every footstep of the entire gathering and hunting area is mapped in this way we also observe plant cycles environments and seasons the food collectors do this for several hours per week throughout their lifetimes whenever you hear the word gatherer hunter you should think of the intelligence and mass of knowledge of plants and animal habits that the group uses in harvesting food along with the customs used to find prepare and just share that food those of us humans living as gatherer hunter today make and use Nets hooks rope spears and bowls and such and have complicated procedures to handle hundreds of daily needs there are complicated procedures just to prepare otherwise inedible varieties of roots nuts and poisonous animals the techniques of the a Milwaukee hunter illustrate what is meant by hunting with our brains rather than with our feet and teeth living by our wits in this way shows why so much intelligence was needed by our gatherer hunter ancestors and what they were doing with it even 1 million years ago plan animal harvesting are tasks that our brains are made to do how many days would it take for you to become very familiar with the plant animal layout of your own neighborhood it is a safe bet that you have already memorized the layouts of many streets and the aisle by aisle contents of many stores learning a layout is another of our effortless mental tasks we have developed this ability because it need consistently existed through the generations and proved to be useful in the survival of our ancestors when we humans see animals we naturally and effortlessly analyze their actions will say look at what that squirrel is doing on Milwaukee hunters study mainly those aspects of animal behavior that enable them to be more skillful at animal harvesting while modern biologists study every aspect of each animal for example its biochemistry genetic studies find that six million years ago a common ancestral animal – diverged into the three lines that would become today's chimpanzee bonobos chimpanzee and human the pre-human line lives on the drying east african savannah while the pre chimpanzee line continued to live in the rainy forest while any two persons share 99.9 percent of the genes human and chimpanzees share 98% in humans in my share 85 looking face to face into the eye of 1/8 we see another rational being with a full personality as complicated as our own scientists observe Apes in their natural settings and followed them through their daily movements recording their minute-by-minute social interactions through many generations the scientists distinguish each individual get to know their personalities and know which individuals are related to which others thousands of interactions between them are recorded the amount of data collected for each individual is enough to write complete biographies it's where your own daily diary would be if you describe each minute-by-minute social interaction the social level of each primate species includes differing levels of bonding altruism alliance or Meishan power struggles disputes and reconciliations many chimpanzee behaviors are like our own implements suck their thumbs and they merely have to hold out their hand to bring their mom back to them youngsters are seen to pout whimper and Yelp if these tactics don't work they might try throwing a temper tantrum they laugh when typically they hold out their hand to ask for food and they kiss they use our own familiar facial expressions to communicate happiness play disappointment frustration or the desire for contact they have a friendly smile in a fearful grin that shows lots of teeth young chimps like to make funny faces there's not much difference between the playful behavior of juvenile apes and of our own children at the playground they each will laugh tease squabble get their mothers involved and then reconcile chimpanzees making used tools they strip the leaves from a twig and then insert it into a termite nest termites walk onto this twig which a chimp then pulls out and eats those termites chimpanzees leave sponges to absorb water to drink from tree holes they crack nuts with rocks and they teach this technique to their infants chimpanzees form a dominance hierarchy in which the alpha male is the only one to mate with the females chimpanzee is engaged in elaborate power struggles the key to becoming the alpha male is to form an alliance with one or two other males and then challenge the current leader notice that this is done without the use of spoken language a male will challenge the Alpha by dramatically dragging a leafy branch shaking it and slapping it against the ground while making lots of noise the Challenger gets his friends to join in while the alpha male is busy getting his own friends to join him there is screaming and barking and shifting alliances in a spectacle that might last 30 minutes the new alpha male might kill infants so their mothers will more quickly return to Esther you will then impregnate these females with his own offspring females with new infants will avoid the group for a while to avoid this potential danger it is not over until one assumes a submissive posture towards the other now that they agree on rank they will make up by hugging and grooming there can be internal competition but there must also be unity in the community because the lives of each group member depends on its continued existence chimpanzee males cooperate in hunting small monkeys to catch their prey some of the hunters drive a monkey group in a desired direction others block them from taking escape routes or wait ahead and ambush when a monkey is caught the meat is divided between the participating males and the non hunting females the male's also cooperate in defending their territory against neighboring communities females raise their young with little assistance from the males whose only contribution is to occasionally play with the youngsters when she and pansies find food it is shared by all members of the group but the most dominant male gets the first portion he then shares first with his male allies and next with the females who are currently in estrus scientists also study chimpanzees living in a large group within zoos their social behavior is much the same as in the wild scientists find that chimpanzee Society will change sufficiently to get through a sudden crowding in population for example individuals will allow others to approach more closely than usual humans experienced a similar crowding while living in submarine vessels but there is another species that is slightly more closely related to us humans than our chimpanzees these are the bonobos who are distinguished from the more common chimpanzees by the part and their hairdo they're found only in the thick forests of the Congo bonobos live in communities of 20 to 120 individuals who might nest together at night and separate by day into many smaller groups to search for food a particular individual spends a little time first with one small group and then switches to another only mothers independent children remain together always as they form the core of the society there are other neighboring communities but none of the mix by day or by night as females reach puberty they will leave their original community and move into a neighboring one to avoid inbreeding before scientists could understand this arrangement of many groups in that community and a females emigrating to their neighboring communities they had to know and track many individual chimpanzees for years all that was seen at first for hundreds of nearly identical looking chimpanzees within a region it is like trying to make sense out of the collection of individual squirrels or birds in your neighborhood many bonobos show empathy and sympathy group members will help an old member get to another place when one bond of bow saw that an infant was thirsty it filled its own mouth with water and then walked over to the infant to give it the water one bond bow surprised a burden caught it he then carry it to the top of tree held out its wings and tossed it up to fly away bonobos easily walk upright often while carrying food this has made their legs larger than their arms like ours and their back straighter and more human-like in contrast chimpanzees arms and legs are more equally sized because they're more equally used bottom's communicate more vocally than do chimpanzees who will call only to imitate when seriously alarmed or when aroused by food bonobos vocalize constantly and for the slightest reason audible voices are more highly pitched in chimpanzees in the attempts of scientists to teach human language to various species bonobos have done the best in listening to our voice and learning to use language Kanzi is a bond boat each individual forms a nightly nest up in a tree by playing together some leafy branches an individual does not disturb others who are nesting bonobos are among the 3 mammal species that do not have a system of male dominance the other two are lemurs and spotted hyenas bonobos society is female centered with smaller females dominating males when food is found female cher at first to submit relationships when a chimpanzee female is placed with a male Bona Bona zoo she quickly learns that she can try to dominate him but she knows not to try this with a chimpanzee male we too learned very quickly what each and every individual will or will not allow during her interactions we customize our behavior with each individual and with the presence of a third person vonabell males do not compete over status but lack any formalized ritual of dominance and Submission every group member knows for certain which male is the Alpha but the other positions are more vague an aggressive encounter between two vonabell male isn't at all like these encounters ended the two make up which they do by rubbing their scrotums together for about 15 seconds male alliance formation is barely visible bonobos have no hunting parties so if the males do not have this reason to bond a new alpha takes over with the help of his mother during the contest the most critical confrontation is not between the two males but between their mothers sons of healthy females go far and Bonomo society while orphans and sons of weak mothers do not females form bonds and alliances to control the alpha male in Barbeau society a male rules the world but females rule the males bonobos substitute sex for aggression sex is the glue of their society social greeting bonding food sharing and reconciliation is done by having sex for about 15 seconds sex is initiated about once every 90 minutes and occurs in a gymnastic fashion in most animal species females are an asterisk for just a few days per year the alpha male has to guard over those females who are in estrus bonobos share with us an extended sexual receptivity there is reduced male competition because one male cannot simultaneously guard half the group's adult females since Bona both females mate with every male there is no harem for the males to compete over when a new alpha male takes over the group there is no infanticide because he is as likely to be the father of the group's infants as any other male in the commune bonobos are sensitive lively gentle nervous and a rarely violent chimpanzees are more hot-tempered and are often violent compared to human interactions between pairs of persons chimpanzee interactions result in a physical slap about 100 times more often while chimpanzees want to be more independent bonobos instead want to sit together and coordinate activities chimpanzees resolved sexual issues with power and that the Alpha is the only male to have sex in contrast bonobos resolve power issues with sex and that the use of sex in every aspect of society has drastically reduced aggressive conflicts this is panbanisha playing the piano she lives at the great ape trust organization with Kanzi what do these primate social systems tell us about ourselves primates have an innate urge to form social systems we humans cannot live without social interaction our recent understandings of the social systems of other primates have given us profound insight into that of our own primate social systems share much in common but also show great flexibility and adapting to the environment of each species the most unique aspect of the human social system is our monogamous parenting relationship our nuclear family includes the full-time presence of the father both parents contribute and raising the offspring for all other ape species child rearing is done by females our monogamous parenting strategy makes for less male competition over females than seen in chimpanzees we saw that chimpanzee males bond but females don't all bond abilities through just the opposite and humans men become good friends with other men and women become good friends with other women for chimp bonobos and humans friends typically have the same age our big brains and slow maturation rate cause other differences between us and the other primates for big-brained humans pregnancy lasts as long as possible so the baby's brain can develop as much as possible the fuel pelvic area has changed such that the baby can be born with his brain is fully developed and as large as possible however this big brained baby cannot be so large that it will harm his mother during birth a nine month pregnancy results in the best balance between these two requirements no other animal has as much difficulty during childbirth use read humans our babies emerge as late as possible but we are still not fully developed they are especially helpless for a few years while their brains and bodies grow we also have the most prolonged adolescence of any animal if a male abandons his children before age 10 they are more likely to die to stay with them our ancestral males needed to know that the infant's are his own children because of our especially helpless children it is beneficial to form nuclear families with monogamous parenting relationships rather than having the more typical mammalian parenting system an infant on the open savanna is more likely to survive when both parents nurture and care for it our monogamous parenting system not only produces children it also bonds mates the nuclear family consisting of children and parents forms the basis of our world you




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