How Socialism Destroyed Africa | George B. N. Ayittey

welcome to the Heritage Foundation my name is David Burton I'm senior fellow in economic policy here at the Heritage Foundation our speaker today is dr. George I Edie his subject is how socialism destroyed Africa dr. ret is president of the free Africa Foundation and for nearly 20 years was a distinguished economist and residents at the American University he's the author of six books in chronological order they are indigenous African institutions in 1991 with a revised edition in 2004 the blueprint for Goddard's economic recovery in 1997 Africa betrayed in 1992 which won the 1993 HL make an award for the best book of 1992 Africa in khaosan in 1998 Africa Unchained blueprint for development in 2004 and defeating dictators fighting tyrants in Africa and around the world in 2011 our paths first crossed in 1986 when I was the editor of a journal on developmental economics called the Journal of economic growth which was a site project dr. AED published four articles in that journal and one was on agriculture in in Africa one was a book review another was a blueprint for Africa's economic reform and the third was the political economy of reform in Africa he has a depth and breadth of knowledge about developmental issues in Africa that I think is genuinely unmatched he's written for many newspapers a New York Times The Washington Post The Wall Street Journal he also writes a lot for African on publications that were less familiar with the African letter African continent news African news weekly the African forum among others he has taught at Wayne State College and Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania before he was at a you he held the national fellowship at the Hoover Institution in 1989 and in nineteen 1988 through 99 and was Bradley scholar here at the Heritage Foundation in the late 1980s he founded the Free Africa foundation in 1993 to serve as a catalyst for reform in Africa in 2008 dr. IDI was listed by foreign policy as one of the top 100 public intellectuals who are shaping a tenor of our time he holds a Bachelor of Science in economics from the University of Ghana and Lagaan an MA from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and a PhD from the University of Manitoba please join me in welcoming dr. George ie well thank you very much David for inviting me to this event and I also like to thank you for finding some time to come and listen to me and I did it said I was a Bradley scholar here at Heritage Foundation in 1989 actually I was unknown from Bloomsburg University I was supposed to go back okay yes stint here playing up I went back and I'm sure you would like to know why I didn't go well but let me say that I didn't go back because their environment their intellectual environment that was extremely very hostile towards my dears and what were my dears my sin was that I was preaching this message that African leaders had failed and betrayed their people that was my sin back then in 1989 you may marvel at this but still the political the environment and the delivery environment is so hostile towards this particular idea point but we cannot sweep this under the rug we have to say this because Africa South Asia needs us to speak very frankly about Africa and it's always important it make a distinction between African leaders and the African people the leaders have been the program not the people and saying that the leaders are Philadelphia doesn't mean that he hate black people this is important because I always tell people that look we've added certainly 309 Africa has hosted since independence in 1916 and our challenge anybody to name me just 20 of them who were good leaders of course you've mentioned us Mandela a few others but nobody can go to 20 and what does that mean it means that the fast majority of African leaders between a fail there are people now but then in the 1960s these leaders chanted free at last free at last they had won independence for their respective countries new Flags unfurled to the sounds of new items currencies bhadiya pottery they are fought gallantly to win independence for their respective countries they all settle now to develop their respective countries but with what model that was what the million dollar question was did they want to work develop Africa using a capitalist model a socialist model or what model back then Kwame Nkrumah Okara said they didn't want to use any Western institution at all democracy was a Western institution and an imperial tockman he didn't want to have anything to do with that now capitalism most of the African leaders rejected capitalism they identified capitalism would colonialism and I knew that since colonial is evil and exploitative so too was capitalism so they didn't want to have anything to do with capitalism so many of them adopted socialism as their guiding ideology to develop Africa on chroma for example believe they're only socialism can demolish the colonial structure that gonna inherit adulter independence and chroma Julius LaRosa generic anaconda or Zambia many other if not even Robert Mugabe all adopted socialism now by socialists always meant increasing participation of the state in the economy there are also meant they nationalized many foreign national and foreign businesses and instituted a plethora state controls on rent prices foreign exchange imports and exports now in Ghana it also meant establishment of state-owned enterprises now in in Ghana and Tanzania it has a nearby railway executed a new German policy which Falls peasant farmers it took fourth person farmers into government villages nobody was no farmer was being able to it was what it was the leader for farmers to sell I could work her produce on their own it was ELISA the artist so therefore the approaches to the farmers to the government government dictate at prices now what were the results of these socialist experiment across Africa I like to read to you some of the results that we had in Ghana when Nkrumah was overthrown in 1966 there were 64 state-owned enterprises only four of them four out of the 64 wirte India way now in Tanzania when they introduced collectivized agriculture production plummeted by more than 20 percent Tanzania which used to be a food exporter was then in 1971 importing food and suddenly the same thing happened in Guinea Guinea at one point in 1958 when the density independence was exporting food to neighboring countries after two kotori's max ism in african clothes the grimmest started to import food about four million people in Guinea fled a country to different countries in country after country in Ethiopia in Tanzania and the buggery the socialist experiment was a complete failure what were the reasons for the failure there were four main reasons the first one was the exploitation and suppression of the peasant majority in many countries the peasant farmers were exploited the Ghana for example in 1984 cacophonous in Ghana we're receiving 10 percent of the world market price for their kuku in Gambia peanut farmers were receiving 20% of the world market price for their peanuts let's go all the way to Tanzania in Tanzania – maths farmers were receiving only 30 percent now this was a exploitation it was meant to extract wealth from the raw foods and that what was supposed to be useful general development for the country but you were never it was never done now if you if you go to Ethiopia as well Ethiopia had able a village ization process where fathers were moot forcefully into government villages not the result you may remember I'll remember the nineteen eighties that was farming with you but because the farmers refused to produce or fork for government outlets the second reason why the socialist experiment failed in Africa was because of administrative ineptitude so many state-owned enterprises were how quiet oppositely there was little planning and the blunders were just horrendous let me give you a couple of examples in kind of for example the government set up a mango cannon factory but a capacity of their factory exceeded the entire world trade in sandbaggers in Somalia the Italians build a banana box implant but a amount of bananas needed to make the plant break even exceeded the country's entire output of bananas in the government set up state farm operations now gathers the state farms in Ghana barely produce enough food to feed his own workers let alone the nation now when God the winner Yugoslavia helped build another mango canning factory in Ghana they discover that the supply of mangoes came from a few trees scattered in the bush there was no planning and Ghana also build this sugar factory and I've had a sheet the factor was completed in IT services it stood idle for one year because they lacked a water supply system so many of these factories will simply put up without any planning at all no there was an idea some of these factories were supported by USAID and the World Bank and also meaning Westin donors here's one of my favorites no we can age Norwegian eight officials help Kenya build a fish fries implant for the Turkana tribes people in northern Kenya there also that you know you can build a fish fries implanted will provide an employment for the Turkana tribes people and it will also provide you know frozen fish for daily consumption for there to canalize people they spent in 1 million dollars want to build a fish fries implant when it was completed in 1976 this they discovered a very small program and that problem was that the kind of tries people they don't fish they good it was a complete disaster in northern Kenya now I can multiply this example many many times the third reason why the socialist experiment failed miserably in Africa was because of vina tendencies the socialist program created with this horrendous amount of controls created shortages and the shortages provided mining opportunities for illicit enrichment but the ruling elites for example for example import controls was the most lucrative anyone who wanted to import something into a second or Nigeria had to pay a 10% bribe to the Minister of Trade and so the ruling elites use the socialist controls and reach themselves and it was not only the ruling elites but also the the leaders who were pushing for the socialist agenda and this is one of the reasons why a lot of Africans are very angry about this because socialism socialism is only will only save Africa that's what they told us in the nineteen sixties only socialism would save Africa but then guess what the time of socialism that the practice was a peculiar form Swiss bank socialism that allowed the head of state and a cohort of ministers to rid have planted their Treasuries for deposit in Switzerland no good ISM our way there in a nineteen eighties one of the ministers in McGavock of a massage to define socialism and he said yeah in the bubble socialism means what is – who mine but what is George we share fifteen billion dollars in Moraga rather newest disappeared in Zimbabwe the circle find it go to Angola in 2017 the president of Angola Eduardo dos Santos retired from after 28 years in office with a personal fortune of twenty billion now I'm not making this up because I have talked him into all this in this written script and I'm going to leave this wasn't a purchase on a internal phone so that people can see he retired with twenty billion dollars in personal fortune his own daughters aware two sentences well two point four billion dollars they call themselves socialists some socialists this is a time of socialism which was practiced across Africa go to Mozambique two billion dollars in loans and furniture that socialist country no the fourth reason why socialism filled filled because socialism as an ideology is alien to Africa you cannot define socialism upon the basis of African tradition only if you go to Africa all the means of production are privately owned it's important that we understand is because the leadership in Africa did known in the sandia own African heritage here in America the Business and Economics the basic economic and social unit is they in the bigger the American Society cuz I am and I can down well do anything I want now in Africa the African society cuz we are the we means the extended family or the community so when he go to everything you ask who owns this land the African will say the land belongs to us the first Europeans who had this misinterpreted out to mean the land belongs to become bigger higher in the village that was not the case I mean the line belongs to him and it said Stanley family the extended family in Africa I act as the corporate unit and all the land and determines what can be what can be grown on the line etc but the extended family is a private entity it is not a tribal government that is a distinction with marowak did not make but about a lot of confusion there were three markets in Africa free trade and free enterprise in Africa before the white monster foot on the continent so you cannot go to Africa and preach that kind of socialism to the African people because it is totally alien to their fundamental aim indigenous culture now was the third reason the fourth reason why socialism failed now if you go to you know go to some bad way the devastation of socialism that there is for everybody to see it zimbabwe after 1980 1990s the Mugabe government decided to forcibly seized land without compensation and destroyed the agriculture and the export crops that you had in a particular country now there was so much inflation is a bad way that the rate of inflation reach two million percent the bomber a currency collapsed completely and they had to adopt the US currency the dollar now moved next door to South Africa and South Africa seeks to repeat the catastrophic mistakes that we made in elsewhere in Africa South Africa wants to amend the Constitution and use that Constitution to cease commercial and Santa for a break away from the rulli 9a and see the economic freedom fighters secret nationalize the Central Bank of South Africa and also nationalized all new discoveries of oil and gas in South Africa no this is inexplicable you know our Legg answer once said that you know insanity is doing the same thing again and again and again and expecting different results but lunacy can be defined as doing the same stupid thing again and again and expecting the same stupid results you don't have to go very far from South Africa to see the devastation as socialism left across Africa then the reason why I'm speaking forcefully about this was that socialism left two pernicious legacies across Africa the first one was he created this mentality that it is government that must solve our problems so if you advance any problem is the government which comes up with a solution for it tell the government to cut government spending and it will set up a Ministry of less government spending this actually happened in Mali Telecom to improve transparency in Tanzania set up a ministry of good governance tell the government to place more reliance on their pride they said that it means what Ghana's gonna did in 2000 of organization of a minister of private sector development know that mentality is so pervasive in Africa and that is the combination solve problems the government has been the problem in Africa the second enduring legacy that socialism left is that socialism until the establishment of an infrastructure to give effect to socialism in Africa now that infrastructure was never dismantled it is still in place in many parts of Africa and that has led to a phenomenal expansion of government bureaucracy now in country after country you dealing with bloated bureaucracy in a Zimbabwe you have at least 74 ministers and deputy ministers in Angola 80 ministers and deputy ministers Kenya 68 in Canada numbers reach 110 now all this bloated bureaucracy absorbed wages and salaries and African governments in Ghana we spend 70% of recommend budget on wages and salaries in Zimbabwe is almost 80% and Angola it's also 70% which means that the government has very little left for develop and expenditure so the government because who bloated that you know the socialist ideology created an infrastructure which is so very much in place now one of the things that we need to do if we want to move Africa forward is to find a way by which we can uh dismantle this socialist ideology and the infrastructure that is so strongly in many African economies in Africa and I'd like to nd and I'm sure that you have plenty of questions to ask thank you very much thank you George we do have time for some questions let me just say a couple quick things first off a written version of this talk will be available on our web page in the next day or so on the event page where you would also watch I would ask that anyone who is going to ask a question please state their name and any institutional affiliation and just raise your hand Steve Steve Antin tax foundation in the fifties sixties and seventies the Western universities such as London School of Economics Sorbonne and others to which many African students went were very much socialist in their teachings about economic development has any of that changed in recent years very much a world the rule that the London School of Economics played in terms of I think but then there was an innocent mistake that was made in the terms of believing that back then Diaz thought that you know the market was not strong enough and that if you needed to develop Africa you needed to work with African governments and therefore socialism and was a way to go because colonialism ass left African did not leave Africa Africa develop so there was I think you know the toilet they need for government to become very much more involved in economic development but since then I don't think that you know school of economics was really I said it's socialist roots and I think that this is continue to dispense that kind of uh I'll call it vile message to their suffering countries and leaders it's gentleman back here thank you very much dr. ie J Friedel attending where the foundation for democracy in Africa and my question is we have seen since the 60s are not to date that the voices of liberty and freedom among citizens may have been responsible for the inept and irresponsibility of government the creation of free Africa foundation another institution has been to try to create a space for civil society in Africa to be able to use electoral democracy elections to affect the kind of change that would allow free enterprise and Liberty to be as prominent as possible from your experience and from the level of high exposure and research that you've done why haven't we been able to concretize civil society presence so that we can deter these in bureaucracy current in Africa at least going forward and how do you see the new Trump administration policy on Africa assisting to limit this socialist communist effects in Africa thank you that was a very good question and you and I have been in this battle for a very very long time I know you've done a human's job in trying to push for the creation of space for our civic organizations like yours you know to preach world democracy and also for reform but programs have been limited and one of the reasons why progress has been limited three reasons you might be you the first one is that time and again is so the part of the socialist legacy in the sense that most people whenever there is a problem in Africa most people tend to look up to the government or expect the government to come and solve it so we're not relying more on the private sector we're looking up to the government if there are too many if the roots don't work or things don't work we blame the government so they send that kind of socialist mentality of licking up the government to come and solve the problem for us now the second reason also is that in order to create space for groups civic groups like that you know you need to have reform but we ever had much reform in Africa because the leadership there are not really interested in reform I mean you push them to reform eBay perform what I called it but bengi debri one step forward three steps back you know indras in uniform because they know they have done bad look they open up the Civic space for people like you and me we are going to explore their corruption and we're going to explore your human right abuses so they're not going to open up that space they're gonna do that in Zimbabwe then I'm going to do that in Angola another African countries so they all they all you know put up these cosmetic changes or reform to satisfy the wall bank and the IMF to show that they are doing something but really not serious in doing something look if you want to cut like I said if you want to cut government spending cut down government spending you don't put up a ministry or place government spending these guys are not serious now and the third reason why we haven't made much space is that and on this one I like I blame the wealthy Africans rich Africans I think rich Africans should be supporting the movement for change in Africa and and I think you know they should be supporting people who are trying to bring a much freer environment in terms of promoting the free enterprise in Africa this should be supporting this the efforts to open up Africa and I think rich Africans have been I've not been very active in this particular effort thank you very much Terry Miller with the Heritage Foundation you've presented a really damning and indictment of socialism and the entrenchment of corruption in African countries could you speculate a little bit or offer us some of your ideas about a potential pathway out of this and particularly if there's a role for the United States either the private sector of the United States government our international organizations like the World Bank thank you very much a very good question and that is some well I didn't choose to be there to give a very serious indictment of socialism because it has awakened in Africa and I can't lie to you we don't have any successful socialist country in Africa we don't and but we do have some countries which are doing very well and a path the path to African prosperity well let me this is what we did in post-colonial Africa what we did was we rejected our own and went abroad and copied all sorts of alien institutions to impose upon our people room has a basilica so we built one in Yamoussoukro ni Rico's the US has space center so we built a space center in Nigeria we built one in Zimbabwe arts world France 100 Emperor Bokassa in 1975 spent 25 million dollars to cronies of an emperor American farmers to use tractors so we also were a poor detritus into Africa nearly outside skyscrapers so we also copied and build skyscrapers in Africa animal of nowhere I can go in a multiply on so many of these Nigeria Babangida one said that the US has two political parties so he created and sadly two parties for Nigeria in 1990 one a little bit of a loved one a little bit to the right now if you look at the continent of Africa it is littered with the carcasses of all these foreigner systems that we imported and brought into Africa they didn't work so what is the way forward I have always agreed in my book that I'd a way for use for Africa to go back and build on its own indigenous institutions what is indigenous editions there were free markets in Africa I have to tell you that you can go to any Africa African country go to the village market you'll find a black market share market activity in African villages have been dominated by women for centuries as part of our culture that's part of a history there was free enterprise in Africa there was also free free trade in Africa all these decisions are there we never build upon them because the first generation of African leaders said free trade free enterprise and free air free markets where were civil institutions in fact in 1882 were blowing up pockets in Ghana why because the military dictator at that time geralyn's this means markets are dense of profit ears was blowing them up now the only African country that went back and build upon itself indigenous institutions was Botswana and it is very well we don't have to go to Asia to copy their model the model that we need to copy is Friday in Africa and Botswana that's what we need to copy and is the way forward by building upon our own indigenous regions of free markets free enterprise and free trade okay any other question in the center thank you for the talk my name is Alexander Hammond from a Cato Institute and so building on from her I was wondering if you had any thoughts on the African continent to a free trade agreement it's expected to be implemented in the next couple of weeks or so depending on ratifications suggest your force on that if it's a good thing for Africa its glimmer of hope for continent yeah the applicant what's the name of the agreement in the African continent of free trade yeah it's an excellent idea I'm all for it as an economies are more forests that we should have a free trade agreement and constantly now cross serozha that's more of a fight you know I always say that look in pre-colonial Africa we know how they made barriers I mean we traded freely among ourselves there was one transparent rich free trade routes in fact there were free trade routes criss crossing the continent that moved people and trade our Goods around without any hindrance at all so this we have in Africa so I'm all for it but right now that free trade agreement Nigeria is supposed to it South Africa doesn't want to sign on to it and also we need to put do some prefer a to wait and do our homework well you just don't get up and say that we've signed a free trade agreement that's what they you did in terms of you know you want to make sure that you're harmonized trade yeah I mean if you in let's say Cape Town for example how do you so goods in Kampala you want to make sure that Hoppa roads got to lead you from Cape Town to Kampala or you have real ways that can lick you or even telephones I can link you or at least you have some common banking system or currencies so we haven't done bastion of homework to make sure that we can facilitate that kind of trade I mean look even look at West Africa for example when Sanfrecce was supposed to how to echo us and we're supposed to trade free freely among ourselves but even if you want to move from say Dakar to Lagos it's almost impossible because you don't even have one one road that would take you through all these countries to go there so sure we need to have the cousin senior that is something we to boost African develop very very very fast but we haven't done the prefer to work maybe we should start with the regional economic units like ECOWAS and West I'll pretend also be suffrage and economic our community and then the Sun in Africa's economic community make sure that those regional units awaken before we bring all of them the three of them together for a continental free-trade area this general I Eric Myers with global cultiva you talked about one of the legacies of socialism and communism and in Africa is the is the bureaucracy the indurain you talked about the hundred and ten ministers I think it was enough Angola how do you go about changing that wind to get to come to power there you have your product of that system and you probably wouldn't be the leader unless you promised a lot of people those ministries and that think my point is you don't become the leader unless you play that game so now you're a product of that sister how do you go about changing that that is the million-dollar question and and that is what I said that you know it's going to be an enduring legacy which is going to hold a spot because I am all for and I'm sitting on my pains and Neela swishing that at the end of the Ethiopian sweetie because one of the ways by which you can bring reform we want to make sure that we reform it's not too much you know identified with one person because if you are too much identified with one thousand people it will give people the idea that if they get rid of you and then they will do it be home free look it let's face it unless it's fine in many African countries we don't have the government what we have is what I call a vampire state or a mafia state it's a criminal enterprise if you want to understand how the real wide area us is rich and Africa is poor I see yourself this question how did the rich and the two places make their money here in the US the richest person is Jeff Bezos he's the owner of he has something to show for his wealth now let's go to Africa what a riches the riches are heads of state and ministers quite often the chief bandit is the head of state himself it's a criminal enterprise so how do you reform that system how does the head of state reform that system even if he does the Ziggler rid of the ministers look at what is going on in Angola see how Lorenzo who was part of the DeSantis ruling elite I no canny really clean up the system while he's trying but he can't go very far look at Zimbabwe how do you clean out the system in Zimbabwe the current president of Zimbabwe am a cinnamon and Goguen was Mugabe's own right-hand security chief some time ago a lot of money has disappeared as a Bobby Manning God WA knows where the dead bodies are buried how can I clean up the system he can't so but onto we clean up that system the system hasn't have been legitimacy until we clean our system and it's ruined our Oscars out the rot will continue and without reform let me tell you this more African countries will blow up look at Sudan look at Tunisia now we're going to go through this cycle again and again and again if you got for example you harbor a bashar the man has been there for 30 years and counting he is worth more than seven billion dollars is he going to stop guys he didn't want to step down but if he does instead on the country will blow up look at Uganda but in 1986 President Museveni said no African leader should be in power for more than ten years now was what he said in 1980 says now look at him so how do you clean up that system at one point you know how much gave up and I said look maybe what we can do is to tell them that hey look we know you have done bad so here it's 1 billion dollars ticketing get the hell out of the way and then I'll leave the moose go somewhere but then it will be encouraging corruption and it will be encouraging the right because if you do that how do you prevent the next rat from coming and saying that hey buy me out true and then it becomes a cycle and cycle but you know this is the African I call it the African reform conundrum we have to find a way by which we can you know we can get you know the current P leaders were there to reform the system or find a way by which we can gently move them out of the way you don't want to do this violently you know it's real revolution or through a rebel insurgency because that ends up destroying the country look at Somalia it hasn't me without a government since 1991 the country is actually destroyed look at Central African Republic look at the Congo now Congo is also active no look Congress a country which breaks my heart it has so much mineral wealth that a country shouldn't even be sobbing at all but there are no roads in Congo and the mineral wealth of Google is still being planted they held elections I mean last December the lessons were twice postponed and when they held the elections the servery were going to postpone a license entry and three opposition-held areas and those elections will be held in march 29th but then when they had a license they declare the results and the declarer is all football 15 before the three the other three areas had held their elections I mean what kind of nonsense is this this is a type of you know it it's it's it defies common sense the kind of buffoonery that is going on several African countries that doesn't make sense at all and that is holding Africa back and you know the the side aspect of it is that you have an organization African Union which is completely useless it is not you know I've compared to the Organization of American States the Latin American counterpart is far more effective and at least a fourth in transparency and some democratic principles and the African Union so I think we're going to be wallowing in mud for some time to come I'm sorry to say this because Africa's a cradle of potential that needs to move the continent forward anybody else gentlemen in the back in their beard all of the problems do you set for regarding Africa corruption mismanagement all of them has been created by Western countries by colonizing countries and it's not also limited to Africa right now most of the countries in the world unfortunately that issue of corruption and is prevalent and the other mother is that we're to take a tournament take their money when they have to provide there is corruption you see the counter culture to Europe to London or over here so what's the solution for that well that is what the bandits wants us to hear and also does for the bandits want us to believe that you know moving to for example Mobutu I was a Africa's richest kleptocrat of Concordia and he amassed a personal fortune of ten billion dollars now his personal fortune of 10 billion dollars when he was in power exceeded his own country's foreign debt of seven billion dollars meaning that he could have written at the snide check to pay off his country's entire foreign debt and then some cause he didn't mean Social Security when he was asked in 1984 who introduced her option into Congo he said while it was a rupiah business people who said I tell you this thing for $200 then I put worth $20 into your Swiss bank account total nonsense look we hadn't all these problems in Africa because the leadership instituted or put in place defective institutions and systems defective in stages and sisters let's take the political system for example if you create a political system in which you concentrate the great deal of power in the hands of one individual that system no matter where you are we tended to with degenerates into tyranny or dictatorship that's what we had the most of Africa's post-colonial African countries many of the post-colonial African countries after independence established one-party state systems no opposition parties were allowed in those one-party state systems now let me let me give this sistex in 1990 thirty years after independence only four African countries where democratic those four countries were Botswana Senegal Gambia and Mauritius for now remember that we fought for a freedom from colonial rule where was it only for in 1990 now it was not only a defective political system but they also established the effective economic system now that defective economic system bore no affinity to our own traditional economic system or free markets and free enterprise but none none whatsoever you can't justify socialism upon the business of African tradition now so we had all these problems because the leadership created these defective systems and impose them on their people the colonialist did not create one-party state systems of africa the leadership the leaders did that themselves so blame the leaders not the colonialists it was the leaders who stole Africa's money and put it in Swiss banks not the colonialists so blame their leaders the one standing on my neck we're not the colonial is there are African leaders so let's place responsibility where they belong all right this is a final question try to make it brief I ask based on your answer to the last question the one before are there any lessons learned particularly from the United States transformation where we know not in the far past we had the robber baron era that Congress was able through election of if you may more free-market politicians to be able to limit the illegal illegal illegal illegal Polly control of different sectors of our economy and the an alert lessons learned that we could use in assisting in the transformation and open space for private sector and civil society in Africa can we learn from the experience of the United States give me a second I think I have been I spend a little time here I've been to Congress and I have testified so many times before congressional committees trying to help and it's been a very frustrating frustrating ended in a sense that the find I met with Secretary of State Hillary Clinton once he I she asked me a way for the u.s. to to help Africa not to her that the US doesn't have to reinvent the wheel and that the you I should do too for Africa what do you I did for the former Soviet Union and that is some where the West established Radio Free Europe and I said we do free Africa would do wonders for Africa because here in the West the West Americans take the freedom of expression and of the media for granted but in Africa radio is very powerful it's a very powerful means of communication and that's why forgetting leaders or governments go and control it get the media out of the hands of corrupting competent governments in Africa and you see the change making Africa that is look at his european judea for a long time if you have only one radio station for the entire country or for 80 80 million people the radio is controlled in Eritrea and in Congo when they were happy license the Congolese government block access to the radio and also to that today internet they control these because you know how powerful the means of communication is get them on block that and let Africans have access to attend little sources of news and that would be able to break the monopoly that this leader sell and that is where I think afraid this is where you and I you are doing a fantastic job in promoting democracy you and I know that the kind of work that you're doing you would never be able to do that in many African countries not E&I Zimbabwe not in Angola not is a Mozambique not in Eritrea none we ought to be able to be able to be doing this kind of work in pushing for reform in our own African that lasts here but I can name you countries our countries our country where journalists have been killed in Mozambique because they exposed corruption journalists have been killed I mean in almost all the private journalists are non languishing in jail and Ethiopia they used to be even bloggers was running until until I be comment came and release almost all those political prisoners we need to have another for simply civil society to do its work it means to how space and it also needs a hug freedom of expression the freedom of expression this is guaranteed by article 9 of Africa's own charter of Human and people's rights the the a used on charter but nobody enforces that and I've always said I look you know what a waste can do is you see that look in the African country that does not respect that particular law of freedom of expression it's also at the convention of the United Nations old charter of universal human rights the united nations of Africa by throwing out of the United Nations any country that does not respect a particular article 9 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights we know expression is the mother of four freedoms that is what we mean Africa afraid to push for democracy and to push for free markets and to push for other reforms that we need well thank you very much dr. Edie thank you all for coming this concludes our [Applause]

  1. Nii Aryeetey it goes both ways these So called Leaders you mentioned were bought and paid for by the like minded people who wanted them in political office so they can carry out their agenda. What is the agenda.. to destabilise Countries that do not comply with the Globalist agenda so economic hit men came in to destroy our economics.. you also forgotten fake news How is Democracy in Iraq, Libya, Egypt, and Israel call this Democracy.

  2. I guess socialism is another word for colonialism. I wonder what rich guy is behind this channel with all of this anti government propaganda.

  3. Socialism didn’t destroy Africa , it’s African politicians traitors that destroyed Africa , otherwise why China is becoming the first economical power in the world you cunt , idiot. Any system can prevail if it’s peoples are honest and just .

  4. Is Kwame Nkrumah Right about Socialism as a module for Ghana” development ? yes. He established al the necessary instrument necessary to produce what the destination needs and so the problem is not Kwame Nkrumah CPP. Administrative ineptitude but sabotage” that I agree but the State Farm were producing more food and there was a competition and that is good for Business and Commerce. You fail to mention that the people who took over the Government of Ghana Sold most of the Ghana’s own state enterprise for a dollar a penny. Who where the Government not in power before the 1966 coup. Elites of the society . But looking of the Self made man Osagyefo who has a Humble background, compared to the Opposition Who are mostly brought up with Silver Spoon in their mouth. The people of Ghana Will wish you come up with imperial indicators,with regards to you questionable statics. Reference to GDP growth, and Solutions to Problem solving, the Sense of nation building Sense of Nationalism, and be in charge of our Central Bank without Corporations, Big Money Influence in our politics not long ago The Almighty US of A made claims against Russia allegedly Hacking of Elections in other words influencing elections. No matter what we do Nii Aryeetey Because we are not in Control of our Central Banking System.your Suggestion are good But Nii Do you or Do you not agree with me that what ever good intentions some of our Leaders may or not have for the nation the powers that be , the Big Money people’s interest must be serve at all cost what ever means possible.

  5. The best form of Socialism will end up the Best Capitalist state USSR/Russia and. Mao Che tong China, and Capitalist China today..

  6. Socialism is the social ways of the people I beg to differ Nii Aryeetey we in Africa have our social way of life before socialism. The problem is Nationalism Sense of duty and the sense of responsibility. Accountability and Managerial skills to promote and defend what we have with the Rule of Law And Authority. Have control of our central Banking institutions.

  7. Well said Dr. Nii Aryeetey need I remind you that the very same people who overthrow the Kwame Nkrumah bought the very same Companies of for a Dollar a penny.. The same reason Cpp Government was overthrown prevails today All the Leaders mentioned were helping. Sabotage, economic hitmen were sent in to facilitate the demise of the governments because they are thinking of their people and not the Big corporations interest . All the companies established at the time was meant for a long time development of the continent .Africa was not thinking ahead of time. The opposition who is always the government not in office and yet the country comes first. What did help Our social way of life is because of the extended family mobilisation. Anything which will become an impediment in the way of the big corporations will be removed for the next puppet whose coffers are stuffed by their masters. The people of the destination no longer matter… CPP Government was overthrown by CIA, 1957” and it happened in many Countries. Today the same thing is happening all over again Iraq,Syria,Venezuela and the List goes on..also Libya

  8. Spot on! So many inconvenient truths told here. In South Africa we have the African National Crime (ANC) syndicate in power.

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