Germany Never Elected Hitler | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1933 Part 1 of 3

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, Führer
of the Nazi Party, walks out of the offices of German President Paul von Hindenburg with
tears in his eyes. He is greeted by a small crowd cheering and
saluting him with the Hitler Salute. When he gets into his car, he repeats; “we
did it, we did it.” Against all democratic principles, he has
been appointed Chancellor of the German Reich. It is the beginning of the downfall of Germany
and a prelude to tens of millions of deaths. Welcome to Between-2-Wars a chronological
summary of the interwar years, covering all facets of life, the uncertainty, hedonism,
and euphoria, and ultimately humanity’s descent into the darkness of the Second World War. I’m Indy Neidell. In our previous episode about German elections,
we left things off as Germany had once again managed to elect a parliament incapable of
selecting a government with majority support. Parts of the electorate had abandoned traditional
parties for the Communists on the extreme left or the Nazis on the outer right. Chancellor Franz von Papen of the Conservative
Zentrum party had convinced President Paul von Hindenburg to issue an emergency decree
making Papen dictator of Prussia. Hitler had snubbed Papen’s attempt to forge
a nazi-conservative coalition, and finally, in a showdown with the Reichstag, Hindenburg
and Papen dissolved parliament and called for new elections on November 4. Exciting stuff. While that election campaign starts, Papen
remains Chancellor by emergency decree and continues to court the NSDAP, the Nazis, for
a coalition. His Nazi counterpart and ally Gregor Strasser
was one of the first Nazi members of parliament and is now Reichsorganisationsleiter, General
Secretary of the party, the second most powerful Nazi after Hitler. Strasser is one of the last members of the
left NSDAP still in the party leadership. In the early days of the party, together with
his brother Otto Strasser, he had led a faction with outspoken anti-bourgeois, left-leaning
sympathies. In 1925 he even challenged Hitler’s leadership
over ideas about proposing Soviet-style land reforms. But Hitler, with support of the ultra-reactionary
party right wing defeats Strasser in a public showdown at the party leadership summit at
Bamberg in 1926. Hitler rails against the leftists, labeling
them Nationalbolsheviken, and decrying them as traitors to the Nazi cause. Strasser backs down, and it is here that Hitler
gets confirmed as the absolute leader of the party – the Führer. Despite Strasser’s loss and that his leftist
economic views have no real effect on the party anymore, he is appointed Reichspropagandaleiter,
Head of Propaganda. Together with his apprentice Joseph Goebbels
he now continues the campaign that will make the Nazis a real force in German politics. Now, by Goebbels’ had, by his own account,
already abandoned any sympathy for the left during the Bamberg showdown. But he bridges Strasser’s economic leftism
and Hitler’s ultra-racist positions by converging them around anti-semitism where their views
are already aligned anyway. Goebbels and Strasser now perfect the Nazi
racist, antisemitic newspeak where “Socialism” means “solidarity within the German race”
– “Bolshevik” is synonymous with “Jew” – “Bourgeoisie” indicates “Jewish middle class” – “Banker”
is “a Jew” – “Capitalism” is the “Jewish conspiracy of international finance” – and so on. The issue is not a new one in this the “National
Socialist German Workers Party.” And yet, Hitler opposes continued Socialist
sounding rhetoric at first, but Goebbels convinces him to play along. Not only is this instrumental in making the
NSDAP acceptable to former Socialists with Nationalist sympathies, but it also saves
Strasser from Hitler’s ire. And it’s a success, attracting huge amounts
of violent Socialist militants and activists dissatisfied with the floundering Communist
Party. Between 1925 and 1930, NSDAP membership grows
from 26,000 to 389,000. In May 1929, Strasser loses but survives yet
another showdown with Hitler when Strasser dares to propose entertaining the idea of
a coalition with the Social Democrats, or even the Communists for a state government
in Saxony. This episode also marks a final break with
Goebbels, now his successor as head of propaganda. But despite the infighting, between1928 and
1930, Strasser advances his position and rebuilds the party into a model of efficiency. He introduces a structure closely mirroring
the provincial structure of Germany, with Gauleiters instead of provincial governors,
and the Sturmabteilung or SA structured like the state and federal police. He appoints Reichsleiters to handle a state-like
administration and restructures the party leadership like a shadow cabinet of the chancellery. By 1932, the NSDAP is a complete state within
the state, poised and pouncing at a takeover of the country. For that Hitler has two plans;
A Hitler wins the Presidency and appoints Strasser Chancellor. B Hitler doesn’t win the Presidency, and they
demand that Hitler is appointed Chancellor. Strasser considers both ideas unrealistic
and has only one plan: enter into a coalition with the conservatives and settle for key
cabinet positions. When plan A falls through, he takes this to
Papen, without informing Hitler. But already before the July polls, Hitler
finds out from British journalist Sefton Delmer and once again blows a gasket at Strasser. The rest of the leadership calm Hitler down
enough to not make a public scene and to pay lip service to Strasser’s and Papen’s agreement. With the Parliament seats gained in July,
Hitler stays his course and snubs Papen. Strasser, though, is less optimistic about
the November elections and continues negotiations with Papen as the new election campaign starts. Now, street violence coming mostly from the
Nazis against the Communists was the central theme of the July election, this election
campaign we see the Communists go after the Social Democrats, for Ernst Thälmann, leader
of the Communist Party the KPD, has smelled blood. In July the new votes he captured came almost
exclusively at the expense of the center-left Social Democrats, the SPD. And if you have found a winning formula, why
not roll with it? Well, that is what he does! Their main slogan is still that they are the
only genuine anti-fascist alternative. But now, they add the SPD to this list of
fascists by labeling them ‘social fascists.’ The SPD themselves position Social Democracy
as the alternative to everything – against von Papen – against the Nazis – against the
Communists. The Nazis, on Goebbels orders, had toned down
the anti-semitic rhetoric in 1930 and in July, but now it creeps back into their main campaign
focus. And the patchwork of Conservative parties,
including Zentrum and the German National People’s Party DNVP, run on an identity campaign
to return Germany to an imagined glorious past. And while they all rail against each other,
something essential happens in the background: the economy starts to recover. Not overnight, it has been in recovery for
many months, but now people begin to notice it in their wallets and on the job market. It’s a combination of Papen’s repeal of several
of the draconian austerity measures set by his predecessor, and the early effects of
overall European recovery from the 1929 October crash. Moreover, many of the briefly canceled social
security programs, part of German welfare capitalism, have been reintroduced. Together, it leads to a lower sense of financial
urgency, which coupled with exhaustion over the constant elections suppresses voter turnout,
which sinks from 84.1% in July to 80.6% in November. On election day, the biggest losers are actually
the Nazis, but the Social Democrats also take a beating, an essential beating. The NSDAP loses 34 seats to 196, but is still
the biggest party. Papen’s conservative block combined gains
16 seats to 154 or 26.3%, making them the second-biggest faction. The moderate and liberal centrist parties
are now wholly insignificant, but the change on the left flank has dramatic effects. The SPD lose 12 seats, out of which 11 go
to the KPD- the Communists. So even with the NSDAP losses, 50.7% of votes
in the Reichstag are either for Communists or Nazis. This means nothing has changed – the extremists
on both ends can still block the formation of a government by merely abstaining from
voting. It was so close. If the Communists had taken only four fewer
seats from SPD, a new grand coalition would have been possible. But now even if a coalition of SPD and KPD
was ideologically possible, which it isn’t, they don’t have the votes for that either. Instead, the only viable alternatives are
yet another election or a coalition of Conservatives and Nazis, right? Well, now with the losses of the NSDAP and
the improving economy, Papen comes up with another plan. He will take charge of the country as dictator
of Germany. Now, Papen and his Minster of the Interior
Wilhelm, Baron von Gayl, advise Hindenburg to prorogue the Reichstag for six months and
only then hold new elections. In that time they will devise a new constitution. It is his old plan of a return to constitutional
Monarchy. New elections in the spring should give them
time to build a sufficient base to get this through the new Reichstag. Hindenburg likes the idea, but before they
can start putting it into play, they meet resistance. The execution of the plan depends on having
the Riechswehr, the army on their side, but Reichswehr Minister Kurt von Schleicher has
some serious concerns with this plan. During the only major violent clash between
police, Communists, and Nazis in the November election campaign, one of his generals, Eugen
Ott was playing war games and coming up with disaster scenarios. According to Ott, the Reichswehr is in no
position to resist the Nazi paramilitaries without launching a civil war. His scenarios predict that the Communists
would build a third front. And in various versions of the events that
then unfold, Ott foresees doom. Such as; Invasion by Poland, intervention
by the USSR, a secession of Bavaria as a Nazi State, occupation by the Western Allies, and
several other effects that lead to the end of Germany. Not a single scenario foresees a successful
outcome for the Reichswehr. To put it bluntly: combined, the NSDAP and
KPD armed forces are now in many ways superior to the better equipped German armed forces. So Schleicher suggests another plan: appease
the Nazis and the Communists and use Strasser to break up the NSDAP from within. It’s an old idea called Querfront, in English
the Third Position, that supporters of a Conservative Revolution have toyed with for over a decade. In basic terms, it combines the reactionary
social positions of the extreme right with some collectivist, labor-friendly fiscal policy
of the radical left. Sound familiar? You got it – it’s the Strasser position! Now, for the Conservative mainstream, this
has been an unacceptable idea until now, but under the dreadful prospects of the Ott scenarios,
most of the Conservative cabinet backs Schleicher’s plan. Unsurprisingly, Strasser is also all for it. Somewhat surprisingly, he also indicates that
he will have no problem to get Hitler and the rest of the NSDAP behind it too. On December 3, 1932, Hindenburg dismisses
Papen and makes Schleicher new Chancellor of Germany and dictator of Prussia by emergency
decree. Meanwhile, Strasser takes the proposal for
a coalition with Hitler as deputy Chancellor to the rest of the Nazi leadership. This time Hitler doesn’t explode, the election
losses have left him more cautious. Instead, Strasser meets immediate opposition
from Reichstag President Hermann Göring and from Josef Goebbels, who favor an “all or
nothing” approach. Now, Hitler has spent the last few weeks in
meetings with industrialists and bankers, working tirelessly to convince and assure
them that they have no Socialist measures to fear from the National Socialists. Then his new industrialist and banker friends
have been put pressure on Hindenburg to accept Hitler, even as Chancellor, but they have
also impressed on Hitler the need for diplomacy. While the NSDAP leaders argue, Schleicher
starts making known his intent for a Third Front through a broad coalition. Not only is this met with skepticism by the
general public, but it also infuriates Conservatives who deride him as the Red General. Hitler fumes with anger when he realizes that
he’s being played. On the fifth day of the crisis, Strasser is
forced to resign from his positions in the party. Schleicher’s Third Position has failed before
he even gets a chance to try it. For Hitler, it is now all or nothing, him
or Schleicher, Chancellor or bust. And the general public in Germany goes to
celebrate Christmas and New Year with false sense of relief. The economy continues to make public signs
of recovery, with spending and employment during the holiday season above expectations. The Communists are relieved that the Nazis
didn’t make a government, who are relieved that the Communists didn’t form part of the
government. To the majority, it looks like a defeat for
both extremes, especially Hitler- whom the media now portrays as a loser, relegated back
to just a provincial Bavarian trouble maker. For Schleicher, it is nothing short of a disaster
– he has no mandate, no coalition partners, no plan, but he does have enemies. Papen and Schleicher had been close friends
and allies for many years. But in only a few days, they have now become
bitter enemies, and this will have consequences for the whole world. To salvage public support, Schleicher now
publicly and repeatedly attacks the unpopular Papen, which he had promised Hindenburg he
would not do, s not only is the principled old man in the Presidential Palace- Hindenburg-
angered, he sees this as destructive to the chances of forming any government at all. On January 4, 1933, Papen meets Hitler in
secret in Cologne at a prominent banker’s house. The topic is how to overthrow Schleicher. Papen’s suggestion is the old one – a new
government with himself as Chancellor and Hitler as Deputy but now on equal footing. Hitler is agreeable in general but evasive
on the Chancellor issue. The meeting leaks to the press, framed as
an attempt to form a majority government finally, one with the Nazis but under Conservative
oversight. A panicked Schleicher rushes to Hindenburg
demanding him to charge Papen with treason by Presidential executive order, Hindenburg
declines. On January 9, Papen meets in secret with Hindenburg
and proposes a government with Hitler in some form, but not as Chancellor. On January 22, Hitler and Papen meet at Joachim
von Ribbentrop’s home in Berlin in yet another secret meeting. Von Ribbentrop, as many of you know, will
one day be Nazi Germany’s Foreign Minister. Göring and Goebbels are there, as well as
Hindenburg’s confidants Otto Meissner and Oskar von Hindenburg, the President’s son,
attend too. They negotiate a compromise, Hitler as Chancellor,
Papen Deputy Chancellor and Governor of Prussia, and Göring Minister of the Interior of Prussia. Meanwhile, Schleicher rushes to Hindenburg
again, demanding that he dissolve the Reichstag, declare a state of emergency, and suspend
elections indefinitely. Hindenburg declines, and when the attempted
coup leaks to the press, Scheicher faces outrage and loud public calls for his immediate dismissal. Oskar von Hindenburg and Meissner now start
convincing the President to go along with Hitler and Papen’s plan. On January 28, Schleicher makes a last-ditch
attempt to persuade Hindenburg to at least Prorogue the Reichstag, let him govern for
now, and announce new elections. Hindenburg refuses again and Schleicher hands
in his resignation. The same day Papen meets Hindenburg and assures
him that they have Hitler’ boxed in’ and the tired old general agrees with the proposal. The next day Papen and Hitler meet, and Hitler
informs Papen of the real plan- announce elections for March, ensure that these elections are
a landslide for the Nazis, by whatever means. Then they will enact an Enabling Law, giving
Hitler dictatorial powers. Papen will later claim that Hitler’s words
left him shaken to the core, but that it was too late. On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler is formally
appointed Chancellor of the German Reich by presidential executive order. Gregor Strasser, now a private citizen, reportedly
evaluates the development like this to a friend: “Dr. Martin, I am a man marked by death. We shall not be able to go on seeing each
other for long, and in your own interest; I suggest you do not come here anymore. Whatever happens, mark what I say: From now
on, Germany is in the hands of an Austrian who is a congenital liar, a former officer
who is a pervert, and a clubfoot. And I tell you the last is the worst of them
all; this is Satan in human form.” He is referring to Hitler, Göring, and Goebbels
in that order. SEGUE
Perhaps ironically, it is with the organization that Strasser has built that the three will
proceed to seize totalitarian power. See, Franz von Papen is the one who’s boxed
in. He might control large parts of the German
administration, but remember that Strasser built the Nazi party as a state within the
state. A powerful organization that now quickly reaches
its tentacles into all aspects of governance. Even as dictator of Prussia, Papen is powerless. Göring is now Prussian Minister of the Interior
with full control of the Prussian police and administration. Within days the Prussian state is fully controlled
by the SA. Göring formalizes the NSDAP intelligence
efforts as the Geheime Staatspolizei, Gestapo who proceed to infiltrate every aspect of
Prussian public life. Meanwhile, Hitler and Goebbels start setting
up the Gauleiters to do the same in all of the German provinces. As the election campaign for the March elections
gets underway, the NSDAP unleashes violence, voter suppression, and terror on a scale that
widely surpasses any previous election unrest. On the night of February 28, a Dutch Communist
sets fire to the Reichstag in protest against the Nazis. The next day Hindenburg signs the Reichstag
Fire Decree, or Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State, enabling
Hitler to suspend law and order to pursue ostensible political enemies of the state. In reality, it just makes the already ongoing
activities of the party less cumbersome. Now the Prussian Police, the SA and Hitler’s
bodyguard, the Schutzstaffel or SS arrest thousands of KPD members, Social Democrats,
and Liberals, many of them on the ballots. To systematically jail, beat, torture, and
sometimes murder them, Gauleiters, the SA and SS set up improvised internment camps
all across the country. It is the beginning of the concentration camp
system. Political rallies of the Social Democrats
and Communists are attacked and dispersed. On election day 50,000 SA and SS come out
to patrol the polling booths to safeguard the elections. Still, despite this massive voter intimidation
and manipulation campaign, more than 30% still dare to vote for the Communists or Social
Democrats. On March 24 the new Reichstag passes the Enabling
Act, and Hitler is for all practical purposes dictator of Germany. It’s an event that is sometimes analyzed as
if it could have stopped the Nazis. Many of the SPD deputies and all of KPD deputies
were not even there; they were in Concentration Camps. Lining the walls of the plenary hall of the
Reichstag were hundreds of uniformed, armed SA men. It was not the beginning of the Nazi power
grab, but merely a ceremonial end. Thirteen years earlier, Social Democrat, Liberal
and Conservative politicians of Germany had united around the idea of a free, tolerant
and open democracy. Faced with extremists on the right and the
left, they had appeased one side to beat down the other. They had tried to win their votes by themselves
embracing conspiracy theories and populist positions. Ideas that they knew were false, anti-democratic,
and not even workable solutions. Willingly or unwillingly they had moved closer
and closer to extremism themselves. They were now reaping the poisonous fruits
that they had planted. Fruit that will now kill many of them together
with the tens of millions of innocent people that they, the pillar of German democracy,
had on this day condemned to death. We’ve created a playlist of all the episodes
we have done on Hitler’s rise to power… it will be here any moment now. Our TimeGhost Army member for this episode
is Omar Gallardo. It’s thanks to Omar and the rest of the TimeGhost
army members’ contributions that we can continue shining a light on these events. And as MLK said: “Let us not seek to satisfy
our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred.” Cheers, and stay safe!

  1. Hi, for those of you that don't know me yet, I'm the lead author of this series and the author of this episode. Now, as you will, or have just seen, this episode covers an event of earth-shattering magnitude in human history. An event that is often misunderstood and glossed over. The reason for that is not that there is anything controversial, or stupendously new with what we're documenting here. The simple fact is that its just too detailed and too complicated to cover in general history studies, especially in secondary school. The level we get into here is usually only covered in specialized lectures at college or university level. Tons and tons of books have been written on the topic and yet, many misconceptions remain. It was my goal to dispel some of the many misunderstandings that abound about how Hitler finally seized power. One of the chief myths is that Hitler was elected. As the video shows, that is not what happened. So you might ask yourself; how come the vast majority of Germans finally rallied behind him? Because they did, there's no question. But you see, that happens after he seizes power and it will be the topic of our next episode on Germany that covers the Nazi consolidation of power.

    It was also my goal to cast some more light on a topic that has been weaponized in political debate in recent years: the level of Socialism in the German National Socialist Worker's Party. I hope that I have laid the latter one to rest, but I fear that the comment section will still be full of politically biased nonsense on this topic. It's quite tiring for our community managers to answer that misrepresenting alt-right trope over and over again. And we won't stop you from posting it, even if it's nonsense. Instead we will try to patiently answer, but think fifteen times about posting 'Nazis were Socialists, duh!' or "Dude, Nazis are left-wing, duh!' out of respect for us. What we will not tolerate is that you post links to any of the clown videos by non-historians that try to perpetuate that myth. We are a team of actual historians. We have no interest in 'pinning' Naziism on anyone. We also have no interest in 'pinning' Socialism on anyone. Nor should you, if you have any interest whatsoever in understanding history. Revolutionary Socialism, Communism, Fascism and Nazism have all brought down a lot of suffering on humanity – if we are supporters of freedom and democracy we need to learn from that. Throwing them all in one bucket and dumping it on our perceived political opponents is not learning, it's obfuscation, confusion, and destruction of education. So respect humanity, respect history and don't take part in that kind of nonsense. Also I will again post our rules, respect them:

    STAY CIVIL AND POLITE we will delete any comments with personal insults, or attacks.
    AVOID PARTISAN POLITICS AS FAR AS YOU CAN we reserve the right to cut off vitriolic debates.
    HATE SPEECH IN ANY DIRECTION will lead to a ban.
    RACISM, XENOPHOBIA, OR SLAMMING OF MINORITIES will lead to an immediate ban.

  2. Love u guys & gal. Thanks for the work
    OH and are you purposely metaphorically juxtaposing then & now or is it just me seeing it through that lense? Still great though

  3. Those Reichswehr horror scenarios made me think: why didn't officials react sooner to the armed paramilitaries running in the streets? You'd think that with things like the Kapp and the Beer Hall Putsch still in recent memory, police and military would be concerned about partisan militias? Did they just not have the resources to break up these groups or did they view the anti-communist violence somewhat favorably?

  4. I think it would be amazing content for someone (or a few of you guys) from the TimeGhost channel to debate TIK history (also a WW2 historian) on how socialist/"left wing" the NAZI's (National Socialist German Workers Party) was. You both have very different opinions on where the NAZI's align on the old political left vs right line.

    I think using the fact that the NAZI's were racist doesn't show the NAZI's were right wing since any party both left and right wing can be racist. So from there it becomes a matter of proof of what the NAZI's did during their time in power to either put more power into the government or take power away from the government. I think that is where a great debate/video would be born.

  5. 'The Strasser /Neo-Liberal Position " that's been a supposed" Representative Republic Government " governing the US since the end of WW11?

    OH and by the way I stand in solidarity with all poor, oppressed and working people of the world. Reforming a system created by rich white men in wigs over 200 years ago seems like an exercise in futility. CREATE ALTERNATIVE AND PEACEFUL SYSTEMS 🅰️ #PROFITWILLCORRUPT #WARISARACKET #ANINJURYTOONEISANINJURYTOALL

  6. I'm currently reading Hitler: A Biography by Ian Kershaw and I'm at this very time period just as this episode was released. Fun coincidence

  7. While we can all tell retroactively that letting Hitler take power was a HORRIBLE idea, you've got to wonder – what was the alternative? Continue having elections every other month? While it's obvious that the final cost was horrifying – I can understand why the all those less extreme politicians would like to think that they could 'tame' the Nazis: the way they saw it that was the only way to form an actual government. it's really hard to see an alternative…. maybe except the socialists. Just saying that this whole topic is much more complicated then I thought it was before watching the video.
    Also, it's kind of funny that everyone just ignored how radical the Nazi's were but where all in agreement that the socialists are just to extreme to negotiate with.

  8. ooof i got chills at the end of the episode. keep doing this please i am a fan since The Great War episodes and love ur vids

  9. Thanks again for your great work. The best thing about this video is that you could use the word 'prorogue' and we all knew what it meant. 😎

  10. You guys should totally look into joining the armchair historian's subscription service so we can pay you guys all together and give youtube the big F U. 👍🏼

  11. Plot twist: The reparations did not cause the Nazis to get into power, limitations on the size of the military did. Unless I missed the point of course.

  12. You played this,
    Like something for October 31(Halloween)……

    The coming of Horror…….

    That we know today.
    How many (in 1933) saw the future?

    This is a time(in irony) that will haunt Germany for a thousand years….

  13. top notch discussion as always. absolutely the best history channel on youtube. it's good enough to be included in a university setting in parallel with required reading.

  14. this episode felt a little bit messy. all seemed random at times and i couldn’t take any conclusions. maybe have to rewatch it.

  15. i don't understand does hindenburg give hitler emergency powers to even with a a majorety in reichstag ? doesn't he revok it so hitler will be forced to work with von papen and von papen won't stand for another election where it will be rigged in favor of the nazis ?

  16. I'm so confused which political movement from that time should I compare to the political movements of today that I hate and rail against. Both extremes are unpalatable at both times but we see, if you attack physically or rhetorically anyone who is even close to your side and disagrees on some things huge portions of the electorate just might look at you as their enemy. And the enemy of my enemy is my friend.

  17. I have a suggestion for @Spartacus Olsson & Indy & team for several years down the road when this WW2 series reaches its end: do a mini-series on socialism (and its variations, including social democrats). You can look at it from its origins through today and how it has been practiced around the world.

    Your deft handling of German politics makes me thing you are up for handling the task responsibly and accurately, and presenting it a way to educate everyone (especially Americans, who mostly have no real understanding of the concept because of the Red Scares and Cold War). Because your team is European (except Indy, but he's pretty much adopted at this point) you also have the perspective of seeing socialism at its worst (Soviet Bloc) and its best (Scandavian countries and postwar Social Democrats in Germany).

    Thanks and keep up the great work on tough subjects!

  18. From the legal point of view, no chancellor ever was elected, but only the parties. As contrast, in the Weimar Republic, the president was indeed elected (which is no more the case in modern Germany). And when some coalition was formed, while eveyone hammering the president to give his ok or to bar opponents, the chancellor is finally appointed by the president: Paul von Hindenburg.
    I would disagree to say that Hitler has not been elected – his party was elected the largest party and he was its leader = Führer, hence: he was elected, indirectly. He even made fake elections later to justify his politics to the public, when dictatorship was already a fact. And he could erect that dictatorship only because he had so many supporters.

  19. Im sorry but the "Querfront" in association wtih Strasser is just so massively factually incorrect it needs to be mentioned in the comments. Strasser did not advocate for a querfront in 33 to begin with and the later Blackfront resistance was not really an ideological union but a strategic one. His positions were also not socialist, even stuff like the collectivization you mention is wrong (read Aufbau des Deutschen sozialismus), unless you hold the position that Gregors position is different from Ottos what you are saying makes no sense and if you do say that it would be hard to find sources considering Gregor did not write books.
    The actual "Querfront" is far more complicated, funnily enough i made an entire video about that ill shamlessly plug.
    Paetel said it best: Strasser is a meaningless reformist

  20. Looking forward to a special episod on the hilarious career of Otto Meissner, the man frequently mentioned in this episod

  21. The mark of a true intellectual community is that they ban linking to dissenting content on the basis that their foes are mere clowns, then partisans, then degenerates, and ultimately, enemies of our way of life that must be eliminated, eventually by any means necessary.

  22. Perhaps you can add to the Druze Rebellion in Lebanon in the 1920s led by Mohammed Al-Atrash, who was one of the first to spouse a separation of the church and state.

  23. I think there should be a broad explanation on the left-right paradigm, since it is not so cut and dry as most people find it.

    I know you all had a video explaining Fascism, but maybe a seperate video on explaining left and right, authoritarian and libertarian?

  24. How did you determine it was a Dutch communist that set fire to the Reichstag? Last I heard that was still a hotly debated issue.

  25. "Extremists on boths sides" and a sentence later, the centrist conservatives plot to make their leader dictator of Germany. So… can you add them please to your list of people we shouldn't trust due to precedent, if we're supporters of freedom and democracy?
    Another point on (contemporary) centrism/conservatism: The status quo has his own untold millions of deaths to account for, by denying them clean drinking water, because big corporations are buying their water supplies… by throwing away 1/3 of the food in some countries, while people still starve… by waging and inciting wars and civil wars for resource or power purposes… by selling weapons to those waging those wars… by destroying the climate… by letting people drown when they try to flee these conditions to find a safe place to live…
    So… you know… "a lot of suffering" in my book at least.

  26. Hitler still got a majority of the seats. To claim Germany never elected Hitler and the Nazis is disingenuous at best. By that logic my countries government (Ireland) wasn't elected because it doesn't have 50+% of the seats. More to the point in proportional representation getting a majority is extremely difficult bordering on impossible depending on the country. Again in Ireland no party is ever going to get a majority ever again so by your logic we can never elect anyone again.

    It's a silly argument to make and I think you're probably aware of that

  27. Am I the only one who noticed how many times they could've killed the National Socialists (Moderate Parties) and they didn't. Also, Strasser's quote about the three is beautiful.

  28. Hitler is leading Germany and he's not German, he's from Austria.
    Did the average person know he wasn't German? Did this ever become an issue? Or did he become German from service in the army?

  29. This popular historical misconception has bothered me for decades! Thank you for taking the bold step to set the record straight in the public mind. Your content is always excellent.

  30. By your logic, nobody elected Winston Churchill either. And Churchill started WWII by declaring war on Germany despite Germany being no threat to Britain. Churchill is the true war criminal.

  31. 20:28 So, the Reichstagfeuer set by a Dutch communist, or was he a retarded homeless man who had a communist pamphlet slipped into his pocket? That is a whole episode in itself! I don’t blame you for not covering the details. But still, it shows the incredible complexity of this time.

  32. There is a quote from a fictional character- Dr. Erskine in Captain America: The First Avenger, to be precise- that sums all this up quite well:

    "So many people forget that the first country the Nazis invaded was their own."

    This is the culmination of that invasion.

  33. I know, I know! It just dawned on me. Your channel design reminds me of the Partridge Family!
    (Sigh) yes I know I'm dating myself. I love your channel. Keep up the great work!

  34. What I had always known is that Nazis won a rigged an election, but they technically still won one if not fairly. Today I learned there's a lot that happened before that rigged election.

  35. Completely unrelated, but what was Indy drinking?
    I don't think I've ever seen this topic covered in as much detail on YouTube. Amazing job as always, people! Keep it up!!

  36. Oversimplfied history, The people who put Napoleon into power thought they could puppet him. The people who put Hitler into power thought they could puppet him. Maybe stop putting power hungry madmen into power to advance your own goals.

  37. Wow Indy, you outdid yourself with this one!
    It's important that people today know this stuff. Hopefully we can say in truth, Never again!
    Yet, as an American, I'm worried.

  38. It's amazing how you guys have improved your writting as this series has developed especially when you are covering stuff that might not be as exciting as a war for example and it's not so "mainstream" as other topics. it's very hard to keep it interesting and not boring but you guys manage to make it interesting congrats!!!

  39. Socialism, Communism, Fascism, and Nazism do share one very critical trait, a desire to concentrate power in the state at the cost of the individual. They go about it in different ways and to different degrees, but the end result tends to be the same – incarceration, torture, or death for all perceived enemies of the people. Terms such as left wing, right wing, and alt right have unclear meanings, so I try to avoid them as much as possible. This is particularly true when trying to comprehend the European vs. American use of these words. When our Constitution was written, our forefathers, well educated on the potential dangers of any form of government, sought to create one in which the consolidation of power was made extremely difficult. Indeed, it was the decentralization of power which was foremost on their minds and a cornerstone of our republic. Yet if any of them were alive today, they would be gravely disappointed to see how far we have drifted from their ideal. I suppose it is to be expected. Human nature can be as predictable as the actions of a moth drawn to a flame. Perhaps that is why the price of freedom is eternal vigilance (yes, I know this is a paraphrase).

  40. Socialism, Communism, Fascism, and Nazism do share one very critical trait, a desire to concentrate power in the state at the cost of the individual. They go about it in different ways and to different degrees, but the end result tends to be the same – incarceration, torture, or death for all perceived enemies of the people. Terms such as left wing, right wing, and alt right have unclear meanings, so I try to avoid them as much as possible. This is particularly true when trying to comprehend the European vs. American use of these words. When our Constitution was written, our forefathers, well educated on the potential dangers of any form of government, sought to create one in which the consolidation of power was made extremely difficult. Indeed, it was the decentralization of power which was foremost on their minds and a cornerstone of our republic. Yet if any of them were alive today, they would be gravely disappointed to see how far we have drifted from their ideal. I suppose it is to be expected. Human nature can be as predictable as the actions of a moth drawn to a flame. Perhaps that is why the price of freedom is eternal vigilance (yes, I know this is a paraphrase).

  41. To quote Big Ben, “a republic, if you can keep it”.

    Hitler and Stalin both in power at the same time! A lousy time to be a European !

    Great episode, both in content and presentation!

  42. I have heard about Strasser and the left wing of the NSDAP.
    Very interesting topics. The nazi party could have been a party of the extreme left. It became one of the extreme right.
    Most of the left wing was purged in the Long Knives' Night

  43. One of the most under appreciated aspects of of every successful functioning government by the people is the separation of powers that are designed to stop things like this from happening. I know you hear it over and over again, but those who won't learn from history are doomed to repeat it. It's a shame that so many details about what happened are not covered in modern day studies. The Nazis have been turned into a political tool with so many considering themselves experts without having any real knowledge whatsoever about what they actually were.

    "It can never happen to us," you hear. Oh yes it can. Yes it can.

  44. Meissner upheld the same job for 25 years. He was the secretery of state and aid first to the president and then to the Führer during the uninterrupted period of 1920-1945

  45. The always present predicament of democracy. What do you do when a majority of voters vote for anti-democratic parties?

  46. I've read an article some time ago, that it isn't sure that the Reichstagsbrand was layed by the dutch communist and rather a play by the Nazis to get more power. Not quite sure what magazine it was, the Spiegel maybe, or "Die Zeit"

  47. It is important to remember that the German people, under constant intimidation and terror, refused to ever elect a reichstag that gave Hitler's bloc a majority, even till the bitter end.Hitler was indeed the devil, but it was men like von Papen, not the German people, who let him out.

  48. though the chain of events set in motion by Hindenburg and Papan end of 32 start of 33 did directly lead to hitler siezing power and by extension the anywhere from 30 to 50 million dead in the European side of the war was it really possible to stop a well oiled machine following El Duce's model and Refined by the events of 1923 come the July elections without fundamentally breaching German law? secondly I have heard the Reich-stag fire was an inside NASDAP job is there evidence of this or is it a fiction of postwar revisionism.

  49. Another great video, thank you guys so much for all your hard work I learn something everytime, I'm proud to be apart of the Time ghost army

  50. Hey, TimeGhostHistory guy, what do you mean, … "the Nazis [were] on the outer right"? If you actually believe that you know nothing about the subject. And if that's the case; consider talking about something else! The Nazis, that is to say, the NATIONAL SOCIALISTS were a left wing party, not "outer right". They believed that true socialism was achieved though 'racial struggle' in much the same way that the Marxists believe it was achieved through 'class struggle'. For the love of Christ, the Nazis actually abolished private property, implemented racial collectivism and state control of all capitalist enterprises.

  51. Without Goebbels' efforts the Nazis would not have gained so much power, admirers and control. Goebbels was more important than Goering and Hitler combined.

  52. I wonder why many of the people who were involved in the political actions died in 1934. So: will you cover the so-called "Nacht der langen Messer", "Röhm-Putsch" or "Röhm-Mord" in a detailed episode?

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