Economic Update: Employer VS Employee: Capitalism's Endless Conflict

welcome friends to another edition of economic update a weekly program devoted to the economic dimensions of our lives and I'm your host Richard wolf here to bring you these updates each week I want to begin by mentioning today's theme that capitalism is an economic system that is a continuous war between the employer and the employee it really never stops even when it appears to and many of today's updates kind of illustrate that point I want to start with the exotic dancers in Los Angeles at a place called soldiers of poll they went out being women they went out on International Women's Day March 8th and their story is a story of the continual war of labour and capital here's how it begins they were considered independent contractors consultants things like that in that so-called gig economy that was a ploy so employers wouldn't have to offer them benefits and protections of the sort that are written into law for workers who are regular employees but then there was a case brought and decided by the Supreme Court in California early last year and that said you can't do that anymore that employers really can't evade their obligations to employees simply by using a category to escape those legitimate obligations ok so now the strippers were regular employees and they quickly discovered that their employer was now playing around with the hours and the timing basically trying to do to them as employers what had before been done to them as independent contractors proving again that whatever the legal arrangements are and whatever reforms are passed that war is never over and they're just always looking for other way to get the same outcome the next update has to do with an embarrassment for president Trump turns out that the deficit in the trade between the United States and the rest of the world reached the new record here after two years during which mr. Trump has been telling us all of the great strides he's made in preventing us from buying stuff abroad and having it produced instead here no success at all failure failure and to drive the point home failure what's at this the lesson here that mr. Trump isn't good at what he does well you don't need me to point that out let me make the bigger point presidents don't have enough power no matter what they do capitalism is a system that has its own ways of working and mostly what presidents do is diddle around the edges but they can't change the basic logic and the basic thrust of this system that's the lesson that's important here just to give you an example you can make all the theatrical announcements you want about bringing manufacturing back but as long as the wages are lower in the rest of the world than in the United States which they have been although that's changing but they have been and that's where capitalists go where the wages are lowest that's the same message as the strippers are learning and teaching us in Los Angeles likewise because the rest of the world is facing real threats to the existing capitalism they're wealthy people around the world are afraid and they move their money to New York and to the United States for safekeeping and that drives up the value of the dollar and that makes it easier for foreigners to sell their goods here because the value of the other currency is less if the value of the dollar goes up that's the way international trade works the very success of mr. Trump in making America super safe for capitalists and wealthy people undermines what he's trying to do in terms of the trade the end result is we have the biggest deficit in the history of the United States after two years of a regime of a president who promised to do the other and then there's the UN report published by the Human Rights Council of the United Nations there chief Michele bascially a Latin American leader has made the simple argument that the level of inequality in the world today is producing protest uprising on a new scale that has been met by governments using repression and she particularly cites in her report sir Sudan Israel and France with the repression of the government of France against the yellow vests something we've talked about on this program it caught my eye that just as the inequality was producing repression and all of that kind of tension we also had the announcement that the most expensive car ever sold changed hands in this last month it's a Bugatti which was sold for 11 million dollars an illustration of inequality if you actually need it the next update has to do with the city of Lordstown Ohio with a General Motors plant that has existed there for many many years finally closed its doors dumping yet another large group of working people into unemployment plunging the city of Lords town into God knows what kind of cutbacks in public services and depression back in the 1970s General Motors reached an all-time high employment of 618 thousand employees today it has a hundred and three thousand from six hundred and eighteen thousand to a hundred and three a tiny group of people the board of directors of General Motors made the decisions that deprived half a million workers over these years Oh their jobs their incomes their pensions their futures it's extraordinary the real wage that is the money paid to water workers today adjusted for inflation is lower than what it was 15 and 20 years ago that's what the automobile companies did to make money abroad to move their factories around the United States to get away from the rules and regulations to save on wages they made money at the expense of literally millions of family members in this country and you all should understand it and think about what that means and then there was a decision of the Trump administration and the Federal Reserve a couple of weeks ago to reduce banking regulation that took my breath away we've had 10 years during which first the banks went bankrupt in 2008 because of the fancy gimmicks asset-backed securities and credit default swaps you remember the language when they mishandled the world's credit system and we all collapsed then we had 10 years in which the big banks literally did every illegal and unethical thing imaginable they meant manipulated interest rates the LIBOR scandal they got caught manipulating foreign exchange rates they got caught charging people for fees they shouldn't have they got caught mismanaging the mortgage crisis you name it oh I forgot laundering criminal money shouldn't forget that they got caught they paid billions in fines after a record ten years like that the logical thing is to give them less regulation I told you take your breath away but that's what we have you know mr. Obama didn't do much for banking regulation he got through the namby-pamby dodd-frank bill which didn't regulate Munch and mr. Trump is reducing that too it's interesting if you look at the Trump administration the new budget has an enormous increase for the military and this deregulation that's an enormous good thing for the banks and the tax cut of December 2017 that's an enormous ly good thing for employers everywhere as the corporate tax got slashed he may not be able to solve our trade problems he may not be able to give you a job he may not be able to give you a decent income him and I'll be able to help your kids with their college education but taking care of the military the banks and corporations is very good at that and that's something else you ought to think about when you think about this government oh and I left one thing out the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau announced that its relaxing the rules governing payday lenders also oh how charming while you're helping the military the banks and the corporations and while you're reducing the control over the banks you're relieving the payday lenders you know the people who charge workers who've got too much months at the end of the money extraordinary levels of interest to get a little bit of help Wow what a government whatever that means it all adds up to making America great again don't you think we've come to the end of the first half of economic update I want to thank you all I want to ask you and please to remember subscribe to us on our youtube channel it's an easy way to be supportive of us it's a simple click for you no cost at all make use of our websites democracy at work dot info and our DeWulf with two F's com those websites allow you to communicate directly with us through email and with a click to follow us on Facebook Twitter and Instagram finally of course as always our thanks to the patreon community who support whose encouragement and whose partnership with us in bringing these messages to a larger community are enormous ly appreciated stay with us we have an excellent interview we'll be right back welcome back friends to the second half of economic update we're going to be continuing our theme about the endless war between employers and employees and what it means and how it works and we're gonna do that with my guest he's been a guest on economic update before he's a reporter by the name of Bob Henley so it's a pleasure to welcome you back thanks just to remind everyone Bob Henley is an award-winning print and broadcast investigative journalist not too many of those left these days he's a staff reporter with the New York city-based chief leader a newspaper that has been covering public employees and public employee unions and the civil service since 1897 been around a long time he is a regular contributor as well to salon magazine where he writes on the economy and labor he's been published in an enormous array of publications I'm gonna mention a few The Guardian the New York Times CBS MoneyWatch PBS Newshour NPR c-span the BBC and CBS is 60 minutes so it is with great pleasure that we have a really professional journalist with us today let me begin with a story that I know you covered that I want you very briefly to tell our viewers and listeners about the fire departments in our cities particularly here in New York City but across the country have to work in close proximity with a group of workers called emergency medical technicians right people who are often in a position literally to save our lives and yet they get paid very differently and I want you to tell us why that is and why that has become a big news story in the last few weeks well I you know this issue is each municipality is different and so New York City has a unique history where historically the EMT service was part of the Health and Hospitals corporation Rudy Giuliani Republican mayor pulled it away from Health and Hospitals and gave it to the fire department which was having struggle because structural fires were down and like throughout the rest of the country they needed a mission so emergency medical service became that mission and what ended up happening was we're now in a situation where these EMTs I have to wear bulletproof vests because they're in harm's way they have to respond to counter-terrorist with situations live fire events if you will but this workforce that is involved with emergency medicine is primarily composed of women and people of color they make some 40,000 $45,000 a year compared to the fire department side the fire side which can make $85,000 a year and so it's a consequence you have people leaving the MT service going to talk about perverse and you know incentives to go to the fire side and so we have a relatively inexperienced EMT Corps here in New York City what that means is that we know from peer-reviewed medical science it takes about six years for people to get the kind of experience that you need to be really good at this job and so through capital being on top of Labor and driving these decisions we have a workforce that's not experienced when it comes to EMTs a constant churn of these people that cost money to train and also a high burnout rate because one of the things that's happening is they leave the EMT corps so quickly that the health 700 vacancies at a time which means people working extended periods of hours overtime even to the point where they get injured we know that when people work a lot of stressful occupation and work many hours they're more likely to enter themselves in fact working tired is considered now by occupational scientists working and paired so that's situation we have right here in New York City and they're looking for equity that when we brought up a long side of the firefighters because their first responders and what I I find so striking again is that obviously we want emergency medical technicians who save lives almost as a matter of their regular job to be given the the respect to be given the salaries that that they deserve and that we who need their services deserve this is a system where they have professors of economics like me explaining that the market is a wonderful institution that gives people the income they deserve and that creates incentives for people to specialize in learning so they can do a good job you've just told us a story that this system stinks at that that it rearranges more than that and I'll give you an example New York City has relatively a high level of compensation for EMTs considering the national situation where pay average is 16 dollars an hour $33,000 a year to save people's lives so you have a situation where people are working other jobs and are fatigued when they're trying to save lives and if we pull back and say we're concerned about patient outcome remember that logic from Obama care and we're concerned about long-term health care costs the most important period of time if you need intervention is what they call the golden hour that's the first hour that it becomes apparent to other human beings around you that you need medical attention that's where we're cheating people the most and cheating patients and the workforce at the same time this is a prime example of what I call late stage vulture capitalism at its worst yeah it reminds me of a teacher who once looked at me when I was explaining wages and said to me give me an explanation for why it's the case that we pay more to the people who park your car in a parking lot than we pay to the women who take care of children and daycare center right everybody knows that the early years of your life are very correct to your development so we pay less to the women into whose hands we put our children than the people who park the vehicle in the parking lot it's a sign of a system that doesn't work well when these stories are so eager but I want to move our attention or in another place recently because you're a labor reporter we have been hearing stories about a proposal coming from the most progressive parts of the Democratic Party Alexandria Ocasio Cortez and others about a green new deal right I'm struck by that I'm struck by putting these terms together the New Deal which really was a massive program to help working people and green a recognition of the ecological disaster we are living through tell us a little bit about why that's in the news and what you as a labor reporter picked up on as this is being debated well unfortunately I think in our Twitter's vs. that were in it kind of to a bad start because the right-wing reactionary media picked up on something that wasn't in the actual legislation but in a frequently asked question support document that had been put out around the same time and there was a reference very far down that the system the economic system that was being visualized would provide money and support for those people that were unable or unwilling to work and so out of 2,000 words they zeroed in on that and they didn't reflect on the fact that right above that was reference to something that I'm sure your viewers and listeners are familiar with Franklin Delano Roosevelt's second Bill of Rights which was given as part of the State of the Union dress in 1944 which really talked about the fact that this country was at a point where it had gone as far as it could in terms of delivering on the Bill of Rights a political document but it had fallen far short because so many people were in need and he extorted the American population not to accept this circumstance where so many people were doing without because then the Republic wouldn't achieve its potential success and so he talked about work as a right as something that needed meaningful dignified work with something that people should have as a right they didn't focus on that part because really the green New Deal is all about work you know it strikes me when Social Security was put forward by FDR as part of the whole New Deal it was opposed by right-wingers as socialism the same story when unemployment compensation was proposed in the 1930s the right wing again attacked it when federal jobs of which there were 15 million were proposed and put into effect it was opposed by these people they are always the same ones who find some little detail like this and become enraged around their anxiety that actually helping people who need it is some sort of threat to their society it's a it's a bizarre kind of reaction I would say that part of the problem is I have a few critiques about the green New Deal I do think they need to work higher up into the preamble a reference to Franklin Delano Roosevelt's second Bill of Rights because I don't think it's taught I don't think people even know it exists so there's this a sense of historical continuity with the mainstream of American history the other thing is I don't think they come directly at a critique of late-stage vulture capitalism the way they need to they really need to allow for people that the problem with fossil fuel generated vulture capitalism is that it privatizes the prophets and socializes the environmental waste and degradation similarly and they need to make this point as well automation does the same thing these great geniuses of high-tech things that we worship are basically repurposing taxpayer-funded Pentagon research which then they privatize the profits and then socialize the idle people and it becomes a cost externality for them but it becomes our problem to deal with the massive individuals with nothing to do I'd like to also just personally attack this notion that people who don't want to work let me be an economist and explain why this is not what you might think in the aftermath of the crash of 2008 we saw in the United States a tremendous drop in what we call the labor force participation rate it was particularly middle-aged white males more than anybody else who didn't quote/unquote want to work by the way these are the people who put mr. Trump in office right they were angry they were taking me they found the good jobs with good pay and good pensions and good benefits taken away from them right and they were told hey go get a job be a greeter at Walmart flipping burgers go away and they said wait a minute we've given 20-30 years of our lives we've worked very hard we've accumulated skills everyone has said we did good work you just throwing us on that we're not gonna do it we're gonna go home and take care of an elderly person we're gonna go home and help out with the children we're gonna go home and build another wing on the house that we need we don't tell us we're unwilling to work you've deprived us of the conditions if Franklin Roosevelt were here he'd say we're and we've devoted as a nation to giving people a good job and a good income and if we can't do that we can't turn on them and say you're unwilling to work right I do think that one of the problems here is that we have to reframe the debate and look at the fact that people did come up with social utility they did care for grandchildren they got involved in the lives of their children by helping them with taking care of their their grandchildren and so to come back in the labor force means disrupting the real political economy that does of consequence to them similarly we've had because of the the traumatic nature of what we've been through with this with capitalism we're in a situation where we have this growing ranks of disabled with all kinds of issues related to the random and capricious nature of capitalism that is inflicted psychic trauma on millions of people where they had a job one day and social standing and they were stripped of all of that so I do think that we do need to reframe this discussion and really look at the fact that the green new deal is about a broad-based bottom-up prosperity that heals the planet that's right and that let's have a green new deal so that we change the conditions though those who might say today I'm unwilling to work or be accused by someone who's kind of cruel in their mentality give them the conditions and will see that they're going to be willing to work by the way the so-called unwilling are coming back into the labor force the last two or three years but not because the jobs are better but because we've kept them out of work so long that they've used up their savings they've used up the resources of their families they're coming back and to say to them that they ought to that we have no obligation that this is a system that has no obligation to a person who's given his or her life of work but to say okay we're gonna pay you now next to nothing that's a that's human poverty that that's the fastest growing part of our labor force that's a failure of the system and it ought to be the system that's up there to be criticized not those people who react to its failures by saying there's better things I can do with my time then work at an unskilled job for $15 an hour given what I've done all my life right I mean one of the things that's happened that is people aren't paying attention to is first of all we've mentioned this before the decline in American life expectancy is a tangible thing three years in a row a first time that's happened since World War one and then on top of that you have a situation where because of what the decline of the social contract about work the degradation of it we have millions of people that are waiting by the phone to be told they can work that particular day particularly young people and so they're in this situation right now where we have a thing that's happening where there are millions of American young people from 16 to 24 that aren't in the labor force participating aren't going to school and aren't working this is never happened before this is a global issue where capitalism is really failing the future so we need to have a conversation about how do we engage young people to get the sense of the rhythm of work and what do I mean by that and this is where labor really has to come out in full force and supporting the concept of the right to a job there's something we learn as a teenager when we work a summer job where we put our interests and our indulgences to the side to serve someone else this is the core function of the value of work and I don't care whether it's for remuneration but if you're doing where you're putting your needs secondary to someone else that's service and we had it for our society for too long that has not been keying in to this key fundamental human aspect of service this is what we all should be living our lives for we've gotten away from it with this concentration of the the dream of Americans to be I but wealthy the the joke is the people unwilling to work really pull it off with no one saying boo are the people rich enough to not have to worry rather than to solve it we tax their capital when we tax the labour of people who earn their living by working but it is for me just one last time there's something very ugly it's like people who beat their children and when confronted with doing that say well I got beaten right you know that's a reason not to do it not a justification for doing it to take to say to a person who says I don't want to live anymore to say well we're not gonna help you we're not gonna see that oh you must be suffering to feel that way now you have to live anyway what is this a person who says they don't want to work is a person who doesn't want to be part of the community that's a problem we should help that person and we should for sure provide them with a decent opportunity before we ever open the door to being hostile and cruel and critical the people who say to those unwilling to work those are the people who are doing nothing to create the conditions that would make those people actually become workers alongside the rest of us yeah I think that it's instructive to remember that in terms of universal income the concept that you have to lift all boats have as divergent supporters as Martin Luther King and Richard Nixon let's not forget that folks we've come to the end I hope you will agree that this is a really important set of questions about working people the right to work the right to a job the right to be treated decently by one another and the right to be paid for the importance of the work that you do and for the importance of you as a person raising a family and living a life it's not a system that could be treat people as disposable when capitalism does that to its employees it's not that different from what masters did in the way they treated their slaves as another working animal it's an important lesson thank you very much for being with us and I look forward to being with you again next week

  1. Capitalism follows the mantra of Clint Eastwood – deserve ain't got nothing to do with it 🙁

  2. Since the union, which is a good thing, will have several unexpected consequences I thought this might paint a picture.

    1) exotic dancers will not likely enjoy the term "Stripper"  which  reduces their artistic effort to that of simply undressing. A group of individuals engaged in such employment will have their own notion of how good they are when viewed against the backdrop of individuals pursuing  employment on the stage. Since Socialist notions of fairness and equality blurs the  criteria that allow one person to "demand" a fee that reflects his or her physical and  sensual talents.

    2) Those of us who have frequented such establishments understand the nuances  of the trade and may want to give an individual  a monetary appreciation, a tip or gratuity. Again, socialist notions of fairness would see the union claiming a percentage for dues. Like the restauranteur who claims a portion  for the house, much of the tip is redistributed out of fairness. As the dancers see less reward based on individual effort, the show quaulity will faulter

    3) Since you mention GM, it is worth noting how industry evolved to treat outside labor, often termed contractors. For the Company (GM for example) the maintenance department  would make a decision to outside contract a certain job. The company has a good idea how long a job takes to do and how much and what labor specialties are requires. They are not likely to specify certain individuals but rather  request a certain number of mechanics, an electrician, welders and millwrights when needed.
    Any notion of special "people" is lost at the factory owners level, they are drawing on a labor pool. The Contractor knows it is in their own self interest to provide competent people.

    It is evident that in the dancer's case different people will struggle to achieve the status the capitalist "Free Market" provides automatically. The union guarantees fairness but discourages those with more talent since they are doomed to average pay anyway. Raises are based on experience  not ability.
    Unrewarded talent leads to  the much worn "attitude problem" as productivity falls.
    Ken Bowd

  3. Why are you so concerned for the size of the deficit? The deficit being large is a sign that the government is fully investing in the structure of our publicly shred infrastructure, surely such is a good thing as many jobs and incomes can flow from this decision to have a permanently humongous deficit. In the future, AI and software and hardware are going to continue to replace our jobs meaning that the government will need to step in to protect Business from collapse by awarding better incomes to those who no longer support the structure with their waged income! This is the point that seems to be uncomfortable for many to face.

  4. I had actually never heard of fdrs bill of rights before this, he makes a good point about how it would benefit aoc and her cause to address more information about what the original New Deal entailed

  5. It doesnt take long to become an emt. Also, remember that a paramedic is not the same as an emt. paramedics are skilled medical professionals, emts are only semi skilled and do only basic care. Not saying they shouldnt make more, especially paramedics (but also emts), but a firefighter is a much more skilled job than an emt. It's also more dangerous and you need to become an emt to start training as a firefighter which means firefighters are also emts in addition to being firefighters. Paramedics are the most unfairly paid job in the country probably. Also, in the healthcare industry, CNAs and home health aides are grossly underpaid as well and do vital services and require certification, yet make poverty wages despite a growing shortage of them. There's also a massive difference in skill between a new cna/hha and an experienced one yet they do everything they can to not retain them for long and maintain a huge turnover rate.

  6. Paying woman who take care and educate our children indecently low isnpart of the idea of the system. A system that needs traumatized people to batter manipulate control use and abuse them. People cared for by people cared for are not that easy to manipulate, know their worth better, are less interessted in competition and more in colaboration and take less shit. So, it is not at all about not valuing the work of carers of children, it's about making that work of a certain quality and lose other ceirtain qualities

  7. To be fair, my friend who is a firefighter and makes over $100K said "Socialism just doesn't work, it just doesn't."

  8. I just did that i quit my job as engineer because it was not worthy, the salary was too low for the sacrifice, and got a part time instead. Gets less money but you get a life. In turn i live as frugal as possible, which is not good for companies trying to sell shit to me and for capitalism in general.

  9. I'm a Sudanese. Although there are no statistics about the big gap between the poor and the rich but the citizens can see it very clearly in their daily life. But the difference here is that fortune of the rich people originates mainly from corruption ( not production).Corruption of the ruling party members and their allies.The corruption that is protected by the brutality of the security forces and oppressed freedom o the press.

  10. Professor Wolff… exactly on point… people were thrown away, particularly older people… and they said fuck you then… I'm not working. 🙂 I did not work for 8 years myself… I just went back about a year ago…

  11. I strongly disagree with the idea of "right to work" because the word 'work' should be first completely redefined to be even able to talk about what this so called "right" refers to.

    In this sense, all the political parties from far-right to the far-left are concervative because they all believe, first and foremost, in work. There in hides a grave danger: Whatever form the society takes, it will still be bossing of someone over another; so, if socialism also believes first and foremost only in work, and that human value is defined by working in the eyes of the overall logic of the system – shit will hit the fan.

    Therefore, I might ask why not have the right to exist without being forced to do work? “Right to work" only because it seems to be the only way human beings have value in the eyes of the any given, or imagined, social system?

    Work has gained a self-evident positive value even if the work is completely useless to society, or, even when the work is plainly destructive, e.g. poisoning the seas, forests and lakes.

    Why not have the right to have 6 months off every year? Why not the right to get a decent living wage by working only 4-6 hours per day for 4 days of the week? Why not have the right to be able to write a book, learn a sport, paint a painting without the idea of that somehow you have to be linked to whatever work has become to most people this day and age: total embarrassment, waste of unique human existence, cause of nearly all the suffering. . . those who worship work are fools because they worship it for the axiomatic self-value that does not exist.

    So, why not have the right to be without being a slave-to-the-wage?

  12. It's sad to hear that the twisted, inhumane classist mentality of capitalism has influenced even those who fight against that system. Case in point, the discussion about which workers should be paid more and which less. That is playing right into the hands of capitalists, who would rather see us, the workers, at each other's throats than united in the fight against them. Don't ask who should be paid more or less depending on what what they do; ask what each person needs to lead a happy life with food, clothing, healthcare, education, leisure time, etc and give each accordingly. From each according to ability, to each accirding to need. Don't let capitalist values frame our fight.

  13. The stupidly greedy have been hiding their assets in cars like they have been doing in real estate and art for years.
    Charles Koch is a prime offender here, purchasing sometimes very average autos at greatly inflated auction prices simply for the investment opportunity. As a hobbyist, it drives me mad that these cars will be put in a garage to accumulate value, rather than enjoyed.

  14. taking care of kids is a pleasure and parking a car is a chore. That's why a parkster is paid more. David Graeber has discussed this in bullshit jobs

  15. We tax capital less than we tax a person's Labor… Thank you for mentioning that! Considering that income taxes are based on profits and gains, or the excess of value derived from value put in, the labor tax is literally implying that a person's time and labor has no value. If you invest Capital, you will not pay taxes on the Capital you invested, only the gains derived after subtracting that Capital, so Capital has value. If you invest time and labor, you cannot subtract your time and labor from the gains derived because time and labor have no value.

  16. The ruling class are running on fumes and game theory. If they didn't have the military backup, the Statue of Liberty would be flying the Scarlet Banner and there would be a huge picture of Stalin erected on the lawn of the White House, tomorrow. The working class would storm Wall St. and kick all of the money men, liars and thieves into the Hudson. Because they have military skills, the Cubans would be invited in to run the Pentagon. You bet the swamp would be drained…Washington is gone. Instead, the First Nations would be invited in to form a new Government and we could take it from there. Job done. What about the ruling class? Who? Never heard of them!

  17. The truth is that when capitalist sent the manufacturing jobs over seas to become massively wealthy America has never rebounded!! Now it’s time for those same capitalist to pay the price! They need to raise hospitality jobs and retail jobs to a pay level to compensate that lost!! The government is not gonna make them do this. So the question is , who and how are we gonna get that done?? Because if we don’t the current level of inequality will destroy the system as we know it!

  18. Wolff claims the board of directors of GM "deprived half a million workers of their jobs". What really killed a halfmillion GM jobs was the UAW union, which after the world recovered from WWII, refused to produce cars that could compete with the quality of the vehicles made by the Germans, Japanese and Koreans, so Americans quit buying GM cars.

  19. FDR only did it what he did because of socialist and communist pressure. Fast forward to the fifties Mccarthy witch hunts of the left. Revenge?

  20. Employees who feel their employer is "cheating" (underpaying) them have an obligation to offer their time and talent to other employers, OR, to go into business for themselves. If those options do not increase their incomes, then they were NOT beiang "cheated", right?

  21. I wish the show was longer and the guest could of got more into Universal Guarantee Income.

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