Gender Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #32



why do some people think that drinking black coffee is manly while ordering a pumpkin spice latte is girly don't let them fool you pumpkin spice has no gender pumpkin spice is for everyone the gendering of inanimate objects is a super common practice and it's a good example of how societies create markers of gender that have nothing to do with anything biological gender as you'll recall refers to the personal and social characteristics but not the biological traits that we associate with different sexes that's why sociologists say that gender is a social construct something that we as a society create and enforce now those social constructs may be totally made up but their effects on how we interact with each other are very real indeed gender influences how we organize all of society and how we distribute power trust me the identity politics of your morning coffee are only the beginning when I say that gender affects the organization of society in the distribution of power what I mean is that our society is largely stratified by gender gender stratification refers to the unequal distribution of wealth power and privilege across gender take for example the right to vote denying women the vote has been one way that many societies have kept political power in the hands of men it was less than a century ago in 1920 that women in the United States gained the right to vote Saudi Arabia didn't allow women to vote until the 2015 election this kind of disenfranchisement is an example of patriarchy at work patriarchy is a form of social organization in which men have more power and dominate other genders matriarchal or female dominated societies exist too but most societies throughout human history have been patriarchy's in patriarchal societies are maintained through a careful cultivation of attitudes behaviors and systems that favor men and encourage society to believe that one gender is innately better than others also known as sexism for example little girls may sometimes be encouraged to beat on boys but young boys are often shamed for liking toys that are considered stereotypically feminine or even say the color pink society is often defined and celebrates certain sets of characteristics as being masculine sociologists raehwan Connell describes this process as hegemonic masculinity think of the type of guy who's the lead in every action movie tall broad-shouldered strong able-bodied heterosexual usually wealthy probably named Chris that's hegemonic masculinity but it goes beyond mere appearance hegemonic masculinity czar linked to power within society to fitting into the archetype of masculinity pays off in the form of societal approval but ultimately in a patriarchal society all men share in patriarchal dividends this is a fancy way of saying that there are benefits that accrue to men simply because they are men but before we get too deep into what those benefits are let's take a step back and look at how different gender expectations are taught in our society as you might remember from our episode on socialization the first people who teach us about gender are our parents if daughters are given dolls to play with and sons are given toy hammers kids learn that caring behaviors are feminine and building things is masculine this type of anticipatory socialization is reinforced by the societal assumption that men are the breadwinners and families and women will care of the home and children even as more women have become equal earners outside the home they still tend to do more work in the household as well sociologists Arlie Hochschild called this phenomenon the second shift in which women come home from work to more work cooking laundry childcare whereas men are more likely to spend their time in leisure after work according to a survey on tiny use from the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 2015 full-time working moms spend about nine more hours per week on household chores and caring for family members than full-time working dads these gender dynamics are helped along by corporate and governmental policies that set aside parental leave only for women and by less formal influences – like commercials or TV shows that depict fathers who can't do the laundry or take care of their own kids for a weekend the media play a big part in teaching kids about gendered ideals unfortunately there are depictions of what the typical woman or man looks like tend to be a bit skewed women in particular are exposed to messages that encourage them to value youths beauty and thinness these media messages which encourage women to be desirable to men contribute to what raehwan connell has referred to as emphasised femininities this is the flip side of hegemonic masculinity z' emphasized femininities or forms of femininity that conform to what the ideal female is in men's eyes the social reality is that femininities come in many different forms and may or may not be constructed in ways that emphasize stereotypical notions of gender but media are only one source of gender socialization gender constructions that kids see outside of the home also tend to reinforce the dynamic of women in caring roles and men and leadership roles take school for example while three-quarters of K through 12 teachers are women about half of school principals and only 14% of school superintendents are women female principals are more likely to work in elementary schools which is less likely to lead to promotions to higher positions in the district and who do you see at the front of the classroom isn't the only way that schools influence gender socialization let's go to the thought-bubble to talk about how sports ended up as part of the landmark United States law about gender discrimination in schools title 9 passed in 1972 title 9 is a law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in public schools it was originally developed in response to discrimination in higher education such as enrollment quotas or refusing to hire female academics with children but the law became most well known for its effect on sports prior to 1970 most schools only had official teams for boys and if a girl wanted to join the team she could be turned away without question as a result only about 4% of girls played sports by tying schools funding to equal opportunities for boys and girls title 9 required that schools offer girls just as many opportunities to play sports as boys this increased the number of high school girls playing sports from 295,000 in 1970 to over 3 million nowadays but more importantly it also forced colleges to increase their funding for female sport scholarships which was one of the factors in the increase in women pursuing higher education one person for whom it made a difference Sally Ride thanks to title 9 she was able to get a tennis scholarship to college which led to her studying physics and eventually becoming America's first female astronaut thanks thought-bubble since the 1970s the number of women pursuing higher education has skyrocketed with women now making up the majority of all college graduates the different majors attract different genders with men being heavily represented in fields like computer science economics and engineering while women are more likely to cluster in biology psychology or sociology moving past education the jobs that women work tend to be in service or care positions such as food service education health care and administrative roles sometimes known as pink collar jobs these jobs with the highest concentrations of women tend to come with both lower prestige and lower pay you've probably also heard of the glass ceiling a term used by sociologists to describe the invisible barrier that stops women's advancement to the top levels of an organization women are particularly underrepresented in leadership positions across all major institutions of the fortune 500 companies only thirty two CEOs or women in politics only 19 percent of the US House of Representatives and 21 percent of the US Senate are female the US has never had a female president or a vice president and did not have its first female Supreme Court justice until 1981 why does the glass ceiling persist while the US and many other countries have laws in place to prevent explicit discrimination on the basis of sex and gender women are often held back through less explicit kinds of sexes for example men who are assertive in salary negotiations are more successful in getting a higher salary but women who do the same tend to be seen negatively which is a catch-22 for women do you negotiate and get labeled as too aggressive or do you settle for lower pay what the results of gender stratification is gender wage gap according to a survey done in 2016 by the Pew Research Center white women earn about any cents for every dollar that white men make this gap is wider for non-white women with black women earning 65 cents and Hispanic women earning 58 cents for every dollar that white men make now there's a lot to unpack from the gender pay gap that 20 cent gap isn't all due to gender discrimination much of it can be explained by differences in education choices of careers differences in the hours worked and differences in experience but those last two factors hours worked and career experience are often related to the decision to leave the workforce to care for children which is way more normative for women than for men so some people argue that if we can explain the gender gap by looking at people's choices then it must be the people alone who are responsible for the gap being there but the fact is society has a tremendous influence on what choices people make as well as what type of person is considered the right fit for a given job yes the gender gap is smaller if you compare female CEOs with 30 years of work experience to male CEOs with 30 years of work experience but there are fewer women who are offered those positions gender socialization is also part of why women might choose to opt out of the workforce to care for children and society also informs the educational choices that women and men make that contribute to the gap for example until the 1980s the number of women who majored in computer science was increasing at a pace similar to other fields like medicine but around 1985 that rate began to drop roughly around the time that personal computers and the videogames came on the market and were marketed as gadgets for boys and men gendered marketing strikes again and patriarchal norms about masculinity as can affect men as well as women for example men have higher rates of suicide than women studies of suicide among men have found that it's often linked to financial troubles or divorce to crises of masculinity that may be related to men's identity as a breadwinner men are also more likely to be incarcerated there are more likely to engage in criminal behavior yes but holding all else equal men are more likely to be tried for a crime and more likely to be found guilty this stems from the stereotype that women are more moral and innocent an example of benevolent sexism that makes women less likely to be seen as criminal types but benevolent or not sexism in the patriarchy you have real impacts that make it harder for all genders to be on footing in our society today we learned about some of those impacts starting with discussing patriarchy and sexism and Raven Connells concept of hegemonic masculinity and emphasized femininity then we discussed gender socialization in the home media and schools finally we talked about how gender stratification results in different outcomes by gender and education occupations earnings and criminal activity crash course sociology is filmed in the doctor Cheryl C Kinney studio in Missoula Montana and it's made with the help of all of these nice people our animation team is thought cafe and crash course is made with Adobe Creative Cloud if you'd like to keep crash course free for 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Comments
  1. I love your videos and how well you explain all, but is there a way you can pause or speak slower. I feel that your videos go too fast and it makes my head swell up, specially when you are transitioning from thing to another.

  2. Genders are not equal. That's why there are genders. There are some jobs more suitable for men and some more suitable for women, which does not mean gender discrimination. Anyone who insists absolute gender equality is a gender communist which would bring disasters.

  3. People use gender as a way to class their own personality for some reason
    While saying they don’t like labels
    Lol
    No matriarchal society went beyond the Stone Age
    And biology has to be thrown out
    And
    And
    And

  4. I really love crash course and I've only seen her in a few videos but I already like her… that said, just– as someone who often needs closed captioning– her hand gestures are distracting around the words I'm trying to read (positioned smack in the realm of her expression, haha). CC, if you see this, thanks for HAVING closed captioning in the first place, but please consider. Thanks.

  5. if gender was JUST a social construct we wouldn't have transgenders because they would just be comfortable with whichever gender they were assigned as at birth! OPEN YOUR MF EYES.

  6. Gender and sex are synonym words, so they both mean the same thing. Biology. Good ol, unchangeable biology. Biologically there are 2 sexes which can't be changed. Your sex is decided by your chromosomes. If you have female chromosomes in all of your body, your female, same thing with male. These cannot be changed, even with a surgery, because all your future cells will continue to grow as male or female. These rules apply to gender. Ok, now the Important part. People who are suicidal because they don't want to be the gender they are, is a mental condition called gender disphoria. They get the surgery, they pretend to be one of the other, yet they are still suicidal. The reason is the gender disphoria, which causes suicidal thoughts or actions, all while confusing people. Others think the cure is acceptance, and so they start fighting for them, instead of giving them the help they need. They also try to embrace this, making up genders and even joining in. This is very bad. You are denying the facts that people are being hurt, and causing even more gender disphoria. Next, women and men are biologically and evolutionarily different. So they should act and accept that. Women still do deserve rights, and they also can do whatever they want, but I think people should stop acting like there is no difference at all, and sex isn't a real thing.

  7. Gender is linguistic and therefore ideological (according to Simone de Bouvier, 1948). Sex is biological (according to most evolutionary biologists). Problems occur when sex and gender are conflated.

  8. I have seen at least 10 of your videos throughout my Sociology class. Is there any solutions or proposals ever given on how to fix these issues? Just data, but no solutions….

  9. I love the men in the comments saying that men suffer from being insulted for doing historically feminine things like yes sweetie the sexism male-lead societies created sometimes negatively affects you too

  10. Black Coffee is considered masculine because the majority of straight black coffee drinkers are men. How many times have you heard a girl or even a grown woman order a straight black coffee at starbucks? Not often.

    Pumpkin Spice lattes are considered feminine because the vast majority of people who order pumpkin spice lattes are girls and women.

    This doesn't mean no women drink black coffee and no men drink pumpkin spice. But if you sat at starbucks and took count of the genders of the people who ordered these drinks, more females will order pumpkin spice lattes and more males will order straight black coffee.

    Also, the gender wage gap is a myth and you know it and everyone knows it. 80 cents for every dollar huh? Gee, like two years ago it was 60 cents for every dollar. You can't keep your lies straight.

  11. I dislike the comments that gender has nothing to do with anything biological. It distorts the fact that the brain where gender derives from is biological. There are both sociological and biological factors among others which contribute to gender.

  12. it may have to do with indulgence vs stoicism in expectations of behavior….. definitely worth more studies….

  13. I am Native, grew up with single mom, 5 sisters and a DEEP ABIDING RESPECT fer ALL WOMEN…….."This World will NOT KNOW PEACE until ALL women are CHERISHED and RESPECTED equally the world round in the HOME, WORK/BUSINESS and POLITICS"…….
    SRI KARUNAMAYI

  14. i need to know how to specifically tell the gender of a tree. HELP Crashcourse. HEEEELLLLPPPPPP!!!!!

  15. she talks fast, to the point and makes balanced arguments on such a controversial topic. I like her. Also, she is hot.

  16. The message in this video is somewhat one-sided. So anytime we can observe differences in society between men and women these differences are due to underlying oppressive societal structures? Is it not even possible that biology plays a role in gender differences concerning aggression and agreeableness?

  17. That same Labor of Bureau Statistics also found that while women were spending an additional 55 minutes daily on household & childcare related in-home work, men were spending an additional 52 minutes working outside of work. So while there is an imbalance it does seem to be a consistent measure of cooperation between couples in maintaining a home and family.

    Funny how that extra work hour is always overlooked… same government agency reported it, you think it would be included in your facts.

  18. Distinctions between people are not, ipso facto, proof of violence or injustice.
    Some inequality is the result of systemic injustice, but it doesn't have to be.

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