French Revolution - Know everything about it - World History - UPSC/IAS



hello friends I welcome you all to study IQ my name is my pal singh Dodd and in this video I will be discussing the French Revolution with you it is probably the most important topic of world history because it has influenced the modern world to a huge extent before beginning let me remind you that the pen drive and tablet courses of study IQ that let you prepare for competitive exams sitting at your home are available for SSC bank glad and soon we are launching for you Casey and is egg pen drive force as well so for more details you can call on these numbers or directly visit our website let us begin by knowing what exactly is the French Revolution so the French Revolution was a 10-year period of events in France from 1789 to 1799 that led to a wide-ranging political and social change not only in France but also on the entire modern world the 19th and 20th centuries have been hugely influenced by the French Revolution and its ideas and its ideals whatever happened in here we will know how did it influence the world what the revolution did was that it abolished the monarchy there was a king earlier in France so now after this revolution there was no more king France was made a republic what do you mean by Republic Republic is a country or a nation state in which head of state is elected and is not hereditary it means that the head of state earlier was King but now he was elected but finally after some years this Republic ended in the dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte so it started with monarchy with King then it became a republic during French Revolution and finally during the French Revolution itself Napoleon took over France and he became a military dictator so the revolution ended up again in under a dictatorship now we come to the cause of French Revolution there are lots and lots of theories regarding the causes of french revolutions historians have given many causes this and that it has been it has been discussed thoroughly and intensely for the past 200 years even today after 200 years people are still writing books on the causes of French Revolution but for our purposes to make it simple I will divide it into four parts political social economic and intellectual remember the final the triggering cause was this the economic causes they were the trigger for the French Revolution now first I will begin with the political causes the ruling dynasty in France was the Bourbon dynasty bourbon rulers were often called as despots what do you mean by the spot a despot is a dictator who has no power anyone controlling him whatsoever no Constitution no Parliament no ministers nothing whatever the king wants to do he will do whatever he wishes to do he can do and he will do it so that is a despot and he does not care about the people the basic thing about this Court is they do not care about the greater good the society the good of the society okay they do not care for the welfare of the people they only care about themselves so that is a despot so the two bourbon kings louis xiv and louis 15 are often called as the sports food louis xiv ruled for a long period of time you can see here 1643 to 1715 almost seventy years he is often called as an absolute despot no power to keep him in check whatsoever he centralized the power in France to a lot extent he reduced the power of feudal lords remember in the Middle Ages in Europe feudal lords had a lot of power they could they had their own mini government but louis xiv centralized the power in France and he reduced the power of these feudal lords he also fought many wars lot and lot of wars were fought but under louis xiv and he won in many of these battles enhancing the prestige of france france won a lot of battles under him but whenever you fight a war there is always money required and this money was not there so he took the loans and due to this france went into heavy debt to the Wars of louis xiv then comes louis 15 after louis xiv louis is a very popular name in france so there are that that's why there are almost 1718 louise okay so Louis 15 ruled from 1715 to 1774 during his time period the Seven Years War was fought and it was fought with England if you remember from my video of American Revolution I pointed out that this was a cause of the American Revolution as well because England had used a lot of money to fight and win this war and they started taxing the American colonies to recover the money on the other hand France lost but France also used up a lot of money fighting this war and they lost their colonies as well so due to that they wanted to get more revenue and they started taxing their own people so this 7 Years War caused two great revolutions the first one is American and the second one is France it is a cause on both of them ok so remember the Seven Years War between England and France also slowest 15th was not a very good administrator he was not capable of running the country in a very good manner so that this problem of 7 Years War and this debt can be solved then we come to louis xvi so he is arguing for the french revolution he ruled from 1774 to 1792 his intentions were good but he did not bring bold reforms reforms were required because france economy was failing very badly but he could not take decisions and keep on them he backtracked on many decisions one day he took some decision next day he said no no no let's not do it so he was here his personality was like that also his wife was from Austria her name was mary antoinette she was a very bad advisor the reason being that she was not in touch with the ground realities how people lived what were the difficulties of the people she did not interact with common people and she told him to not interact with common people as well she told him you are a king you do not need to talk to common people and so on so she was also not a very good adviser then there was the American War of Independence so America was fighting with Britain from 1776 to 7 three and France help America the reason is that because England defeated them in seven years war so they wanted to take revenge but what did France achieve out of it nothing America got their independence England was humiliated but it trans get nothing they just humiliated England they got that satisfaction but this were true in France completely because they had to take a lot of money to support their American friends they had to take a lot of loans Wars are not cheap this is the place where they live the Palace of Versailles see versal is a little far from city of paris it is situated here few kilometers away from the crowded city of Paris so the rulers of France built their palace a little away from the city in between in the jungles so they built this huge Palace the grounds the gardens spread over many acres you can see here and you can see people are coming in from the city into the Palace of Versailles it is said that when you entered the Versailles Palace it felt that you are not in this world the experience was out of this world it's like you're living in heaven because you can see the the indoor decorations of this Palace this is a Hall of Mirrors there are mirrors all along this hallway so this palace was a very royal palace and the lifestyle of the Kings living in there was completely different from the people of their own country then I will talk about the social causes what are the divisions of the French society so this these divisions are called the ancient regime it simply means the ancient system or the ancient rule that had been going on so according to this ancient regime the French society was divided into three parts first state second state and third estate these states where people so the first state where clergy church it means the father the bishops the Cardinals all the people of church these are the people who are part of the Roman Catholic Church Father bishop and Cardinals then there was the nobility it means the feudal lords and then there is the third estate which has everyone form our artisans people who are making small things then there are factory workers from cities traders lawyers public officials please bear in mind that the Industrial Revolution had started so a new middle class was emerging so not only farmers and workers now there are traders who have been getting a profitable Reverb who have profited from trade they are a little bit more rich than these workers and farmers so they can be called the new middle class this middle class is now slowly emerging lawyers who are educated then public officials people who are working for the government for the king they are also a little bit educated so these are the middle class but they are considered third state along with farmers and artisans okay now this clergy was around 1 lakh and they owned 10% of the land of France church was given some amount of land by the king so that they could sustain themselves by taxing it or using the grains that are produced on that those lines then there's the feudal lords they had 25% of the land in the country but they were total 4 lakh in number so you can see most of the land if you divide it ten percent by one lakh so these people are having quite a lot of land and the nobility had 25 percent of the land and finally we have the third state it is almost 95% to 99% of the population or the population of France at that time was about 2.7 crores and this is a huge number so compare it to the first and second state 1 lakh for lacan 2.7 crore I will look at the taxation regime firstly there was no tax on the first and second estate all the tax had to be paid by only third estate they were drowning in various taxes the taxation system was very poor ok firstly there was no taxation policy that the king will decide that there will be only one tax like GST okay there will be different taxes these third state people were drowning in the taxes and the first and the second estate were living lavishly they were having a great lifestyle parties and spending money on and anything and this was the time when the French culture was it's at its peak the high point in 18th century obviously you can have the culture only when you have money without money you cannot have architecture without money you cannot have any cultural aspects paintings everything needs money okay nothing can be done for free so culture will develop only when a civilization as money it is rich so at this time the nobility were very rich and their lifestyle was completely different from the Third Estate now educated middle class was also coming up as I told you they were the lawyers the public officials and the traders and they were called the bourgeoisie it is also a French word and pardon my french I do not know any French so if anyone knows French and if you are taking offence at my French pronunciations I am sorry I can't help it then there were the urban workers these are the people who are working in the factories their living conditions were very poor they lived in horrible conditions there was no concept of public hygiene or public safety at that time so the conditions of workers was very poor that health was very poor then we come to the economic cause so the rising population of France which was 2 crore in 1708 had gone up to almost 2.8 crore in 1789 so the increase in people you need more food to feed them but people are increasing but the land is same and there is no scientific advancement in agriculture so since there is no scientific advancement so the land is giving the same amount of grains that was there in 1700 so this population explosion cannot be sustained you have increased your population by 30% but if you don't have food to feed them what will the people do they will die of famine so this happened a lot of time that whenever there was a winter there was a harsh winter crop failure it led to food prices increasing and that led to famine this happened in 1789 as well the winter was very harsh 88 89 in winter and there was a failure in crops and because of that food supply was very less when the supply is less prices automatically go up if prices go up high inflation anyways there a poor person cannot afford everything if the prices go up he cannot afford anything to even eat and if he cannot eat the basic sustenance he will I that is how the system of trans worked at that time all the wars that France had fought in the past hundred two hundred years had led to high debt and these dead payments where big had become so large that by 1789 half of the total national budget was going into debt repayments mainly because of the seven years for and all the earlier Wars so you see the conditions the social and the economic conditions the peasants the farmers are angry the common people are angry in the cities because they are dying from hunger the farmers are dying from hunger you don't have any advancement in technology the overall social economic scenario of France was pretty bleak then we come to the intellectual cost the 17th and 18th centuries are the Age of Enlightenment many philosophers thinkers they came and they developed the science and philosophy they started rational thinking they wrote books about it these famous philosophers were John Locke he was a British British philosophers then there was John Jacques Rousseau he wrote about people's sovereignty he said that people are sovereign if anyone commits a crime don't take them to court or King take them to the people the people will decide what is his punishment okay then there is Immanuel Kant the he was a German philosopher then there is Montesquieu he was French Montesquieu wrote that there should be separation of power there should be separation between church and the state the branches of government should not they should not intervene and they should be completely separate there should be a separate legislature there should be separate judiciary and so on the king or the church should not have power for judiciary as well as executive as well as legislature earlier the king was having all three powers then there is was there Voltaire wrote about freedom of speech and expression so all these are radical thinkers they are intellectuals they write they wrote books and their books were spreading far and wide people in France came to know about these ideas from their books and since the advent of the printing press you could print your books and you could spread them easily these intellectuals started to question the king's right to rule his mandate from God the role of the Catholic Church all the King said that we have the mandate from heaven God has asked us to rule over this country this nation this kingdom or the people of this area we have been assigned a duty by the God so it is our duty to follow God's instruction this is all what the King said but people started to question that who has given you this authority why do you rule over us and where is this mandate from God what is the proof that God has given you the authority to rule over us what is the role of the church and all this such questions were very difficult for the church and the king and so these questions were started to getting to get popularity among the people via newspapers the books of philosophers and the salon discussions what is this salon a salon was a club or a place where people gathered and they started discussing ideas they read books or newspapers and then they discussed these ideas okay so this salon culture was very popular in cities like Paris where there were lots and lots of salon you can see here someone is sitting and reading and then people are discussing different ideas so this these places are clubs or salons where such ideas were discussed after discussing these causes I will talk about the timeline of the revolution remember the triggering cause that started the revolution was the economic one the debt problem France was going into heavy debt that is what started the revolution finally so the timeline of the revolution goes something like this in 1789 the King of France Louis 16 called the estate General then in 1789 291 National Assembly ruled over France in 91 to 92 there was a legislative assembly it ruled for one year but it could not sustain it was dissolved after one year itself because of infighting in 92 never again elections and a National Convention was formed this National Convention government ruled for three years and in in this time there was one year which was called reign of terror okay bunny I was reign of terror from 95 to 98 was the rule of directory and finally in 1799 there was a coup d'etat by Napoleon Bonaparte and he started his military dictatorship now I will discuss all of these in details but if you are taking down nodes kindly write write them down because it will be very easy to revise before your exams so the first event of this French Revolution is the calling of the estate general it was called on 5th May 1789 a state general is a super parliament with representatives from all the estates the 1st 2nd and 3rd it was meeting for the first time in 175 years it had not been called it was basically a representative body something like a parliament ok not exactly a democratic very democratic body but yes it was a somewhat representative body and they were elected by the different people of these estates and they were sent to meet the king to advise him but it had not been called for a long time what was the agent of this state general then it met in 1789 to manage the financial crisis that is basically raised the taxes the finance minister of that time maker he had proposed that let us tax the first and the second state because we need money the kingdom of France needs money it is going in severe financial crisis but the first and the second estate obviously they were not ready they did not want to be taxed the king also did not want that so he called for the estate general people historians have said that calling of the first State General in so many years itself is a sign of weakness it showed that the Bourbon dynasty was getting weak doing 16 was a V cooler this is the first sign of weakness from the king so the delegates who reached the estate general were 300 from the first estate sec 300 from the second estate and 600 delegates from the third state so around 1200 people were in attendance and this meeting was held in the Palace of Versailles this is a very famous painting that shows the meeting of all these delegates here sitting in the Great Hall of Palace of Versailles now there was a deadlock in this me over voting rights by the deadlock see earlier what used to happen was that the first state was counted as one vote second state as one vote and the Third Estate has one vote so if there was voting on any matter let's say the taxation matter if the first and second estates say that no tax should be levied on us so they have a two-thirds majority obviously they will say that no no tax on us so they said that do the same thing again now that count us all as one so the Third Estate will never have majority they will always be one-third whatever they do they have to get support either from them or them they are like a minority party they are like the opposition they cannot do anything by themselves but the third state this time they said that no don't count like this count all the 600 votes all the 300 votes individually like one person has to be counted as one vote so there should be twelve hundred votes and among these you should decide the agenda but there was a deadlock over this because King Louie the 16 did not want such kind of voting why obviously they have majority out of 200 they have 600 votes to themselves even if some people from these vote for them they will have whatever they want they can pass it so that there was this look there was a deadlock and over this deadlock the Third Estate declared itself as a National Assembly they were not getting anywhere so they said that now we are the National Assembly and we will form a constitution so the new e16 was very angry at this he locked them out of the Great Hall and he said that third estate members are not allowed into the Great Hall anymore in the meeting of his estate General so what these people did they went to a tennis court and they took the Tennis Court Oath this is this is said to be the beginning of the French Revolution what was this oath they said that we will not dispatch this National Assembly until a constitution is in place so they have started talking about constitutional monarchy they said that we will make a constitution and we will not despise ourselves until and unless this constitution is made this is a painting of that time of the Tennis Court Oath you can see this is an indoor ten this is a person he is reading the oath and all these people their hands are up they are reciting the source and remember some members of the clergy that is the first state they also join these these people why because he's the lower clergy the fathers where the the lower clergy they knew the pain of the people they knew what harsh conditions the people are under what are the problems the day-to-day problems because they saw these people in their daily lives they were not like nobility who did not come out of their palaces and they were partying all the time no the clergy the lower clergy understood the pain of the Third Estate and that is why many of these people joined the Third Estate the National Assembly also some of the liberal the progressive people from the nobility they also came and joined the National Assembly but not all very few the Tennis Court Oath took place in June as soon as this declaration of National Assembly was made the news spread all over France and everywhere farmers started revolting against their local feudal lords they looted grain days where grains were stored because they were hungry they also looted the chateaus that the feudal lords lived the Chateau meansa a big house a palace or a manor house where the feudal lord lives in france so they burnt them they looted the shadow the shadows and then burnt the land records this time period is called the great fear because the nobility was in fear of the Third Estate of the peasants because anything could happen they are rising in revolt they don't have guns but whatever agriculture equipment they have with that only they are rising up against the feudal lords at the same time riots started in Paris mainly because of food shortages and high food prices but these writers were in support of the National Assembly and they were against the Kings action so there was popular support for the National Assembly so in such a scenario there was complete breakdown of law and order revolutionary spirit takes over people we're in high spirits that now we will start the revolution under such circumstances louis xvi orders military from all over france to assemble in Paris and outside the Versailles Palace because he fears that something can happen so he calls in the army but people get angry over this so on 14 July 1789 another important event took place that was the storming of the Bastille so this is the best TV fort or the Bastille prison Bastille was a fort which was around 400 years old but at that time it was being used as a prison the people of Paris saw this as a symbol of royal operation why because most of the dissenters who spoke anything against the King were thrown into this Bastille prison and they were tortured there so this Bastille prison was was very infamous for his tortures for in imprisoning prisoners who were against the the king okay so the Bastille prison was looted and it was torn down by the writers the reason was mainly to get the Pens someone said that there are weapons in the Bastille prison and actually it was true there were a lot of weapons stored in there for the the soldiers and also there were around seven or eight prisoners in the entire four entire jail they were also broken out of the jail and people removed you each and every stone of this bustling fort and they completely destroyed it today there is not even a single stone of this bustling fort remaining they took off everything they climbed on the walls and they took out to get out brick by brick stone by stone and they sold all these stones in the market to get money so that they could buy food people was so angry with the King and it is still celebrated as Bastille Day in France and if you remember in 2016 last year and a terrorist drove a truck into the Bastille Day celebrations and killed a lot of people in France so this happened on 14 July in 2016 then we come to the National Assembly so that National Assembly which had been declared by the Third Estate now it became the National Constituent Assembly why because they decided that we will form a constitution so obviously it will be a Constituent Assembly now this Constituent Assembly started ruling over the country they took power in their hands they started giving out orders the king could not do much he could not do much to control them one of the most important decisions they took was the abolition of feudalism and they levied uniform taxes for all so feudalism was now gone all the feudal lords they could not levy taxes they could not take rent they could not take land tax from the people under them everything was gone feudalism was completely over all those feudal lords were very less powerful than the earlier time period because of louis xiv but still they had quite quite a lot of power and this was also completely removed by the National Assembly now due to this many Nobles fled to neighboring countries in Europe to their relatives other nobility in countries like Italy Switzerland or England and they these people were called em egress so you can see that this world is similar to emigrant and what is the difference between immigrant and emigrant if someone is coming into your country he is called immigrant if someone is leaving your country he is called a emigrant Emme means going out ma means coming in I for in and I for immigrant you can remember it like that so these people were called emigrants so they fled to neighboring countries also the clergy it means the church people they were reduced by 1/3 and they were made civil officers the National Assembly told them if you want to work work for the government you are not required so many priests are not required to work in the country this made the Pope very angry obviously it will make him angry because they are interfering with the religion trance was a deeply Roman Catholic country and the Catholic Church was very powerful and the Pope had a good good amount of control over the Church of France so you can see now that France is moving from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy it is not a absolute monarchy now the king does not have all the powers but he is still there so it is still a monarchy but now there will be a constitution so slowly it is moving towards the constitutional monarchy remember no one has discussed anything about the Republic no one wants a republic as of now up in this stage but later the talkSPORT Republic will come out we will see how so in August 1789 it is still 89 only all this happened within 1-2 months so in August the National Assembly declared the rights of man and rights of citizens it is a very important declaration it is one of the most important documents of the world along with Magna Carta and u.s. Bill of Rights Magna Carta was signed in twelve hundred and fifteen by the King of England it gives some amount of power to the feudal lords so that the King does not have absolute power he cannot do whatever he wants with the feudal lords some amount of power was given to them some restrictions were put on the condone the rule of the king so that was Magna Carta and then there is a u.s. Bill of Rights with which talked about the civil rights for the first time similarly this Declaration of Rights of Man and of the citizen is also a very important milestone in the history of human and civil rights of the world it talked about Liberty property security it was based on the ideas of Enlightenment it was a statement of intent for the Constitution for the future Constitution this is not the Constitution there is not even the preamble to the Constitution but it is and it is an intent that our Constitution will be based on these ideas so you can see there were total seventeen articles in this declaration you don't need to know all of them if you want to please go ahead and read them but you will find that many of them are similar to Indian Constitution because all the constitutions of the world have taken something from this so the most important concepts were those of liberty equality and fraternity which were enshrined in this declaration these are the three words which are synonymous with the French Revolution liberty equality and fraternity even in Indian Constitution you will find these words liberty equality fraternity also one of the famous articles says that men are born and remain free and equal in rights this is very important it means that if you are nobility if you are clergy if you are a third estate member it does not matter wherever you are born you will have the equal rights you will be equally free it does not matter where you are born who you are okay what money you have but the basic drawback of this declaration was that it did not give any rights to women or slaves did they were not considered as citizens in fact the new constitution that came up next year it did not even treat women as active citizens they made a differentiation they said that there are two types of citizens active and passive active ones will be allowed to vote they will decide what kind of government should be there and all the decisions all the decisions they will be a part of it while the passive citizens they will not have all these rights so women were considered passive citizens and active citizens were only those who had the right to vote so who paid taxes not everyone okay so not 100% of the people who are allowed to vote only few percent very few people were allowed to vote in the French elections for the Constitution and the new system of government that happened next year then we have to discuss the women's March on Castle so why did the women march to the Palace of Versailles in October 1789 the economic conditions were very bad France had huge shortage of food especially Paris people did not have bread to eat bread is the staple diet of French people like it is like rice and roti in India so if you do not have rice or roti to it imagine what conditions you are under so 7,000 women assembled and there was a rumour that there is a party going on at the Palace of Versailles while Paris ian's are struggling for bread so these women they assembled and whatever agricultural equipment they had they march to the palace they killed the guards and they enter into the palace and they force the royal family to move to Paris actually they did not find any party or no bread there was also rumor that there is a large stockpile of grains in the palace which is being stocked by Marie Antoinette the Queen but there was nothing like that so people got angry and they said that no the royal family has to move out of the Palace of Versailles they are living too lavishly here and they should come and live in Paris and they should see how people are living how people are getting by so for that they blackmailed the family actually they were practically they were hostages the royal family was practically now a hostage of the revolution they moved to Paris on a smaller palace by 1790 political groups and parties had emerged and due to the differences in thinking about the various factions many clubs had also formed all the people in the National Assembly did not have the same thinking about the Revolution some people wanted the revolution to go at a different pace they some wanted to go in a different direction so these political parties with various ideologies form and at this time Constitution was being written down in 1790 the famous clubs are the Jacobins they were radical revolutionaries they wanted a radical revolution they should they said that remove the king completely there should be no king it should be a republic then there was the Girondins they were liberals they were not against the king so much but also they were in favor of slow changes then there was the Society of revolutionary Republican women it was a club for women from by women so these are the three main clubs that you should know about Jacobin Club is a bit important because it will come in this lecture again see jacobins were mainly from the poor background they were the artisans the daily workers the factory workers in the city so these were many city-based poor people and they resented that power had been consolidated by the upper or the prosperous middle class the traders the lawyers the public officials those who are educated so the power had been consolidated by those people and they are not thinking about the benefit of us the daily workers the artisans the poor people so they were against the they were against this present form of revolution that it was taking they wanted a different path of revolution they wanted to remove the King their leader was maximilien de Robespierre his name will come again it is very important remember this these people were also called as sonic you lots it means that without breaches breaches are knee level pants which were the common common thing which were boned by the nobility of Trance but these people to show them as different from the nobility different from the middle-class they both full-length pants okay this these are different from Reacher's so they were full-length pants also these breeches were costly to be stitched and these pants were cheaper so all the working-class people they used to wear these full pants and they soon came to be known as schwanke lots and if someone is going on the road you can tell you can tell by looking at his clothes that whether he is a Jacobin worker class member revolutionary okay and later on also this cab became this hat became a very famous symbol of revolution a red colored hat although this guy's wearing a blue colored one and then there was this flag of France the blue the white and the red the three tricolour the tricolour flag this became a symbol of France itself now we come to 1791 by 1791 the King Louie who was almost a hostage of the revolution now he was living in Paris and he tried to escape to Austria with his family by Austria because the king of Austria or the king holy or the Holy Roman Emperor as he was called he was his brother-in-law he was the brother of Mary Antoinette the Queen so he tried to flee to Austria to get support but he was caught at the border and he was brought back to Paris he could not escape so this surprised and shocked people of Paris they thought that the king was in favor of revolution they thought that he wanted to give away power to people he was in favor of all this Constitution and everything but they realized that no he just wants to leave the country maybe he wants to come back with the army of Austrian attack so this led to a lot of people resenting the king and demands started coming for Republic that is no constitutional monarchy but the removal of king and republic where the head of state will be elected and the main people who were demanding this for the jacobins but now the Constituent Assembly the National Assembly which was now the Constituent Assembly that was in favor of a constitutional monarchy it was not in favor of a republic it wanted the king to stay as on the head of state even after he was caught trying to flee they still wanted him to become the head of the new government of new constitution they wanted a system like britain where there is king as well as a parliament so people started protesting against this and national guards were sent by the assembly by the Constituent Assembly to suppress them and they fired upon the protesters and protesters were killed they were massacred the important point here is national guard's is not the normal army it was a unit of army set up in 1789 under the leadership of Marquis de Lafayette this person had fought in the American War of Independence with the Americans and he had come back and he was he was one of the leaders of the revolution so he was the leader of this National Guard and these National Guards were sent to kill the people of France for whom the revolution was going on so this also came as a shock to people now this Constituent Assembly was behaving like a despotic ruler so now the Constitution is written we have a new constitution it was September 1791 almost two years to write down the Constitution and a Legislative Assembly was formed now there is no Constituent Assembly there the rule of the two-year rule the two-year rule of the Constituent Assembly comes to an end now there is the rule of Legislative Assembly and Legislative Assembly as the name only suggests it will make laws but the king will be the head of state he was restored as the head of state so there will be king and then under him will be this body of people where there are people who are making laws this is the legislative body but this system failed within one year why because demands of various parties and groups were different as I told you during this time period of two years many parties many political groups had developed Girondins Jacobins and they were demanding different things Jacobins wanted the removal of monarchy Girondins did not want that there was there were some loyalists there were some loyalists who wanted that the king should have a veto power that every decision made by this assembly the king should have a veto like the president has in India but so due to these reasons the different demands this Legislative Assembly failed also things.we was secretly trying to get help from kings of Europe crushed the revolution and go back to his old days where he used to be a despot now the neighboring monarchs were also getting scared of all this revolutionary fever and anarchy spreading in France they thought that this will come to their country as well the revolution will spread to other monarchies and it was very dangerous Austria and Prussia declared the support for French monarchy in August of 1791 they said they said that we will do everything in our power to restore the French monarchy back to the power and suppress this revolution this is called the declaration of pillnitz and people of France got very hungry added first of all they got angry at Prussia and Austria because they said that what are you got to do with this secondly they got angry at looy the sixteen because they said that without your interference without your request they would not have given such a declaration so obviously you are also against this revolution you are trying to suppress us so they got angry at the King as well as Austrian Prussia now because of this declaration of pillnitz there was a threat to France the new government they thought that they can be an attack on France and we should respond so the content of the France attacked Austria and Prussia before they could attack them it was a pre-emptive attack and this started in April 1792 and this is how the bar of first coalition began this is how the first Revolutionary War began it has two different names you do not need to remember any of those names just remember that France attacked Austria and Prussia its neighbors because they had threatened were France that they will restore the French monarchy back one of the reasons was because the Austrian Emperor the Holy Roman Emperor was the brother-in-law of king louis xvi and mary antoinette was again and again asking for help from him have a look at the map here this is the Habsburg Empire or the Austrian Empire or the Holy Roman Empire it has many names and this is the Kingdom of Prussia here beyou color so both of them declared against Kingdom of France now we come to the Year 1798 –all officer 1992 war had broken out between France and Austria Prussia so by August there was a popular sentiment against the king people thought that the king is helping Austria and Prussia he is in favor of Austria and Prussia attacking so a mob gathered outside his palace where he was living in Paris and they attacked the king and his family his bodyguards were murdered they were killed but the king and the family escaped they went and asked for help from the Legislative Assembly but this assembly instead suspended the monarchy itself they said that since the king is helping Prussia and Austria the king is suspended he is no longer the head of State Legislative Assembly also itself was suspended after few days and this is how the venire who locked legislative assembly ended now they said that there will be a new Republican Constitution because France is now a republic there is no more monarchy and there will be new constitution new elections will be held so you can see that in 1792 a lot of revolutionary activity is happening so although the revolution started in 1789 but in 92 a lot of things happened also it was decided that because King Louie was helping the enemies of France he will be put to trial he will be tried by a jury and they sentenced him to death he was executed On January 9 1793 as soon as King Louie was executed the British the Dutch and kingdom of Spain they join Austria and Prussia in this coalition against France and they thought that if people can execute the King if they can execute the king in broad daylight with a jury anything can happen this revolution if it spreads to our kingdoms it will be very bad for us so they all came together and they made a coalition they made up coalition to fight France and it is called the War of the first coalition so you have a look here again this is the map so now France is at war with all of its neighbor England Spain Austria Russia and you can see all these countries here in the North here Holland that the Dutch so everyone is against France all the neighbors are against France there is this small thing called guilty or the guillotine you must know about this it is called the instrument of humane death why because the person who invented it dr. Joseph guillotine he said that hanging someone by a rope and a nose it is not very humane if someone does not die instantly in few seconds then he will die after few minutes when the blood when the blood supply to his brain stops so it is a very painful death so to take the pain out of death he made this instrument where there is this sharp blade here and it falls down on the head of the person and it is the head is snapped completely in just one second so he said that no one will even feel it but although death is death however you die the person has to die so this is the guillotine and it is synonymous with the French Revolution many executions took place on this guillotine it became a very famous and a widespread used thing during the French Revolution here is the king himself king louis xvi he is being taken to the guillotine for execution another small piece of information is that the national anthem of France the La Marseillaise was written during the French Revolution it was written by claude de lille it was a revolutionary song to rally people to fight against austria and prussia so that they would join army happily and it was sung by soldiers who are marching from the city of marcel into paris and so the people of paris said that this song is the lama Sayers so this is the national anthem of france now we come to a stage where the constitutional monarchy is gone why because the king is gone he has been executed he has been guillotined and now france is a republic and a new constitution will be written and this constitution and new government which was formed is called the National Convention it ruled from 7 September 1792 to October 1795 almost three years and this was the 3rd government of the revolution the first one was the first one was the government of the Constituent Assembly or the National Assembly the second one was the one rule of the legislative assembly that failed miserably and the king was deposed so after this legislative assembly now comes the third government that is the National Convention government this government elected by elected by extending the suffrage right so all people who are 21 about all the males who are 21 years of age and above they were allowed to vote earlier this was 25 from the previous government it was 25 and also only people who own property or who were paying taxes they were allowed to vote but now these restrictions were removed and due to this all the males who were 21 plus were allowed to vote and this is the reason that jacobins become became very powerful during this rule because they were poor there is not own property many did not pay taxes so they got a chance to vote and they got many members in this government monarchy was abolished according to this new constitution and France became a true republic this National Convention government made a small group of people as Committee of Public Safety now this committee this small group took all the major decisions they controlled the entire government this is something like the cabinet working in a government in India you can see don't write it down in your answers that this Committee of Public Safety was a cabinet or it was working like a group of ministers but I am just giving you an example that you can compare it with that the National Convention had lot of members lot of Representatives who were elected but all the power was vested in this Committee of Public Safety and this committee was deck dominated by the jacobins so now comes the reign of terror reign of terror was a period of one year from June 1793 to July 1794 when lots and lots of people was killed and this was led by maximilien robespierre who was heading the who was a part of this Committee of Public Safety and whichever person they said was against the revolution they even thought that the person was against the revolution he was executed he was butene 16,000 enemies of the revolution where guillotine executed during this one year time period if you divided then approximately 40 five to 50 people every day imagine 50 people executed every day and these numbers are just from the cities of like Paris many people were killed in rural areas as well and at the same time France was fighting a war with Austria and Prussia many soldiers were dying many people were dying due to hunger beautiful mind and France was in a very bad state at this time throughout the French Revolution the economy of France was very bad because of the war mainly because of the war and the economic prosperity was disrupted by this revolutionary activity during this reign of terror Marie Antoinette was also executed earlier her husband the king was gone but now she was also brought to the guillotine because it was said that she was also working against France Robespierre was a radical and he also destroyed many churches and closed down many other churches he said that churches are not required religion is not required and so they destroyed and closed down many many churches this is a painting from the reign of terror and it was a very dangerous and difficult time for France if you were even little bit politically active that person did not know whether he would be alive the next day or not whether he would be guillotine or whether he would survive the day so he have a look here also there is someone holding the head of a person where just was just been guillotined his body is lying here so such public executions took place everything took place in public nothing was behind closed doors or closed walls all these executions were taking place in in the city in front of the public also Robespierre abolished slavery but it was not long lasting because Napoleon reinstated it after few years this government brought in a new calendar this calendar had 10 hours in one day 100 minutes in one hour and 10 days a week so this calendar was followed for few years but after after this torment was gone people came back to the old Gregorian calendar there were food shortages throughout this time period due to the war food from rural areas were sent was sent to urban areas Robespierre told farmers that it is very important for the urban people to eat food why because the jacobins mainly had their Basin cities in the urban areas the farmers got very angry at this they said that if we don't if we are not alive this year who will give you food the next year but still the food was sent from Google to urban areas also they try to regulate the prices because inflation was going up so they brought in a few monetary policies tried to control inflation but they could not and the still the food prices remained very high finally after this reign of terror for one year and thousands of people dying a thousands of people dying people got sick of the jacobins so they were banned and Robespierre himself was executed actually Robespierre wasn't executed by the Jacobins himself because jacobins also thought that he is getting too extreme he is killing anyone and everyone who is coming in his path so Jack of some Jacobins got together and they sentenced Robespierre himself to death so he was also given in July 1794 the man who had sent thousands of people to the guillotine himself died at the guillotine after August fair's death the jacobins were completely banned by all the other people in the government and after this the Girondins came to power in this National Convention government but they also did not last very long hardly one year after this a new type of government was formed new constitution new elections again so then there was the directory rule directory was from 1795 to 999 new constitution was adopted in 1795 again in this directory the affluent middle-class took control see people had seen what the jacobins had done Jacobins where the the the poor the workers so they had when they had power they unleashed a reign of terror everyone was terrified of that no one wanted that reign of terror again so the people who were from the affluent middle classes they again took control and they gave the right to vote only to people who are property so now no one if you do not have property you do not pay taxes you cannot vote so automatically who will become powerful only the affluent middle class because only they will be elected more there this government also had a bicameral legislature which on the laws and out of this legislature it was decided that there will be executed body form again here also just like the the Committee of Public Safety earlier which had all the power this executive body had all the executive powers and it had five directors that is the reason it is called directory rule because it had directors in the executive body and why five directors so that to avoid dictatorship like Robespierre had become almost a dictator during his reign of terror and to avoid such a situation five people were kept so that they could keep each other in control checks and balances during this directory rule there were a lot of coos and counter coos we do not need to go into the details of that this rule was also not very stable this three four year period was also not very stable but the French armies were winning a lot of battles against the war which was going on against its neighbors especially under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte a young army leader army general French victories in Italy Austria Switzerland these B's ended the war of the first coalition Napoleon was born in 1769 he was hardly twenty-seven twenty-eight at the time he was winning these battles in Italy Austria and Switzerland but after some time due to winning these battles and becoming very popular Germany at Regeneron apollyon Bonaparte himself did a coup against the directory rule and established his own consulate rule he was just thirty years old when he did this coup and became the leader of the country so now there were three councils councils means head of government so there will be a first council second Council and third Council the first council will be the most powerful one and Napoleon declared himself as the first Council of France and in after five years in 1804 he declared himself as the Emperor of France so look at the irony of it that the french revolution is a true revolution what do you mean by revolution it means going 360 degrees so you will end up from at the place from where you started so in french revolution we started with a king louis xvi and we have ended with an emperor in napoleon bonaparte so it is a true revolution in some sense in this painting you can see Napoleon a young military general of just 30 years of age being appointed as the first council and then there are the second and the third councils here at the back have a look at this map it shows the extent of French victories during the Revolutionary Wars France was fighting against all of its neighbors like Prussia Austria England Spain all these countries under Holland they were at war with France while the revolution was going on so it is quite surprising that France managed to then against all of them while the revolution was going on you you have seen how much troubles were going on in France but still they managed quite a lot of victories first reason is that they had conscription they started conscription young men who are capable of fighting they had to join the army they had to go and fight the war secondly if you remember Robespierre sent food rations to the army even if they did not have anything to eat the farmers did not have anything to eat so although this was bad for the farmers but it was good for the army because they managed to win a lot of battles and finally Napoleon he was a brilliant military strategist and general and he led to a lot of victories here in Italy Switzerland and in Austria especially against Austria very powerful army but he defeated them as well so due to this France was able to establish puppet States here with the governments where of their choosing and the ideas of the revolution spread far and wide because of the many places where France was able to make inroads now we come to the analysis of the French Revolution first we will see whether this revolution changed much we will look at the negative aspects of it first thing it started as an absolute monarchy and at the end of wrench revolution there was a military dictatorship so there was not much change you replaced one dictator for another so it can be said that there is not much drastic changes in the system of government secondly church was restored by Napoleon see Napoleon understood that the poor farmers they needed Church they needed the guidance of the fathers the church the clergy in that life religion was very important for those people and because of these reasons he reinstated the church he was not like Robespierre that churches will be destroyed and they will be shut down no Napoleon reinstated the church and for that people were very happy with him nearby Napoleon was very popular in France third nobility returned back to France after the Revolution was over all those emigrates they came back although did they did not have power they do not have all that land but still they they had some of them had their houses were given back to them and they easily lived in France for many years they are still living there so you cannot say that the nobility has been completely removed third the Bourbon dynasty the burned Bourbon monarchy of which Louis 14 15 and 16 were part it was restored in 1815 after Napoleon was defeated and he was thrown in jail so then all the enemies of France they made the Bourbon King Louis 17th as the ruler there was a Louis 17th he was a younger brother of 16 he had escaped France so did it succeed the Bourbon monarchy was still present and it was there for many years even after this the condition of women and slaves did not see any change the African slaves were were traded from Africa for the colonies of France they did not see any change Napoleon brought back slavery and France did not abolish it until 1848 the condition of women also was not changed drastically in fact they were reduced to passive citizens after the first constitution then the condition of farmers and the workers also did not have much changes and they did not change a lot but yes they brought the revolution they were the main people of the revolution the bourgeoisie but their condition did not improve quite much so what is the legacy of this French Revolution why is it important if there was not much change we saw this in the American Revolution as well there was not much change the system of government changed from the British to the the great British to rich Americans here also something similar that but the legacy of this French Revolution is very important by because of these reasons first the constitutional monarchy concept the laws constitutional monarchy earlier in the world before French Revolution but it was not very strong okay earlier the King used to be strong the Constitution used to be weak but after French Revolution the Constitution became very strong and powers of the Kings were limited and this model of government has been followed in 19th and 20th century by many countries lot and lot of countries best example India's neighbor Bhutan it is a very successful constitutional monarchy it has a king it has a parliament and the king is not an absolute monarchy as limitations on his power secondly the power of nobility the remaining vestiges of feudalism were gone forever feudalism was removed forever from the society the european society at least the french society and soon the other european nations also followed suit as i said earlier louis xiv had made the feudal lords weaker because he had centralized power but still they had considerable power feudal lords were very powerful but this french revolution it abolished feudalism completely this is a very radical change and one of the most important changes brought about by french revolution it was a big social change in the society of france so feudalism is gone then third church power was highly diminished as I told you that churches were closed the property of church was confiscated fathers were told to go into civil servants work for the government and if they would not want to work they had to just leave the clergy and go back and live as private citizens all this was diminishing church power and after this an era of religious tolerance started France was a highly Catholic country and there were problems for protests and see this was a running theme in all the European countries if a country was Protestant they did not let Catholics live live there easily for example in England if there were Catholics then they made laws against Protestants and so on so all this stopped after French evolution there was an era of religious tolerance because the interference of the church stopped in the government now the government did not have anything to do with the church later in 20th century France adopted a very strict form of secularism it is called lycΓ©e day or less each day I wonder how it's pronounced but this is a very strict adoption of separation of powers of church and state this policy of separation of church and state is so strong in France that today French government workers are not allowed to wear cross on their necks burkas or scars while they are coming to office they are not allowed to wear any religious symbols at all and this is been going on in France since many years now but it was not there after right of the French Revolution this started in the 20th century then power was transferred from nobility to people especially the bourgeoisie class the middle class because they were the main propagators of this revolution they brought this revolution and they took it forward the ideas of rights of man were long lasting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and rights of citizens is a very important document and the laws and the articles included in that have been have inspired many constitutions of the world now it says that the laws apply equally to everyone debility equality fraternity you can find these words in Indian Constitution and many other constitutions then there was the rise of humanitarian movements throughout Europe and the Western world their human rights were given importance people started giving importance to human rights earlier it was not the case but after French Revolution and its emphasis on these ideas human rights gained prominence then there was the spread of nationalism in Europe countries like Germany and Italy United and a lot of big cause for that was the French Revolution then women although they were not given voting rights until 1946 but still their education their education was now looked after it was decided that women can marry whoever they want they cannot be to marry anyone freedom to start business or trade independently so all these things were up step forward in the direction for women's rights and women's upliftment so this is the end of the French Revolution I have a question for you tell me who is the recently elected president of France and home daily defeat also write down the names of the political parties of both of them I hope you know that you're reading the newspapers viva la revolution have a good day keep the education trivet revolution going




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  2. Thank you so much sir for the video. Excellent video. Every topic is thoroughly explained. I completely understood every aspect of french revolution.

  3. Maine to ncert b padhi or ye b dekha … Ab aisa lag raha hai mai part tha revolution ka πŸ˜‚

  4. VERY NICE EXPLANATION .I UNDERSTOOD THE ENTIRE CHAPTER VERY EFFICIENTLY.WITHOUT FACING ANY DIFFICULTIES

  5. Geography optional
    agriculture section
    ke sirf ΰ₯© lecture haai memory card (andriod version) me aur last lect me mam bolti hai ki lecture me institutional discuss krenege agri se related sir lecture kaha milenge.. Kuchh batoge ap.. Exam pass me hai.. Mam reply n krti hai bolti hai technical prblm ap study iq ke technical dep se baat karo.
    Please provide me all the lecture

  6. awesome teaching
    I understood literally everything in just 1 hour like that's fantastic
    can't thank u enoughπŸ™‚πŸ™‚

  7. These all philosiphers were moderates in thire ways and objective as ways of modertes comprised of writing books😊

  8. Thank you sir I can't understand the French revolution but after seeing your video I can understand now

  9. 1st time I like to study history please keep on making such videos πŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒ

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