Enter Yugoslavia Part 1 | BETWEEN 2 WARS I 1929 Part 2 of 3


Today I am going to touch a live wire. We
are going to speak about the Balkans. Yugoslavia to be precise, where we will look at how this
new country proclaimed after the Great War struggles with ethnic violence already from
its beginning and how, as so often in the interwar period – some view totalitarianism
as the solution. Welcome to Between-2-Wars, a chronological
summary of the interwar years, covering all facets of life, the uncertainty, hedonism,
and euphoria, and ultimately humanity’s descent into the darkness of the Second World
War. I’m Indy Neidell. This is going to be a two part episode covering
what happens in Yugoslavia between 1918 and 1929, so before you jump to any conclusions,
wait until you’ve seen both episodes. Now, I’m going to talk about issues that continue
to impact the region and Europe in 2019. Issues that famously tend to launch bitter and toxic
debate. First of all – we are not taking any side here, simply relating what happened.
Second of all, should anyone, from any “side” take any toxic debate full of hatred to our
comment section, we will remove those comments and revoke your posting privileges permanently
– and it doesn’t matter how much you feel that you are right or are responding to other
people’s hatred, we will not tolerate it from anyone- you should read our rules of
conduct in the pinned post before you start commenting, there you will also find an exposition
as to why these are our policies. We read every single comment that we get and that
takes time, so you can do us all a favor, and save us and yourself some work by simply
not posting anything hateful in the first place. By the end of the 1920s, ethnic rivalry and
fundamental constitutional questions have plagued what would eventually be known as
Yugoslavia ever since it became a nation shortly after The Great War. As the fragile constitutional
monarchy crumbles under these conflicts, on January 6, 1929, King Aleksandar dismisses
Parliament and becomes the absolute monarch of the union of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Aleksandar’s hope- and that of many of his subjects- is that he can put an end to the
‘tribal’ squabbles between the different Southern Slav nations and build a strong state
based around a single Yugoslav identity. But let’s backtrack a little to see how
we end up there in the first place. We saw way back in our 1918 episode on the
Rise of Nations that the Great War had created a multitude of new states in Europe. The ‘Kingdom
of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes’ is one of these. It faces the huge task of incorporating
a multitude of ethnicities more or less in conflict. It is not only the national groupings
of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, but also the unrecognized groups of Montenegrins, Macedonians,
and Bosnian Muslims that shall now become one ‘Yugoslavia’ (literally ‘the land
of the Southern Slavs’ in Serbo-Croatian). There are also minorities of Albanians, Germans,
Hungarians, and many more that need to be considered. The government of the new nation
is immediately hobbled by heated arguments over ethnic boundaries, identity, and constitutional
structure that simply will not abate or be magically solved. Some argue for a strong
central state while others push for a confederation, and ethnic loyalties often take precedence
over loyalty to the Kingdom. Now, the movement for a united nation of the
South Slavs has existed for quite some time, but already as an idea it was burdened with
ethnic unbalance. Back in the mid-nineteenth-century, certain Croat intellectuals began to propagate
the idea that Southern Slavs were descended from the Illyrian tribes which populated the
Balkans in Antiquity. Inspired by the romanticism of the period, the ‘Illyrians’ called
for a national rebirth through linguistic unity and cultural awakening. At the center
of the movement was Ljudevit Gaj who championed the use of Štokavian, a dialect used by
a great number of both Croats and Serbs, and in 1850 it was chosen as the basis of the
Serbo-Croatian language. By the 1860’s, this becomes ‘Yugoslavism’- calling for
unity and autonomy amongst the South Slavs. It is led by a kind of Croatian national awakening
with awareness that for the Croat nation to survive against the forces of Austria, Hungary,
and other major regional powers, unity amongst the South Slavs is needed. One of the proponents of South Slav unity
in Austria-Hungary is Stepjan Radić, who forms the Croat People’s Peasants Party
(HPSS) in 1904. At first, he advocates an autonomous Croatia within Habsburg territory.
But as a loftier goal, Radić believes that the ‘national oneness’ and equality of
South Slavs is possible so long as they accept Croatia as a political entity. But Radić’s
dreams of Croatia’s federalized autonomy is to some degree in conflict with Serbia
and its Balkan partners. Serbia emerges victorious from the Balkan
Wars in 1912 and 1913 with huge territorial gains which rocket Aleksandar to fame. He
is at this point the Crown Prince of Serbia and leads the offensive to force the Ottomans
out of Kosovo, with national romantic historical connections to the Serbian defeat at Ottoman
hands at Kosovo back in 1389. An increasing number of Southern Slav intellectuals, less
sympathetic to the Habsburg monarchy than Radić, now see Aleksander as a viable vehicle
to independence. Radić fears Serbian domination, though, and declares that Serbian expansion
“certainly could and would end up with only the complete destruction of Croatia and the
Croats”. And in fact, most of Serbia’s ideologues
and politicians do envision a union dominated by what they saw as fellow Serbs in Montenegro,
Macedonia, Croatia, and beyond. Aleksandar even sees himself as the liberator of what
he believed to be Serbian lands, no matter who lives on them or their religion. Thus,
Radić, and many Slovene and Croat intellectuals, instead continue to advocate South Slav unity
within the Habsburg Empire. But the Great War is now about to change the
destiny of Yugoslavia. In December 1914, the Serb leadership releases
its statement of war aims in the Niš Declaration, where it proclaims “the struggle for the
liberation and unification of all our brothers, Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, who are still
not free.” Within the Empire, the Yugoslav Committee is formed and claims to speak for
all Southern Slavs in Austro-Hungarian lands. So, an increasing number of forces are now
driving for similar ideas, but they are also on opposing sides in the War. Another party gets involved in mid 1917, when
deputies in the ‘Yugoslav Club’ in the Austrian parliament call for a South Slav
autonomous community in the empire. Fearing being outmaneuvered, the Serbian government
and the Yugoslav Committee decide to collaborate, producing the Corfu Declaration in July 1917.
The declaration endorses the creation of a kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes ruled
by the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty, in other words King Petar and Crown Prince Aleksander. Things are pretty vague and contradictory
though. The Yugoslav Committee, made up largely of Croats and led by Ante Trumbić, desire
a federation of unique states, whereas the Serbian Government, led by Nikola Pašić,
dream of a strongly centralized state. Now, Radić is not part of any of these factions
and fears that the Serbian government are simply using the Corfu Declaration as a cover
for territorial expansion. He is not entirely wrong; Aleksander and his politicians are
pretty focused on Serbian supremacy, with the commitment to Yugoslavia being more of
a military and political practicality rather than ideology. Not at all what Radić is striving
for. Despite his fears, in 1918, as the Austro-Hungarian
Empire collapses, Radić joins the National Council of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs which
is formed in Zagreb on October 6, thinking that it will furhter his goals. The National
Council, though, announced the goal of unification with Serbia. Radić is opposed, but despite
his continued protests, the National Council decides to send a delegation to Serbia to
call for unification. On 1 December 1918, the Kingdom of Serbs,
Croats, and Slovenes is proclaimed. Aleksandar is declared Prince Regent and will become
King when his father Peter dies in 1921. The prince addresses representatives from the
National Council with unequivocal support of the Yugoslav project, stating that “I
am convinced that by this act I am fulfilling my duty as ruler, because with this I am merely
realizing that which the best sons of our blood – of all three faiths and all three
names from both sides of the Danube, the Sava and the Drina… I proclaim the unification
of Serbia with the lands of the independent state of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs in the
unified Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.” A sudden about face- it would seem- and Radić
spares no drama, describing that those rushing into unification are flying “like drunken
geese into a fog.” In March 1919, a provisional parliament meets
to draft a new constitution and immediately hits bumpy ground because of the conflict
of centralism versus federalism. Nikola Pašić’s Radical Party considers Serbia’s war sacrifice
to be what created Yugoslavia, and assumes that Serbian institutions and governance will
continue. Sharing their centralist dream is the Democratic Party, led by Ljubomir Davidovic,
but who oppose the Radical Party’s ill-hidden desire for Serb domination and instead advocate
a unitarian Kingdom where old dividing lines shall be forgotten. The dominant Slovenian
party, the Slovene Peoples Party (SLS), is pro regionalism, but has Italy breathing down
its neck after already taking chunks of Italian territory after the war, and now sees Belgrade
as a guarantee of safety. In some ways in opposition to all of them is Radić, who is
now leading the Croat Peasant Party, opposed to unification, which has unexpected electoral
success in November 1920, propelling Radić to a higher position of influence. Within
weeks of electoral success, though, he and the party come to accept federalization within
some kind of unified state as reality, and republicanism becomes relevant. On top of the main parties, the diverse communities
of Slavic Muslims form a number of independent and largely opposed groups. They seek alliances
with the main parties in exchange for support of Islamic institutions and good treatment
of Muslim landowners in, for instance, Bosnia. Montenegrins and Macedonians get little special
representation as they are viewed as Serbs by Belgrade. Others, like the Internal Macedonian
Revolutionary Organization, oppose Yugoslavia altogether and carry out attacks against Serbian
officials. Constitutional and identity issues are compounded by economic issues. It’s
a motley crew of disjointed agrarian economies with more diversity than cooperation. The
northwest is a great deal more prosperous and advanced than the southeast, and in Bosnia
and Herzegovina, Muslim landowners and Serbian peasants are struggling with each other for
economic control. To make things worse, the new state has different tax and banking systems,
transport and communication networks, and legal codes which all have to be linked up. Despite all the differences, on 28 June 1921,
exactly seven years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and 532 years
after the Battle of Kosovo, the Vidovdan Constitution is ratified by 223 of the 285 delegates present
at the Constitutional Assembly in Belgrade, though a huge block of 161 Croat and Slovene
delegates boycott the vote. The Kingdom will be a constitutional, parliamentary, and hereditary
monarchy – one nation comprised of three tribes. It is a victory for centralists. The monarch,
still Peter I at this point, is invested with considerable power over parliamentary politics,
declared to be head of the military, and has most of the government bureaucracy flowing
from him. He has the power to appoint and dismiss prime ministers and the de facto ability
to reject any legislation he doesn’t like. The kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
now has a constitution, but it is far from having a stable government, and it will stay
that way. In fact, government will come close to failing
or will actually fail over 20 times over the decade, and no government will ever serve
out a full parliamentary mandate. Two opposing parliamentary blocs now emerge. On one side
is the powerful Radical party and on the other is the uneasy coalition of the Croat Republican
Peasant Party, the Slovenes People’s Party, the Yugoslav Muslim Organization, Serbian
agrarians, and a growing number of Democrats, who all don’t really have much in common
apart from their hatred of the Radicals. Radić emerges as a leading figure of opposition
and a thorn in the side of the radicals. On 14 July 1923, Bastille Day, he holds a speech
comparing the Kingdom to the infamous French prison. He is met with death threats, flees
to Hungary, and then embarks on a European tour, visiting Vienna, London, and most controversially,
Moscow, where he attends the Peasant International Congress. His continued agitation continues
to anger the Radicals even from abroad. His visit to Moscow is seen as a personal slight
by Aleksandar, now King, who is a staunch anti-communist and victim of a failed communist
assassination plot in 1921. Meanwhile, Yugoslavia is spiraling deeper
into crisis. Supported by the King, Pašić forms a minority government in March 1924.
Without support in the parliament it falls after only a month. In an attempt to bridge
the partisan divide, Aleksandar gives the mandate to govern to the Democrat leader,
Davidović. But he isn’t even able to form a government, returning Pašić to power once
again in early May. The chaos does not subside as parliament blocks the government from any
meaningful governance and the government refuses to bow to the reform demands of the federalist
opposition. Aleksandar fears that the opposition might gain the upper hand, so he recesses
parliament and refuses to hold elections to avert constitutional reform forces coming
to power. The next two months see Yugoslavia come extremely close to royal dictatorship. Finally, in July, he asks Davidović to once
again try to form a government. The Democrats manage to form a coalition which, to the extreme
anger of the Radical party, includes Radić’s Croat Republican Peasant Party. Radić returns
in August and declares himself ready to participate in government but still continues to espouse
anti-monarchical views in his speeches. Furious, the King demands the resignation of Davidović.
He hands it in, but remains as PM because no new government is formed. That might not
make sense to you, but that is, in fact, how it worked. Yugoslavia is now basically without a legislative
body and the King and his politicla party are facing a showdown over who controls the
country. So there it is, in late 1924, after barely
six years of existence, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes looks like it might not
survive. And let us be clear here, there are a number of forces in Europe that wouldn’t
mind if it fell apart. The Italians are aggressively pursuing their Mediterranean interests in
Albania. The newly formed USSR might have abandoned expansionism for now, but are still
very much interested in fostering new Socialist movements in Eastern Europe. The old central
powers are pretty much powerless now, but a collapse of Yugoslavia might shine new hope
to regain a foothold to their south, at least for economic reasons. When we return in our next episode, we will
see how the struggle over Yugoslavia continues and it becomes a matter of personal life or
death as Radić and King Aleksander move closer and closer to
a showdown.




Comments
  1. We don’t delete or ban any opinions which disagree with other opinions. We delete comments that contain historical fallacies and political propaganda by antidemocratic organisations, irrespective of political leaning. This means that we do not tolerate any lies or propaganda that forward the agenda of, for instance, Nazis, Fascists, Stalinists, Leninists, other ultra-Marxists or Anarchists. That is within our responsibility according to the laws in our territory which forbids the dissemination of false flag information, propaganda, and symbols connected to organizations that have been found to be unconstitutional and an immediate danger to a democratic, free society by the German courts, in accordance with §86 and §86a of the German Penal Code. The law specifically mentions NDSDAP in §86 and the KPD in §86a (NSDAP is the Nazi Party and KPD the Communist party). Moreover we do not tolerate hate speech, racism, xenophobia, and the denial of proven crimes against humanity. This is in perfect agreement with the opinion forwarded by The US Supreme Court on society’s responsibility to fight against that kind of speech and it is in agreement with numerous EU and EU member state laws against same said speech.

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  2. Man you are right I’m touching a live wire when it comes to this region because I find even saying Kosovo🇽🇰 as you did in the video gets Serbs a bit mad (then if you say it’s a legit country they lose it). I’ve seen other channels try to talk about this and not long after, unless there is some strict moderation, the comments are a blood bath.

  3. Man. I hate Quebec. Talking French n shit. It's all a giant Albania conspiracy to take down the great and powerful nation of Canada, which I am prime minister of. Vote Treduea in October and we can stop the Serbian back Quebec national awakening!

  4. So from what I am hearing Yugoslavia was kind of a mess from the beginning. So how the hell did it make it 80 years or so before it collapsed (for what seems to be permanently)? (I am of course skipping the occupation of the country?/union? during the war.)

  5. The existence of the Kingdom of Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia under the guise of a grand coalition of the willing for the grandness of the existence of the great and honorable state of the righteous against the forces of the non-aggression of the Hitler and Stalin but then morphed into the great alliance of the righteousness of the good. But the wall was never built, and so Kosovo became a greater imperial center of the Holy Romanian Empire, with comrade chairman and minister president of the land of the South Slavs returning to claim his throne and unite with Bulgaria. This is why I think holocaust and holodomor was not but not but also not a good thing, but Marxism-Leninism-Nazism is good, and I support it, and that is why Yugoslavia doesn't exist anymore.

  6. Considering the intro by Indy on hate speech, I have the feeling that this topic would be much more controversial than usual (how do we measure “usual” though!). But as it turns out, I know nothing about it. Why would it be so controversial? Without willing to open fire in the discussions, could anybody point me out –relatively objectively– what are the opinions and factions that make the topic so full of hate?

  7. Hello Indy, Spartacus and crew, I hope you read this, and not ban me. I am a Bosnian, and I have to tell you that in words like Pašić, š sounds same as sh in pasha. I have an interresting comparison from the last years of ww2, it is about the difference between Yugoslav partisans and the German army. My grandfather remembers those days from 43-45, he was young then(4-6 years old), he said that the Germans were,at the time, retreating from the area from Zvornik, because of partisans. A couple of German soldiers used to sleep in his house, his mother and his siblings were sleeping in the barn, Germans hace thrown them out. This might sound borring, because I am not a very good story teller. So when the Germans were to hastly fall back, those Germans, and other in the area, first had to fix their hair, slowly dress up, what I am trying to say is that the Germans took about 45 min to leave the house. But from time to time, when the Germans were not there, people have taken in some partisans, which sometimes had to leave in a hurry because of Germans approaching. So those partisans left the house in less then 2 min. They even put there buts or whatever they had instead of them, outside in the street while running. And will you talk about the liberation of Tuzla durring the 1943. I know i have a lot of grammar mistakes, it is early in the morning here. Last questions, how much will you talk about the Yugoslav partisans in your weekly episodes? And how much will you talk about Yugoslavia in War a.H? Big fan of the show.
    P.S. One more question, what do you think about this, what do people find interresting in fascism? Why cant people see that the only aim of fascism is to destroy other peoples lives, dont they have symathy? People in the Balkans have suffered a lot for 1000 years. All South Slavs have been destroyed by the Ottomans, Venetians, Austrians, Hungarians. So why would they want fascism, wasnt there enough suffering. Pls dont ban me

  8. Fact: serbia didnt loose the battle of Kosovo Polje. They actually won. Check your sources. However, it was a expensive victory and in the end the Ottoman empire could sustain losses better than the serbs. I wouldnt enter the subject of Yugoslavia without Reading and Consulting English historian Marko Attila Hoare first.

  9. Uh oh. Controversy in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Where is Conrad von Hötzendorf when you need him?!

  10. If you read the comments then I just want to say hello to Indy and team. We love your show and thank you for doing this. PS where can I get that tie?

  11. There's a spelling mistake in the subtitles. At 8:23, the subtitles say "…that it will furhter [sic] his goals". That, ofcourse, has to be 'further'.

  12. Hello, just to point a few things out.

    At 4:40, his name was Stjepan Radić (not Stejpan)

    A major reason for the unification was that (at 10:21) Italy was promised more than just Istria, but most of Dalmatia as well by the London agreement. This is considered by many to be the single most important reason driving the Croats (and Slovenes) to unification, since (as you said) Italy was not backing down on its claims. I don't think you gave this reason enough attention in the video though.

    Stjepan Radić's visit to Moscow was seen as a slap in the face to king Alexander in part because the USSR was communist, but mostly because the USSR was not officially recognized by Yugoslavia, and the two did not in fact have diplomatic relations (until 1940). As a leader of the second largest political party in Yugoslavia at that time, this was problematic. And the centralist government was aching for a reason to throw him and his colleagues in jail, and so they did.

    Loved the video and love your work,

    all the best.

  13. Hey Indy and team, just a quick question – Do you recognize the Macedonians as an independent nationality or as Bulgarians, who for over a century haven't been able to unite with the Bulgarian state?
    As a Bulgarian, the answer for me is obvious but i want to know the opinion of westerners who read and research the history of this region and have no bias in this whole mess that has been the politics on the Balkans for over 2 centuries.

  14. I often wonder , how on earth Yugoslavia survived that long..
    Also isn't it a irony that all those new states emerged from Yugoslavia eventually will become part of a new federation, EU ?

  15. Ah, like Andy Dwyer would say " Balkans – SHOCK WIRE! Whenever you shower and touch the wire go near it and touch the wire, YOU DIE!! "

  16. Amazing that there are no angry comments, I wonder how many have been removed already. Usually any comment section of vids on the Balkans are full of ethnic rage.

  17. 2:47 Not to mention the Croats to a great extent fought on the Austrian side against the serbs. Sure they have had their own pan South Slavic movement, illyrianism, but they meant to for their version of Yugoslavia to be croat led not Serb led.
    It's in many ways similair to the scandianvisnism of the 19th century and earlier. Both Danes and Swedes have pushed for it but when they're not the ones in ascendance they don't want it because it means it would be dominated by the other.

  18. Hi friends! I love your videos. Just one note: in many scripts you use "literally" as in "the army literally melted into nothing when they freezed…" and so on. Be careful with those "literallys" if that is not the literal thing that happened! Cheers!

  19. Hello Indy! Congrats on the fantastic work, and finally an episode about us Southern Slavs.
    I only have one comment for this video, you misspelled "Stepjan Radić" as the proper spelling and pronunciation is "Stjepan Radić"
    Greetings from Croatia!

  20. Good job guys.

    Many avoid the core essence of Yugoslavia:
    battle was fought for dominance, between Croats and Serbs.

    Dictatorship of Alexander was the same balance factor, as the dictatorship of Tito was in post-WWII Yugoslavia.

    They tried to balance different nationalisms in the state. One by pan yugoslav idea, and other by socialist idea.

    Cheers to all crazy dinaroids 😀
    World would be boring place, without us

  21. Cant wait for the second part, feels almost like I'm watching the news and reading the papers today and think that the Balkans are still a powder barrel like in the early XX
    Sometimes I'm sad because of a lot of great ideas failed because different people coudnt agree on some subjects
    Keep up the great work and keep your comments the bastion of clean chat free of toxic words and bitter fighting that leads good people to do really bad thing to there fellow friend

  22. Well what if the comments are mean, but funny too? Could you at least have the decency to forward those to me please?
    😀

  23. As a kid growing up in the eighties, i still recall the ideas of confederation being passed around at the eve of the great bloodbath that were the yugoslav wars in the 90's. But I didn't really know they were there basically from the inception. Hell, I'll just go out and say it – Yugoslavia was a fascinating political project with so much potential that went horribly wrong due to minority interests and nationalism. I'm still kinda sad it's gone, replaced by impotent client-states.

  24. please, consider an episode about czechoslovakia. how it was created and how it proceeded. compared to all other post war countries it was considered as a real success story. though slovak now, i´m proud of my czecho-slovak heritage.

  25. Hey Indy and crew. This may sound out of context, but why is the ethnic diversity in the Balkans such a hurt subject?

  26. Ww 2 its still not over in this region. When politicians wanna gain cheap points thay start talking about ww2.
    Region were you could be neutral peasant, your wife member of Partisans resistance, your brother fascists Ustasha, your neighbor Serbian radical, your best friend German nationalist and your cousin domobran. (domobran is state army member but not part of regime, like wermaht was in Germany)

  27. King Alexander was absolutely BAD king same as Yugoslavia was BAD country…also montenegrins and macedonians wont exist untill 1945(nobody at that time called himself like that)

  28. Balkans is a messed up place in europe but Yugoslavia was a great power of the balkans no hate in the balkans 🇭🇷🇷🇸🇧🇦🇲🇰🇲🇪🇸🇮🇽🇰.

  29. Thanks for so many details about history of Yugoslavia, and many good videos about Serbia in WW1 series as well. Greetings from Serbia.

  30. You know your region is full of ahem… interesting people when the TG team has to have a 2 minute warning beforehand x3
    Regardless, absolute amazing episode. Neutral and just really well made The Radić's goose comment is what I waited for the whole time heh

  31. I really like how you guys approach rocky topics that could spark toxicity and hatred. Shows how professional you are! I appreciated the episode as always, keep up the great work on WW2 and timeghost, love ya

  32. I hope Part 2 takes more time to talk about the Serbization of Macedonia and, at least, acknowledge Bulgaria and the Bulgarian minorities in Yugoslavia. Otherwise, I fear you will miss out on a lot of context when 1934 comes around.

  33. When entire countries collapse, how do people cope economically? Farmers at least can feed themselves, but city dwellers must be scrambling to find any kind of usable currency.

  34. Well it was Serbian army that liberated all of future "Yugoslavian" land, and Serbia bleed the most during war, not to mention that Croatia and Slovenia didn't exist at that time, so it was normal for Serbia(Yugoslavia) to consider these lands Serbian.Anyway everything is abot interest you cannot expect that Serbs will accept these lands as Croatian or Slovene.Serbia was good enough to accept them into our country and form united Yugoslavia. Btw Croat fought against Serbs during war and they(Croats) still had something to say about "Serbian aggressive expansionism" pff what a joke.And those "Macedonian" rebels were not Macedonians they were Bulgarian "terorists-guerilas" called Komite that sabotaged railways, infrastructure before and during the WW1 in South Serbia(today Macedonia) and so called "montenegrins " are still considered Serbs same for Bosniaks(Serb muslims).Have a nice day 🙂

  35. Tensions in today's Balkans are exaggeration, and the comment sections are flooded with warnings about the storm which doesn't exit.

    "Oh, the Balkans! I'm ready for the toxic comment section!"

    … somewhere in time after endless scrolling without the storm …

    "Screw this, I'm going back on Brexit!"

  36. You didnt say anything about the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, 33 days after itw as created it joined in with the Kindom of Serbia making the Kindom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

  37. Ah yes, the roots of Yugoslavia, I am certain this will be an interesting episode. You generally do a good job with these touchy subjects. I am sure that it was not an easy task to compose this episode, both from the source material side and choosing how to represent the events side.

  38. I was a member of the IFOR send by NATO after the Dayton accords in the mid-90s. I found it very interesting to see the backstory that led to all of the aftermath of that I witnessed. When I was in Bosnia I always wondered things got to the point that they did.
    Very interesting episode.

  39. To put it in a political correct phrase and scraping on the guide lines of this channel you can paraphrase a Richard Dawkin's quote: Unifying the balkan peoples and minorities under a unified state like Yugoslavia is like herding cats.

  40. there is one major mistake you made in the video. Montenegrins, as a separate ethnicity, did not exist until 1948, when they were created by Communists. even those who were against Yugoslavia in Montenegro were, ethnically speaking, Serbs. it can be seen in 1914 Code of Law (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographic_history_of_Montenegro, section 1913-1914, in Serbian), and in general Montenegrin sentiment throughout it's history. on the other hand, Macedonians were not acknowledged as separate ethnicity by Serbian/Yugoslav government (neither by Bulgarians, speaking of it), even though, IMHO, they should have been

    edit: also, no Yugoslav censuses (kingdom period) contained ethnicity (Croat, Serbian, Slovenes, etc.), as Aleksandar aimed to create Yugoslav ethnicity, as all are one, but only contained religion (Orthodox, Catholic, Muslim, etc.)

  41. Like Indy Neidell said "Aleksander and his politicians are pretty focused on Serbian supremacy, with
    the commitment to Jugoslavia being more of a military and political practicality rather than ideology. Not at all what Radić and the Croatians strived for."

  42. Finally, someone actually covers this bit of history. Yugoslavia is basically a historic battle royale and it's nice to see people not from the Balkans getting a quality resource

  43. Either people are either surprisingly civil, ex Yugoslav people are not watching, or there has been a hell of a lot of comment deletions 😀

  44. We will see the part 2,but the first one was somewhere in between a true effort not to take sides and some really vague concepts taken from English written books. My points are:
    1.) Sometimes a man gets an impression that you make no distinction between Serbian positions on Greater Serbia and Yugoslavia.
    2.) You did not put Yugoslavism in the context with Panslavism.
    3.) You did not touch the problem of Croatia's status in KuK monarchy and the problem of prospects of Croatia being on the lost side of WWI.
    3.) Speaking about Montenegrins and Serbs – tough question which includes problems of rivality of dynasties (Petrovic and Karadjordjevic). Nevertheless, take a peak into Montenegrin Constitution before 1914.

    Thanks for trying and "touching live wire". We love you guys!

  45. Yugo food is bloody brilliant. If I could only eat once minced meat product it’d be Cevapi. Holy shit I love that shit on bread with some onions and ajvar and rakija. Seriously, how can anyone be angry with food like this on the table?!

  46. Nice! No toxic waste in the comments. I wish other sites were like this. It is difficult to read dispicable and disgraceful comments from anyone and not respond in the same way. A respectable debate is most welcome. Usually people learn from such content.

  47. Like the series. Dislike your rules. YouTube already has rules in place and doesn’t need you to add more restrictions.

  48. Ignore this comment If this is going to be included in the next episode, but how come you didn't mention the religious divisions? Not only the Bosnian Muslims were the "different ones", there was and still is the significant split between Catholicism and Orthodoxy among the Yugoslavs.

  49. I think that what I'm going to say it's not against your rules. If it is I apologise in advance. But the inhabitants of what is now recognized as North Macedonia should not be referred to as Macedonians. That's because the Prespa agreement between Greece and North Macedonia says that the citizens of this country (North Macedonia) have nothing to do with the first-original Macedonians (the ancient Greek Macedonians) and that the citizens of North Macedonia shall be referred to as citizens of North Macedonia and not simply as Macedonians.

  50. At surface this appears to be very neutral and well researched video but it is done in politicaly correct form of "nobody is guilty, bad things are happening" … please allowe few comments.
    The idea of territorial expansion of Serbia was originally formulated 1844 in Načertanije, a political program of the Principality of Serbia.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Serbia#Gara%C5%A1anin's_Na%C4%8Dertanije
    In order to boost moral of Italy and Serbia and involve it/keep it in the WW1 London Treaty 1915 galantly offered spoils of war for both Italy and Serbia in a form of territories of Dual Monarchy
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_London_(1915)
    Armed with these Serbian leadership went into process of "Yugoslavisation" of Greater serbia concept.

    The whole process of "creating" Yugoslavia left a lot to be desired in the terms of legality
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MoXYE5rj2w0&t=57s
    Vojvodina was anexed by Serbia a day after Serbia "united" with State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs in what can only be described as minority-backed coup de grace.
    In Zagreb, capital of Croatia in unrests following proclamation of unification, 14 people were killed and several hundred were wounded as Croatian citizens took the streets to protest unification. These are also the first victims of Croatian-Serbian conflict which lasted until Serbs were military beaten in 1995.
    Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes initiated the “first agrarian reform” in 1918 and 1919. It took away a total of 2.66 million acres (1,076,675 hectares) of land from the Muslim Bosnians. As a consequence, Serbian percentage of real estate ownership in Bosnia went from 6% to nearly 50%. Beneficiaries were mostly Serbian war veterans with families. The original owners never received more than 10% compensation and huge number of Muslims were left without property and sought economic asylum, going primarily to Turkey. Same thing was done in Metohija (today's Kosovo). Agrarian reform was never executed in Serbia itself.
    Then "Yugoslavia" was divided in 9 districts which were organised so that Serbs have mayority in 6 out of 9 districts although they represented 40% of Yugoslav population.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Yugoslavia#/media/File:Banovine_Jugoslavia.png

  51. The warning at the beginning of this episode tells me that these are going to be some really juicy episodes folks. I absolutely love these channels the world war II and time ghost these are such awesome ideas and when I'm in a position to become a patron I will do so promptly

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