History of Communism Documentary



an economic and political philosophy the founder of communism have known to be Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels around the later half of 19th century when the two met in 1844 they found that their principles and ideologies were same published in 1848 together they wrote the Communist Manifesto their main aim was to bring an end to the class system that existed in the society which exploited the labor class once the labor class became aware then there would be a conflict among the classes which would be settled through revolution the worker class would rise against the bourgeoisie and institute a communist society both Marx and Engels consider the proletariat as people who had labour power while the bourgeoisie were those who own the means of production in the capitalist society the nation would pass through a phase of socialism and ultimately settle for a pure communist Society private ownership would be eliminated and the community would own the means of production the thought was that all give as per their abilities and receive according to their requirements the necessities of the society would be addressed first before the specific need of an individual was fulfilled many countries in South America Asia Eastern Europe and Africa follow this political philosophy later in the nineteenth century communism started to take roots in Russia too the Bolsheviks gained power when the October Revolution happened Russia was the first country where Marxist view was implemented in such power they were the Communist Party and they send their principles to all the European socialist parties Stalin was a leader who ruled Russia through communist philosophies China also followed in the footsteps of Russia communism comes from the French word communism which has Latin roots communist and isman the word was used for different social situations before it came to be news for more modern ideas of political and economic organization communists means for or of the community while isn't which means a condition or action French philosopher Victor Dupuy was the first to have created the modern definition in 1777 in the rakov project the community philosophy the principles that he mentioned in the book was followed by him his book happens to be the backbone of the Communist philosophy socialism is something which is basically something like communism and had become quite popular in France among the leftists this was even before communism or originated however both the words have different associations some developments can be tracked to different organizations which functioned in America and Europe as different associations leagues Confederations and parties amalgamated them with their own political views some of the well-known leaders who have been known to have propagated communism are Fidel Castro Ho Chi Minh Marshall Tito Lenin Stalin Karl Marx Mao Zedong Kim Jong Il are some of the famous ones development of communism 1840 to 1916 pre Marxist communism the idea of communal ownership of wealth and property goes far back to the ancient times as that in Plato's the Republic and pythagoreanism – as early as Christian church as explained in the acts of apostles german preacher a theologian of the earlier Reformation thermos monster also had led an Anabaptist communist movement in the German peasants war winter was against both Roman Catholic Church and Luther in a book named utopia in the 16th century the author Sir Thomas More envisioned a society where there was common ownership of property and the leaders of the society regulated his shoes through their supervision there were many groups at the time of English Civil War who supported communism and the most famous of all were the dicker who Protestants extremists several people continue to criticize the idea of private property and this continued even in the 18th century where religious thinkers like jean-jacques Rousseau who was deeply inspired by the Johnson East Movement in the Roman Catholic Church the Johnson is movement was basically meant to put a halt to Protestantism secularization and to stop the corruption of church by the aristocrats through democracy one of the influential figures in the French Revolutions reign of terror is maximilien robespierre who played an important role in establishing French Republic is highly praised by the communists it is said that communism also existed outside Europe in America and other societies in Western Hemisphere Karl Marx Karl Marx was born in a middle-class wealthy family too and Riata Pressburg and Heinrich Marx his father Heinrich was a lawyer and his mother belonged to rich business family he was engaged to journey from westfalen who was an educated woman and belonged to the Prussian ruling class family he became a journalist and he criticized both right-wing European administration's and the socialist and liberal movements when Marx met Friedrich angles in 1844 he finally found someone who had the same thought as him by this time Marx had already sketched an outline of Marxism later he moved to Brussels and spent three years there one of the most famous works that marks in angles wrote was communist manifesto it was first published on February 21st 1948 and the political pamphlet was now the beliefs of the Communist League the league was not a hidden society they may their intention was clear to the people Europe so several rebellions and protests in the year 1848 the French overthrew the monarchy and established the French Second Republic he was accused of revolutionary action and was arrested he left for France were the new government was in power he settled in Paris temporarily and also took the headquarters of communist League and set up a German workers club along with different German socialists who resided there in 1848 he went back to Cologne Germany in hope to see revolution there he began the publication of a newspaper Noah Ayisha Zeitung he was the main writer and the editor of the paper as he wanted to put across his views without any obstructions his thoughts were revolutionary and because of this he was always in and out of the court soon the Democratic Parliament in Prussia collapsed and a new cabinet of members who supported the King Frederick William the fifth came up his paper was closed down and he was asked to leave the country later Marx and his friend angles began writing for around six newspapers his first economic work was a contribution to the critique of political economy which clearly explained the relationship between use and value the Edition was a hit and sold out in no time his first volume of his famous work deaths capita was published in 1867 the book was so much in demand that even Russia looked forward to an edition in Russian the remaining two volumes were worked by Hermann angles throughout their lives and were published after Marx died Marx kept up his ideologies despite facing opposition from many most of his works were published after his death he was truly an intellectual man early development of Marxism during the late 19th century many left-wing associations throughout Europe continuously campaigned against the right-wing groups who autocrats and in power after the fall of Napoleon the third the Socialists established Paris Commune in 1871 which was a form of government but did not last long as its members were mostly executed by the revolutionaries of the opposite side a party known as German Social Democratic Party was created in 1875 and was joined by Karl Marx and his friend Frederick angles a number of supporters rose swiftly and party was revolutionary in nature which allocates the Galatian in 1879 by then Chancellor Otto von Bismarck when it was legalized in 1990 the party had already adopted Marxist principles some Germans did respect its ideologies and some leaders in the elections such as William lap necked and August Bebel became famous Marxism not only gained fame in Germany but was also successful in Netherlands hungry and Habsburg monarchy even though there were many other countries in Europe that did not accept Marxism the new ideology had gained enough fame and support based on which a new organization was founded for all the Marxists across the world second international there were many people such as leftists who criticized Marxism even the Socialists added into its criticism Marxist theory says the state would ultimately dissolve under Marxist government where the Russian collectivist activist Mikhail Bakunin said the instead of this the state would become more powerful and become dictatorial Max Weber who admired marks for his ideologies also criticised some of his suppositions when it came to nature of society Max Weber will sociologist many Marxists try to adjust with this changing nature of capitalism and criticism Eduard Bernstein for example was a Marxist who tried to legally fight the then administration's on the treatment of the labor classes instead of just stressing on revolution as the conventional Marxist ideology says Otto Bauer Vladimir Lenin gurgi Plekhanov Rosa Luxemburg and Kok outski over against the thoughts of Bernstein and was staunch supporters of the Orthodox Marx philosophies they look forward to overthrowing the government controlled by the bourgeoisie and establishing a dictatorship of the worker class early communist states 1917 to 1944 Russian Revolution Russia was controlled by the Tsar's and the huge nation was dependent on agriculture poverty was spread throughout while a handful of the elites enjoyed money and luxurious life the environment was perfect for Marxism to flourish and the man who brought the ideologies here was gurgi Plekhanov but it was Lenin who organized the movement the government of but Tsar's had him exiled to Siberia for a long time but he escaped to make sure that Tsar ISM came turn end Russian social democratic Labor Party a Marxist group was formed in Russia which was later on divided into two groups mensheviks led by jr. smart of and Bolsheviks led by Lenin himself in one of the revolutions of 1905 against Saru Soviets which was a workers council was formed in different parts of the country a democratic reform was implemented forcefully and the Duma which was an elected form of government was formed the newly formed government faced problems and participation of Russia in the first world war caused more unrest in the country in 1917 October Revolution made the Bolsheviks powerful and they began to change the structure of the company based on the principles of Marx the industries were nationalized and the land was confiscated from the rich elites and redistributed among the peasants later they withdrew from the war against Germany through the treat of brest-litovsk the Russians did not take it positively as a nation lost much land and had to pay heavily to the Germans the Bolsheviks faced a lot of resistance from different groups who have their own forces these groups had their own thoughts and ideologies which they wanted to use in reforming then much troubled Russia the socialist revolutionary group formed the courage in Samara the social democrats have a power rooted in democratic republic of georgia there were the Western powers and there were some forces of the Tsar's who were known as white guard this differentiation in thoughts and power were the cause of so many groups and all this chaos caused revolts and rebellions which ultimately led to the Russian Civil War the Bolsheviks with their marxist ideology swung the and took over the whole nation they had their base established at Kremlin in the city of Moscow the Russian sfa Republic was redesignated his Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922 Lenin suffered with poor health and stepped down from his seat as the leader in 1924 after which he soon died of sickness Josef Stalin took over the control of the new nation after Lenin carrying forward the ideologies of Marxism Mongolia Comintern and communism in Europe the second international had collapsed in the year 1916 and the Bolshevik government in Russia took an initiative to organize the establishment of an international communist organization which would be the Third International however it was known as the Communist international and was famously aggravated as Comintern irrespective of its international status Comintern was dominated by Kremlin till it functioned in 1921 Soviet Union attacked Mongolia the act was to help the country fight the Chinese who were then controlling the nation the Russians instituted a Marxist form of government and declared Mongolia as the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924 all the communist groups that had the support of Russia soon spread through Europe and the influence of the Russian Revolution still persisted there was an uprising known as sparked assist in 1919 in Germany the rebellion workers were supported by the weapon bearing communists the German government was quick to react and suppress the revolt viciously with the help of right-wing paramilitary team Frei corpse there were some notable deaths in this rebellion and famous German communists named Rosa Luxemburg and several others lost their lives furious communists took over Bavaria Germany after a few months of this uprising and formed the Bavarian Soviet republic unfortunately their power checked again and the FRA corpse massacred about 1,200 communists and people who supported their act in 1919 hungary was already disturbed with political ups and downs and soon had to face a defeat in the first world war in 1919 this commotion led to the formation of a Social Democratic Party while the Communists took the reign of the country in their hands Bela Coon was the leader of the Hungarian Soviet republic he was quick to take control and soon began the implementation of reforms in the Communist way it was not long when Hungary was invaded by Romania and the government of Bela Hahn came crashing down many communist leaders were executed while some of them escaped to foreign countries there was a strike of the working class in the year 1921 in Milan and Turin in northern Italy with the Communists took as an opportunity and revolted with him then government quickly crushed the revolt the Communists once again revolted in Germany in the same year and again in 1923 both of which proved to be unsuccessful as the government put an end to both these rebellions in no time well Gary also saw an uprising from the Communists in 1923 but they were unsuccessful like the others that happened through the other countries in Europe Soviet Union under the rule of Stalin Josef Stalin was a devoted follower of Lenin who was quite powerful in Soviet Union Nikolai Bukharin supported Stalin in his leadership when they have several opponents in the government some of the famous people who were against the thoughts of Stalin were Grigory Zinoviev Lenin Trotsky and left commendeth Cellini had his own way of making communist society he created a variation in his work which was known as Stalinism some of the policies such as the new economic policy which was a free-market policy that Lenin had permitted under his rule was abandoned by Stalin he overruns several capitalist ideologies and implemented his rules there were changes made in Union agricultural production and modernized it with the help of machinery and tractors he collectivized the farms persuasively and even collected their cranes according to the decided targets the industrial workers had enough food but the peasants who did not wish to move to the industry when hungry people owning little lands we usually target it , turn was under the control of Stalin he had a policy introduced in this international organization which opposed all the leftists who were not followers of Marxism he called them social fascists there were many communists who did not agree to this policy of Stalin like Jews Humbert troz he said that the left-wing should unite against the rise of right-wing movements such as fascism throughout Europe Stalin promoted in movement in 1930s which was known as Popular Front under this movement the communist parties the Socialists along with some other political groups came together for a cause which was to organize support for Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War the Great Terror the great terror or Great Purge is referred to the period in Soviet Union between 1936 and 1938 when there was a situation of political repression in the nation that involved the execution of rebels from the communist party and tonight Stalin's Authority the targeted people were the leaders of the Communist Party and those of armed forces and government officials all of her work party members if there were other people in the society who were also affected by this the party and the officials were afraid of rebellions from the peasant class the Roma's migration of peasants who moved to the cities in millions this game is a threat to Stalin who feared an invasion from these peasants there were three big trials conducted in Moscow the prior senior leaders of Communist Party were held accused for conspiring against the capitalist and fascist powers to have Stalin and other eminent leaders of the party murdered to dislodge Soviet Union and bring back capitalism in the nation the first trial took place in the month of August 1936 where there were 16 people executed two famous people among them were left commendeth and Grigory Zinoviev the second trial saw 17 people executed On January 1937 these people were off lesser importance but were blamed of sparring with Germany against opiate Union European tarkov Cara Tech and Greg ELISA koulikov were among the assassinated the third trial was a secret one and was held in the month of June of 1937 the red army commanders had to face trial and many more were assassinated the verse 2 trials happen publicly and every one of the assassinated person was given a chance to speak they confess their crimes after which they were executed while the others have something else to say extortion and psychological pressure such as threats to kill their families we used to have them confess Kamenev and xenovia requested that their families be spared if they confess their crimes Stalin did not keep his promise and most of the family members of the executed were caught and killed spread of communism 1945 to 1957 Kremlin established new international coordination bodies under the communist government in 1947 which comprised of women's international Democratic Federation World Federation of democratic youth International Union of Students World Peace Council and World Federation of democratic youths there were other bodies which comprised of scientists journalists lawyers and doctors the World Federation of trade unions was set up with a purpose to night trade union federations throughout the globe and was based in Prague despite the presence of non-communist unions the Federation was controlled by the Communists of Soviet Britain America along with some more non-communist unions separated from the Federation Soviet Union revolts rebellions and especially the war had devastated Soviet Union and there was a recovery program that was required which did happen housing reconstruction of industries and transportation began to take place along with the construction work the soldiers were demobilized and the civilians were migrated the period for turmoil for Soviet Union was not yet over in the winters of 1946 to 1947 famines struck the lands which turned out to be one of the deadliest in the 20th century Stalin faced no oppression as he had gulag in place anyone showing signs of disobeying the orders of Stalin was sent to gulag gulag was a Soviet government administered forced labor camp it was an important instrument of styling through which he brought a sense of fear within the Russians Britain an United States normal had friendly relations with Soviet Union they were against the way Stalin exercise political powers on Eastern Europe Cold War had already started by 1947 Stalin too believed that capitalism would not sustain for long if countries started to put pressure Stalin misjudged the economic strength of the West and saw the Western countries join hands to contain or stop the expansion of Soviet Union in 1950 he permitted North Korea to invade South Korea he was wrong when he thought that a war would end soon it came to him as a shock when the Americans joined in the war to support South Korea and defeated the North Koreans China also entered the Korean War and Stalin was happy about it as the Americans moved back to the pre-war boundaries however this just gave rise to more tension between the nations United States began to prepare its economy to get into a long conflict with Soviet Union they built the hydrogen bomb and fortify the NATO alliance which now covered Western Europe after 1945 Stalin concentrated on building up the reputation of Soviet Union as a superpower however Stalin was physically growing weak but wish to hold on to the power that he had the system that was created by him mirrored the style of Sarrus true but in a more modern way Stalin needed bluer people and he also built committees so that the youth could join in and support the system that he had set up the deputies of Stalin used rigorous ways to train them which helped in ruling the country in a United Way Eastern Europe the Red Army was quite successful in uniting Eastern and Central Europe giving control to the Communists while Czechoslovakia welcomed it Hungary and Poland were forced to accept communist power the Social Democratic Party was forced to fuse with a communistic party earlier the people were willing to accept change such as limited nationalism of Industry and growth of exhaustive social welfare states there were many groups that were non communists but supported socialism besides the concept of forced collective agriculture and recession of 1953 in Soviet which first came up in Berlin led to deep unrest in the nation the biggest challenge of Stalin was to control the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 there was a Social Democratic Party formed that stood against communism there were strikes and revolts and many independent worker councils were formed there were two non communist parties that sided socialism and also got their independence the Communists retaliated and crushed they smooth with military strikes and executions the central workers Council of Greater Budapest was also crushed the whole world knew about this revolt and because of this many people left the Communist Party Leonid Brezhnev who was a Soviet leader ordered a military attack on August 20th 1968 as destroy the Warsaw Pact the Soviets also threatened to go against the British French Israeli invasion and in Egypt this again led to resignation of people from parties West Germany the Cold War was concentrated in the West Germany and West Berlin and there were many communist fronts that were set up for instance in West Germany the Society of German Soviet friendship had about 13,000 members but it was called a communist front and bound in 1953 democratic Cultural League of Germany functioned differently when had been created but then it came under the control of communists there were 155 organizations that were already communists and about 54 of them that had been infiltrated by the communists China Mao Zedong came to power in 1949 in China and with him came the rule of Communist Party China supported North Korea in a war against South Korea that was supported by United Nations and United States the war lasted from 1950 to 1953 the undeclared war ended in the military standstill but Mao took this opportunity to learn who was supporting capitalism in China China had close relations with Moscow because of Stalin Stalin had sent many technical experts to China to assess the process of industrialization in China in 1953 Stalin died and with his death the friendly relations between China and Soviet also ended as Mao thought Stalin successors did not support communism Mao said the new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev did not support Marxism and Leninism and was trying to bring back capitalism by 1960 things between the two nations had become quite sour both the nations began taking support of communist supporters across the globe basically the globe was split into two unfriendly campaigns Zedong along with his supporter Deng champing began the Great Leap Forward in 1957 to 1961 aiming at quick industrialization of China villages were used as the base instead of cities and all ownership of private lands ended the peasants had to work together big combined farms and industries such as steel mills were ordered to be started industrial plans were built in secluded areas without proper experts managers or transportation in Australia zation failed badly and agriculture output swooped down which resulted in famine and led to the death of millions Deng was appointed to take out China from this mess then use practical policies which Mao did not like the failure of industrialization had made Mao unpopular and he had to remain quiet for some time later when he returned back in power he had Deng and his allies removed in the Cultural Revolution which took place between 1966 and 1969 Cold War and revisionism 1958 to 1979 Cultural Revolution in China Cultural Revolution in China was mayhem that happened between 1966 and 1976 where all the party leaders and intelligences were targeted Mao wanted to cleanse communism by getting rid of all traditionalists and Pro capitalists he did this by imposing Maoist belief in the party this was something like the great era of Stalin Mouse Cultural Revolution left a deep impact on China making it weak politically culturally and economically for several years there were millions who were accused of treachery against communism and removed from their posts and killed or imprisoned or sent to work in farms as labourers two of the most important people who assisted him in this movement were his wife junk wing and martial lianbao Mao said that the revisionist should be violently removed the youth of China formed red guard groups throughout the nation which led to the purge of leaders who were looking to follow capitalism and Deng Xiaoping was amongst them Mouse cult grew his power and after his death in 1976 the people whom he had imprisoned or sent to work as laborers were returned to their power huben revolution for gem CEO Batista was supported by the democratic socialist coalition he was twice the president of Cuba and forcefully used his powers Fidel Castro led a cuban revolution and removed Batista from his post Fidel Castro and his revolutionaries were all communists and they set up their government United States who had supported Cuba earlier was not happy about the overthrow of Batista they invaded Cuba in 1961 but were unable to defeat Fidel Castro's government Soviet stationed nuclear weapons in 1962 in Cuba so they could protect their communist allies United States also installed its weapons in Turkey secretly and there was a fear of nuclear war for some time however there was a compromise made and Soviet had their nuclear weapons removed from Cuba and so did the Americans euro communism euro communism had become quite popular in countries of Western Europe that lasted from 1960s to the 1980s the Communist Party of Spain Finland's party and Italian Communist Party were where it was the strongest the thoughts and ideologies were developed by those members of the Communist Party who were disheartened with both China and Soviet and looked forward to an independent program they did not seek in destroying the ideologies of capitalism entirely and they did support democracy and free speech and liberal Parliament and they wished to win the support of the people by transforming the bureaucracies slowly the Communist Party of Spain replaced Marxist Leninist with a new slogan that read Marxist Democratic and revolutionary this was done in 1978 but the movement did not last long and soon bleached out in 1980s when communists fell in Eastern Europe fall of communist powers 1980 to 1992 after decades of being embraced by millions communism slowly began to near its form there were a series of events that took place between 1989 and 1991 which led to the fall of communist governments in Soviet Union and Eastern Europe countries started facing opposition and then when the president of Soviet Mikhail Gorbachev did not send the Russian troops to suppress the revolts the government's began to fall slowly Poland was the first be crushed the Communists here had agreed to free elections which resulted in a change of power in June 1989 people began to demand to be freed from communism throughout the East Germany followed soon the Berlin Wall fell and East and West Germany were united the Communist Czechoslovakian government resigned in November 1989 there was an upheaval in December 1989 fell the Romanian communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu the Parliament of Bulgaria invalidated the monopoly of Communist Party on 1990 and again in 1991 the popular position forced the Communist cabinet in Albania to put down their resignation in August 1991 the Communists organized a coupe d'etat against the President of Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev which failed with this failure also ended the Communist Party's authority on the government and military communism 1993 to present when the communist governments fell in Soviet Union the power that was held by the state based marxist philosophies throughout the world was enfeebled averse to remain many communist movements big and small that continued to display their thoughts Vietnam People's Republic of China and Laos all began market economies but there was not much privatization done in the 1980s and 1990s France Portugal Spain and Greece all have strong communist parties and actively participate in strikes and march especially on International Workers day this shows how communism is still alive in several hearts communism is still live in Europe China still happens to have a communist government after market economies were introduced in China somewhere in the 1970s the economy of the nation has been growing in leaps and bounds most of Mao's ideas were not in the benefit of China yet it continues to function as a communist nation as it was the communist ideologies that reformed China Korea split into North and South and North Korea was taken over by the Kim family who have been dictating it since 1948 although China helps to protect the borders of North Korea it doesn't supply it with any other things communism still persists in North Korea Fidel Castro overthrew the reign of Batista and established communism in Cuba Cuba however seems to be concerned about their people and is known to have one of the best healthcare systems in the world Laos happens to be a communist nation – Laos is highly corrupted and is one of the poorest nations in the world it has limited trade relations with other countries Vietnam still continues to be communist in its government till 1986 Vietnam continued to be a true communist nation after which it had to take international AIDS for which it brought about many political reforms in the country although there still persists some problems in the country such as income and gender inequality the nation is quickly developing its economy for Angola communism ended on August 27th 1992 they had strong relations with Russia Cuba and Mozambique which were all communists the Chinese government has made a lot of investments in Angola the nation is slowly progressing and has also increased their GDP between the period of 1976 and 1992 Angola saw many revolts and rebellions there was a period of unrest when the Communists governed the nation enjoys peace and conflicts are nowhere to be seen now Afghanistan was also country that followed communism earlier but April 20th 1992 was the last day for it the Soviet armies backed the nation but after 1992 the Russian armies couldn't help them anymore however United States have been in Afghanistan since then Yugoslavia saw the end of communism on April 27th 1992 communism began in 1943 here Yugoslavia was ruled by Tito who was the opposite of other communist states his relations of the Soviet were not good but he had quite good relations with America Yugoslavia had become a ground for internal Wars which protracted to 1990s after Tito's death in 1980 second-largest Marxist state in Africa Congo was initially led by Marion Naga wahby both Soviet Union and France supported Congo and when communism established itself in 1970s there was peace but later on civil war started in late 1990s Congo is still not a peaceful nation even after communism ended in 1992 neighbor of Yugoslavia Albania was also placed where communism had its roots the nation is slowly established a new constitution and has been trying to adopt western-style of democracy in the nation communism was the thought of being free to live a decent life free of the dominating aristocrats it also shows the determination of the working class if they want they can overthrow Thrones and tumble the government's the ideologies were basically to use violence and remove the class struggle yet some of them have seemed to have gone to extremes in using Marxism to reform the society the violence not only engulfed those who were guilty but also those who were innocent there is no count in the number of lives that were lost in this struggle people who gained power did not seem to use it well as they might have concentrated on just implementing the ideologies rather than actually using it for the betterment of the society the extra masti use of the communist leaders the main cause of downfall of communism while there are still people who vouch for communism and supported but they haven't been able to get enough votes to establish their governments there are countries that are still running on communist governments but the effectiveness of most of them are questionable whether or not communism would gain back the same power as it had previously is a question unanswered for now




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