Communist Party of India (Maoist)

The Communist Party of India is a Maoist
insurgent communist party in India which aims to overthrow the government of
India through people’s war. It was founded on 21 September 2004, through
the merger of the Communist Party of India People’s War, and the Maoist
Communist Centre of India. The merger was announced on 14 October the same
year. In the merger a provisional central committee was constituted, with
the erstwhile People’s War Group leader Muppala Lakshmana Rao, alias
“Ganapathi”, as general secretary. Further on the occasion of May Day 2014,
the Communist Party of India Naxalbari merged with the CPI and formed a single
party, CPI. The CPI are often referred to as the Naxalites in reference to the
Naxalbari insurrection conducted by radical Maoists in West Bengal in 1967.
In 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh referred to the Naxalites as “the single
biggest internal security challenge” for India, and said that the “deprived and
alienated sections of the population” forms the backbone of the Maoist
movement in India. The government officials have declared that, in 2013,
76 districts in the country were affected by “left wing extremism”, with
another 106 districts in ideological influence.
Ideology The CPI believes that the Indian state
is being “run by a collaboration of imperialists, the comprador bourgeoisie
and feudal lords.” According to the South Asia Terrorism Portal, the two
factions of the Party adhered to differing strands of communism prior to
their 2004 merger, although “both organizations shared their belief in the
‘annihilation of class enemies’ and in extreme violence as a means to secure
organizational goals.” The People’s War Group maintained a Marxist-Leninist
stance, while the Maoist Communist Centre of India took a Maoist stance.
After the merger, the PWG secretary of Andhra Pradesh announced that the newly
formed CPI-Maoist would follow Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its
“ideological basis guiding its thinking in all spheres of its activities.”
Included in this ideology is a commitment to “protracted armed
struggle” to undermine and to seize power from the state. On May Day 2014,
Ganapathy and Ajith Naxalbari) also issued a joint statement stating that
“the unified party would [continue to] take Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its
guiding ideology.” The ideology of the party is contained
in a “Party Programme.” In the document, the Maoists denounce globalisation as a
war on the people by market fundamentalists and the caste system as
a form of social oppression. The CPI claim that they are conducting a
“people’s war”, a strategic approach developed by Mao Zedong during the
guerrilla warfare phase of the Communist Party of China. Their eventual objective
is to install a “people’s government” via a New Democratic Revolution.
=Draft document and Party Constitution=The present draft document has been
finalised by Joint CC of the erstwhile CPI[PW] and the MCCI in September 2004
after extensive discussions. Five draft documents were prepared after intense
discussions in a series of bilateral meetings held between the high-level
delegations of the two erstwhile parties between February 2003 and September
2004. The Joint CC meeting deeply studied these five draft documents,
freely exchanged the rich experiences acquired through the revolutionary
practice during the past three decades and more, and arrived at a common
understanding on several vexed questions confronting the Indian revolution in the
backdrop of the international developments.
The present document – Party Constitution – is the synthesis of all
the positive points in the documents of the two erstwhile parties, as well as
their experiences in the course of waging the people’s war, fighting
against revisionism, and right and left opportunist trends in the Indian and
international communist movement, and building a stable and consistent
revolutionary movement in various parts of the country.
Views on Islamic upsurge Vinod Anand says that the CPI views
Islamic upsurge as a struggle towards national liberation against imperialism,
rather than as a clash of civilisations, and he claims that in the past, some of
the party members have described it as “a progressive anti-imperialist force in
the contemporary world.” Kishenji said, “The Islamic upsurge should not be
opposed as it is basically anti-US and anti-imperialist in nature. We,
therefore, want it to grow”. In the words of Ganapathy:
“Our party supports the struggle of Muslim countries and people against
imperialism, while criticising and struggling against the reactionary
ideology and social outlook of Muslim fundamentalism. It is only Maoist
leadership that can provide correct anti-imperialist orientation and achieve
class unity among Muslims as well as people of other religious persuasions.
The influence of Muslim fundamentalist ideology and leadership will diminish as
communist revolutionaries and other democratic-secular forces increase their
ideological influence over the Muslim masses. As communist revolutionaries, we
always strive to reduce the influence of the obscurantist reactionary ideology
and outlook of the mullahs and maulvis on the Muslim masses, while uniting with
all those fighting against the common enemy of the world people – that is,
imperialism, particularly American imperialism.”
Location They claim to be fighting for the rights
of the tribes in the forest belt around central India in the states of
Chattisgharh, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharastra, and West Bengal. Currently,
the Party has a presence in remote regions of Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh,
as well as in Bihar and the tribal-dominated areas in the
borderlands of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Odisha.
The CPI aims to consolidate its power in this area and establish a Compact
Revolutionary Zone from which to advance the people’s war in other parts of
India. A 2005 Frontline cover story called the Bhamragad Taluka, where the
Madia Gond Adivasis live, the heart of the Naxalite-affected region in
Maharashtra. Recently, the Indian government has claimed that in 2013,
Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi,
Gujarat, Haryana, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab,
Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal were in
[ideological] “influence” of what it term as “Left Wing Extremism”; while
claiming that armed activity by the “Left Wing” extremists was noticed in
Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala,
Maharashtra, Odisha and West Bengal. Organisation
The current General Secretary of CPI is Muppala Lakshmana Rao, who uses the
alias “Ganapathy”. The party hierarchy consists of the Regional Bureaus, which
look after two or three states each, the State Committees, the Zonal Committees,
the District Committees, and the “dalams”. Jan Myrdal notes that the CPI
also organises events like “The Leadership Training Programme”, as a
measure to outlive the fierce offence by the State.
=Politburo=The highest decision making body of the
CPI is the Politburo, with thirteen or fourteen members, six of whom were
killed or arrested between 2007 and 2010. Prashant Bose alias “Kishan-da”
and Katakam Sudarshan alias Anand, are the two most prominent Politburo members
of CPI. Sudhakar alias “Kiran” is another Politburo member of CPI.
Shamsher Singh Sheri alias Karam Singh, who died of Cerebral Malaria-Jaundice on
30 October 2005, was also the party’s Politburo member. Between 2005 to 2011,
the State captured several Politburo members of the party, which includes –
Sushil Roy, Narayan Sanyal, Pramod Mishra, Amitabh Bagchi, Kobad Ghandy,
Baccha Prasad Singh and Akhilesh Yadav. Ashutosh Tudu and Anuj Thakur are
another two of the arrested Politburo members of the party. Among those
assassinated, Cherukuri Rajkumar alias “Azad” and Mallojula Koteswara Rao alias
“Kishenji”, were the two momentous members of the CPI’s Politburo.
=Central Committee=The Central Committee of the CPI takes
command from the Politburo and passes on the information to its members, and has
32 members. During an interview in 2010, Anand told media personnels that out of
the 45 members of the Central Committee of CPI, 8 has been arrested and 22 has
been killed by the agencies of the Indian government. Anuradha Ghandy, who
died on 12 April 2008, was an eminent member of CPI’s Central Committee.
Kadari Satyanarayan Reddy alias “Kosa”, Thippiri Tirupathi alias “Devuji” and
Mallojula Venugopal alias “Bhupati” are another three cadres and Central
Committee members of the party. As of 22 September 2011, nine of the Central
Committee members were jailed, which includes – Moti Lal Soren, Vishnu,
Varanasi Subramanyam, Shobha, Jhantu Mukherjee, Vijay Kumar Arya. One more
Central Committee member, Ravi Sharma, was also captured later. Chandramouli,
Patel Sudhakar Reddy and Narmada Akka, who were killed by armed forces, were
another Central Committee members of the party.
=Publication division=The CPI has a “publication division”.
Besides volunteering as a Politburo member of the party, Sudhakar alias
“Kiran” also works for its publication division.
=Military Commissions=The Central Military Commission is the
main armed body of the CPI, and it is constructed by its Central Committee. In
addition to the CMC, the party has also raised state military commissions. The
CMC is headed by Nambala Keshava Rao alias Basavaraj. Anand and Arvindji are
another two members of the organisation’s CMC. Anuj Thakur is an
arrested member of the CMC of the party. Kishenji and Chandramouli were also the
members of the CPI’s CMC.=Estimated strength=
The military wings of the founding organisations, the People’s Liberation
Guerrilla Army and the People’s Guerrilla Army, also underwent a merger.
The name of the unified military organisation is the People’s Liberation
Guerrilla Army, and it is grouped into three sections — the Basic, the
Secondary and the Main squad. All the PLGA members are volunteers and they do
not receive any wages. During his stay in the guerrilla zones, Jan Myrdal noted
that the female cadres of CPI constituted about 40% of its PLGA, and
held numerous “command positions”; but currently, the female members comprises
60% of the Maoist cadres, and women commanders heads 20 of the 27 divisions
of the guerrilla zones. P.V. Ramana, of the Observer Research
Foundation in Delhi, estimates the Naxilities’ current strength at
9,000–10,000 armed fighters, with access to about 6,500 firearms. The analyses,
as of September 2013, suggested that the estimated number of PLGA members has
decreased from 10,000 − 12,000 to 8,000 − 9,000. But, Gautam Navlakha has
suggested that the PLGA has strengthened over the past few years, and has
mustered 12 companies and over 25 platoons and a supply platoon in 2013 as
compared to 8 companies and 13 platoons of 2008. The People’s Militia which is
armed with bows, arrows, and machetesis and is believed to logistically assist
the PLGA is estimated to be around 38,000.
=Medical units=The Maoists had structured “medical
units” in the villages of Bastar, and the CPI operates “mobile medical units.”
Rahul Pandita writes: “In the field of health as well, the
Maoists often fill in large gaps left by the state. Their mobile medical units
cover large distances to offer primary health care to tribals…. Various
training camps are held regularly on preventive measures against diseases
such as diarrhoea or malaria. The grass-root doctors in the medical squads
can administer vaccines, identify a number of diseases through symptoms, and
treat injuries that are not severe. Some can even conduct simple blood tests to
arrive at a diagnosis. This is a significant advantage in such areas.”
Furthermore, the CPI’s medical services squads also move from village to village
and provides “basic medical training” to selected young tribal people which
enables them to identify frequently occurring diseases through their
presages so that they can also distribute vaccines to the patients.
=Frontal organisations=The frontal organisations of the party
include the Radical Youth League, Rythu Coolie Sangham, Radical Students Union,
Singareni Karmika Samakya, Viplava Karmika Samakhya and All India
Revolutionary Students Federation, Krantikari Adivasi Mahila Sangathan, and
Chetna Natya Manch. Strategy
=Governance tactics=The “organising principles” of the
Maoists are sketched-out from the Chinese revolution and the Vietnam War.
The CPI has organised Dandakaranya into ten divisions, each comprising three
area committees; and every Area Committee is composed of several
Janatana Sarkars. The party says that a Janatana Sarkar is established by the
election procedure involving a group of villages, and has nine departments —
agriculture, trade and industry, economic, justice, defense, health,
public relations, education and culture, and jungle. The Janatana Sarkar provides
education up to primary level in the subjects of mathematics, social science,
politics, and Hindi, in the “camp schools” using the textbooks published
by the party in Gondi. They also use DVDs to educate the children in the
streams of science and history. In their efforts to intimidate their
political adversaries and consolidate control, the Naxalites tax local
villagers, extort businesses, abduct and kill “class enemies” such as government
officials and police officers, and regulate the flow of aid and goods. To
help fill their ranks, the Maoists force each family under their domain to supply
one family member, and threaten those who resist with violence.
The organisation has been holding “Public Courts”, which have been
described as kangaroo courts, against their opponents. These “courts” function
in the areas under de facto Maoist control. The Maoists have also taken
care to demolish government institutions under their de facto jurisdiction. They
have been allegedly involved in several cases of blowing up schools and railway
tracks, and accused of keeping the areas under their control away from modernity
and development, typically the uneducated rural populace.
=Military strategies and tactics=The CPI rejects “engagement” with what
it terms as the “prevailing bourgeois democracy” and focuses on capturing
political power through protracted armed struggle based on guerrilla warfare.
This strategy entails building up bases in rural and remote areas and
transforming them first into guerrilla zones, and then into “liberated zones”,
in addition to encircling cities. The military hardware used by Maoists,
as indicated through a number of seizures, include RDX cable wires,
gelignite sticks, detonators, country-made weapons, INSAS rifles,
AK-47s, SLRs, and improvised explosive devices. The Maoists condemn the
accusations that they manage arms through China, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
On the subject, Ganapathy says, “Our weapons are mainly country-made. All the
modern weapons we have are mainly seized from the government armed forces when we
attack them.” The CPI’s General Secretary says that
the they keep on appealing to the “lower-level personnel” in the
paramilitary and police forces not to attack them, but rather “join hands with
the masses” and “consciously” point their guns towards whom the Maoists view
as “real enemies.” They further claims that “only when the government forces
come to attack us [Maoists] carrying guns do we attack them in self-defence.”
In Jharkhand, the police have also clutched posters from various places
which read, “Policemen keep away from the green hunt and try to be friends of
poor. Police jawan, do not obey orders of the senior officials, instead join
the people’s army.” Funding
Some sources claims that the funding for the Maoists comes from abductions,
extortion and by setting up unofficial administrations to collect taxes in
rural areas where official government appears absent. Poppy cultivation is
another major source of funding for Maoists in the Ghagra area of Gumla
district in Jharkhand and in parts of Gumla, Kishanganj and Purnia districts
in Bihar. Naxalites have been charged by the government with running an extortion
economy in the guise of a popular revolution, extorting vast amounts of
money from local branches of mining companies and other businesses. Security
forces claim that opium fields are hidden among maize crops. Reports from
Debagarh district in Odisha indicate that the Naxals also support hemp
cultivation to help fund their activities. According to a 2008 report
titled ‘Naxalite scenario in Jharkhand State’ prepared by the Jharkhand Police,
Maoists were using illegal mining as a tool to fund their campaign. At that
time, Maoists were involved in illegal mining in 18 districts.
Ganapathy has rejected these claims as false accusations, stating that “Maoists
were fighting hard to keep mining companies out of areas under Maoist
control and that the party mainly collects donations from the people and
funds from the traders in our guerrilla zones… [We] also collect rational levy
from contractors who take up various works in our areas.”
Legal status The party is regarded as a “left-wing
extremist entity” and a terrorist outfit by the Indian government. Several of
their members have been arrested under the now-defunct Prevention of Terrorist
Activities Act. The group is officially banned by the state governments of
Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh, among others. The party has
protested these bans. The Indian government, led by the United
Progressive Alliance, banned the CPI under the Unlawful Activities Act as a
terrorist organisation on 22 June 2009. On 22 June 2009, the central home
ministry, keeping in mind the growing unlawful activities by the group, banned
it under the Unlawful Activities Act. Earlier, the union home minister, P.
Chidambaram had asked the West Bengal Chief Minister, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee,
to ban the Maoists following the Lalgarh Violence. Maoist Communist Centre and
all its formations and front organisations have been banned by the
Government of India. Following the ban, the Maoists are
liable for arrest under the UAPA. After the ban, they are barred from holding
rallies, public meetings and demonstrations, and their offices, if
any, will be sealed and their bank accounts frozen.
The Party is regarded as a serious security threat and the Indian
government is taking countermeasures, pulling the affected states together to
co-ordinate their response. It says it will combine improved policing with
socio-economic measures to defuse grievances that fuel the Maoist cause.
In 2005, Chhattisgarh State sponsored an anti-Maoist movement called the Salwa
Judum. The group, which the BBC alleges is “government backed”, an allegation
rejected by the Indian government has come under criticism for “perpetrating
atrocities and abuse against women”, using child soldiers, burning people
alive, and the looting of property and destruction of homes. These allegations
were rejected by a fact-finding commission of the National Human Rights
Commission of India, appointed by the Supreme Court of India, who determined
that the Salwa Judum was a spontaneous reaction by tribes against Maoist
atrocities perpetrated against them. The camps are guarded by police officers,
paramilitary forces and child soldiers empowered with the official title
“special police officer”. However, on 5 July 2011, the Supreme Court of India
declared the Salwa Judum as illegal and unconstitutional. The court directed the
Chhattisgarh government to recover all the firearms given to the militia along
with the ammunition and accessories. It also ordered the government to
investigate all instances of alleged criminal activities of Salwa Judum. But,
the state government did not abide by the Supreme Court’s decision. In August
2013, the Supreme Court of India asked the state government to explain that
“why its failure to execute the July 2011 order of disbanding the SPOs not
considered as contempt of court.” International connections
The CPI maintains dialogue with the Communist Party of Nepal who control
most of Nepal in the Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and
Organizations of South Asia, according to several intelligence sources and
think tanks. These links are, however, denied by the Communist Party of Nepal
While under detention in June 2009, a suspected Lashkar-e-Taiba operative
indicated that the LeT and the CPI had attempted to co-ordinate activities in
Jharkhand state. But, Ganapathy has denied any links between CPI and LeT,
stating that the allegations are “only mischievous, calculated propaganda by
the police officials, bureaucrats and leaders of the reactionary political
parties” to malign the Maoists’ image with the aim of labeling them as
terrorists in order to justify “their brutal terror campaign against Maoists
and the people in the areas of armed agrarian struggle.” Kishenji also
criticised LeT for having “wrong” and “anti-people” policies; though he said
that the Maoists may consider backing up a few of their demands, if LeT will halt
its “terrorist acts”. Reports in 2010 indicate that the
Communist Party of the Philippines, Southeast Asia’s longest-lived communist
insurgent group, has been reported to have engaged in training activities for
guerrilla warfare with Indian Maoists. The Indian Maoists deny operational
links with foreign groups, such as the Nepalese Maoists, but do claim
comradeship. Some members of the Indian government accept this, while others
argue that operational links do exist, with training coming from Sri-Lankan
Maoists and small arms from China. China denies, and is embarrassed by, any
suggestion that it supports foreign Maoist rebels, citing improvements in
relations between India and China, including movement towards resolving
their border disputes. Maoists in Nepal, India, and the Philippines are less
reticent about their shared goals. Indian Government’s paramilitary
offensive against the CPI The “all-out offensive” by the
Government of India’s paramilitary forces and the state’s forces against
the CPI is termed by the Indian media as the “Operation Green Hunt”. According to
the Daily Mail, by July 2012, the Indian government had already deployed about
100,000 paramilitary personnel in its anti-Maoist operations from the Central
Reserve Police Force, Border Security Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police,
Commando Battalion for Resolute Action, and it is further considering to “clone”
new forces on the likes of Andhra Pradesh’s Greyhounds and induce them in
the ongoing operations against the Maoists in five other states –
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Maharashtra and Orissa. On 3 January
2013, the government of India issued a statement that it is deploying 10,000
more central paramilitary personnel in Bastar, Odisha and some parts of
Jharkhand. On 8 June 2014, the Minister of Home Affairs officially approved the
deployment of another 10,000 troops from the paramilitary forces to fight against
the Maoists in Chhattisgarh. The count of personnel from State Armed Police
Forces involved in counter-Maoism operations in the Red corridor is
estimated to number around 200,000. Along with firearms, the armed forces’
personnel use satellite phones, unmanned aerial vehicles and Air Force
helicopters. In 2011, the Indian Army while denying
its direct role in the offensive operations accepted that it has been
training the paramilitary personnel to fight against the Maoists, however, the
Maoists have objected to the Army’s stationing in the Red corridor. On 30
May 2013, the Indian Air Force’s Air Chief Marshal declared that apart from
the currently operating MI-17 helicopters, the Indian Force has
decided to induce a unit of MI-17V5 helicopters to “provide full support to
anti-Naxal operations.” Recently in August 2014, the Ministry of Home
Affairs has stated that it is “sending” 2,000 personnel from the Naga Battalions
of the Nagaland’s Indian Reserve Battalions to attack the Maoists in
Bastar. Notable ambushes
On 15 February 2010, several of the guerrilla commanders of CPI, all of whom
are believed to be female, killed 24 personnel of the Eastern Frontier Rifles
at Silda in West Bengal. The attack was directed by Kishenji, and after the
Naxalites’ raid at the paramilitary camp, Kishenji addressed the news media
saying, “We have not started it and we will not stop it first. Let us see
whether the central government is honest about a solution and we will definitely
co–operate…. This is the answer to Chidambaram’s ‘Operation Green Hunt’ and
unless the Centre stop this inhuman military operation, we are going to
answer the Centre this way only.” On 6 April 2010, the Maoists ambushed
and killed 75 paramilitary personnel who felled out to the trap laid by the
lurking Maoists. The CPI described the incident as a “direct consequence” of
the Operation Green Hunt stating that “We have been surrounded by paramilitary
battalions. They are setting fire to the forests and making adivasis flee. In
this situation, we have no other alternative.”
On 25 May 2013, the CPI ambushed a convoy of the Indian National Congress
at Bastar, and killed 27 people including Mahendra Karma, Nand Kumar
Patel and Vidya Charan Shukla. While regretting the death of a few “innocent
Congress [INC] functionaries” during the incident, they hold the Bharatiya Janata
Party and Indian National Congress’ policies which they view as
“anti-people” in nature, as directly responsible for the attack. Later, 14
Maoist who had allegedly participated in the ambush were gunned down in Odisha by
the Special Operation Group with the assistance of Border Security Force.
See also References
External links Interview:
An exclusive interview to The Hindu by Azad, spokesperson of the Communist
Party of India, The Hindu Interview With Comrade Ganapathy,
General Secretary, CPI given to Swedish writer Jan Myrdal and Gautam Navlakha,
January 2010 The French journalist, Vanessa’s
conversation with Narmada and several other Comrades, OPEN
Documentary: What is daily life inside a Maoist
forest hideout like? — BBC India’s Red Tide — SBS Dateline
Other: International Campaign Against War on
the People in India Are We The Enemy You Fear?, Tehelka
The heart of India is under attack, The Guardian

  1. Where is their original Youtube channel or website???
    Also from the other Party … Can somebody give an introduction about current communist movement please? …please from a communist point of view. Capitalist view spam is well known already 😉

  2. Die all you Communist cockroaches !!!
    Today 22 Maoists die, You idiots cant do anything !!! Maoists are just a bunch of pussies !!!

  3. Vote Share of entire LEFT FRONT was 0.1% in UP elections in 2017. LOL. . . Communists are joke. . fuck you bastards

  4. You can actually watch every single day reports about ambushes and clashes between Maoists cells and the gov security forces and police while patrolling areas.
    The Maoist is the veiolent branch of the Comunist party in India and is a very organised insurgency and terrorist oragnisation spreaded throughout Indian territories. In fact is similar to the guerrilas as seen in VIetnam and other places in the past. The anti-imperialist dicourses among the society are also present posing a possible danger for a potential civil war or a partition in India´s territory.
    In the case of a global crisis, the Maoist in India would probably stand as a strong guerrilla movement.

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