"Communism and Ecology"



okay thanks the struggle for human emancipation in the Anthropocene is the geologic epoch distinguished by the impact of civilization on the National Environment is inextricably bound up with the project of establishing an epic Alex Aryan and ecologically sustainable economic order namely communism in seeking to understand the evolution of human society and the possibility of realizing this new order marks developed the materialist conception of history marks did not engage in a moralistic denunciation of exploitation and Human Bondage in the abstract oppression is as old as class divided society itself and its historical origins have been addressed by theologians and idealist philosophers but until marks no one was able to explain the material and social foundations for the appearance persistence and disappearance of eventual disappearance of class divisions now key to the materialist conception of history and the practical project of transcending class society is the concept of the forces of production in the German ideology Marx and Engels observed that humanity at a certain stage in its evolution begins to produce its means of subsistence other animals of course due to this do this to a limited extent but production has fundamentally shaped our species production is essentially the transformation of natural objects by human activity into useful things what we call use values or wealth as such it can be considered a process of material exchange or conversion occurring within nature momentum is generated in the first instance through the dialectical antagonism between the two sides of the exchange namely humanity and the rest of nature now in his useful albeit flawed book Marx's ecology John Bellamy Foster correctly stresses this centrality of this concept of material exchange the foster refers to it as the human nature metabolism and he stresses that it's central to Marx's materialism insights Marx's important observation and capital that quote labor is first of all a process between man and nature a process by which man through his own actions mediates regulates and controls the metabolism between himself and nature now this metabolic conversion of matter by human labor requires means of production combined with technique labor power and forms of organization these means production are the basis of Marx's concept of the productive forces that is human capacities to transform nature the speed efficiency form and purpose of this metabolic conversion as well as its ultimate sustainability are dependent upon a complex interplay of the forces and social relations of production that together constitute historically distinct modes of production the history of the progress of human civilization Marx argued in 1859 can be traced in the development of these forces of production through successive modes of production primitive communism which was humanity's initial mode of production was essentially a gala tarian in structure and its distribution of social wealth but of course this was an equality of poverty because the primitive productive forces yielded little more than basic subsistence in humans therefore remained hostage to the vagaries of nature now while the causes of the transition to class society remain obscure it is clear that the material foundation of class divisions and with them the attendant gender inequality and other forms of servitude was the development of these forces of productive forces of production to the point that it was possible for a tiny privileged layer of society to exist without directly participating in production what we call a ruling class henceforth henceforth the drive to enhance labor productivity or to increase the efficiency of this human nature metabolism was mediated by non agallah Terry and social relations beyond the need to master the forces of nature to protect the community from predators and other dangers a new social imperative was developed a new source story a new social imperative to develop the forces of production had also been introduced in so far as this ruling stratum sought to increase its wealth at the expense of the laboring majority or the direct producers of wealth while the social imperative was deforming and frequently counterproductive the historically changing class-based logic of surplus appropriation nonetheless led to progressive if nonlinear augmentation of human capacities through what Marx described as the Asiatic ancient feudal and modern bourgeois modes production capitalism more than any previous class divided mode of production has enormously accelerated the development of the material forces of production but of course it has done so not to expend wealth the quantities of use-values but in order to maximize profit with complete disregard for wealth including the natural environment foster following marks argues that the logic of capitalism which is essentially an Arctic and led by blind economic forces that operate behind the backs of human beings is detached from the material human world on which it ultimately rests leading to what he calls metabolic or each of ecological riffs through the same social process the marks described as the self alienation of labour capitalism has taken alienation exploitation and inequality to unprecedented Heights while providing humanity at the same time for the with while at the same time providing humanity for the first time with the possibility of eliminating these scourges through a fundamental reorganization of the social relations of production in Marx's were words capitalism has created the material conditions for the solution of social antagonisms while widening ecological risks and extremely dangerous extent and thereby imperiling the very foundations of human existence capitalism has also created the material conditions but the material conditions to repair those risks if bourgeois society can be eliminated before it destroys the environmental preconditions for human life on earth no Marxism provides a guide for the historical transformation of society through struggling for changes that both initiate the transition to communism as well as anticipate its early stages in his critique of the Gothic program mark brilliantly sketches a transitional period between capitalism and the lower phase of communism what Lenin another characterized as socialism during which society will be will still be quote economically morally and intellectually stamped with the birth marks of the old society from whose womb it emerges end quote nevertheless the collective ownership of the means of production would represent a fundamental transformation in the economic economic foundations of society vastly enhancing humanity's capacity to control nature capitalism is enormously wasteful and all the more so in the a talk if its decline with an increasing proportion of human activity devoted to financial speculation marketing military expenditures and other irrational overhead costs of the free market the reorganisation of economic activity on the basis of a rational plan would immediately increase efficiency reduce waste and dramatically improve the lives and tap into the energy and ability of literally billions of human beings for whom capitalism has consigned to hopeless poverty and privation Marx projected that the continuing development of the socialist mode of production would ultimately result in communism that is a classless and stateless order in which society will inscribe on expanders from each according to his ability to each according to his needs yet as martes explains in the critique of the Gotham program this will only happen quote after the productive forces have also increased with the all-round development of the individual and all the springs of Commonwealth flow more abundantly end quote the further growth of the productive forces is required to establish a material basis for the transition to communism in the German ideology Marx and Engels explained that to transcend alienation and class society the quote development of the productive forces is an absolutely necessary practical premise because without it want is merely generalized and with destitution the struggle for necessities and all the old filthy business would necessarily be reproduced and many self-styled Marxist including foster advocate a steady-state economy and some even echo petty bourgeois environmentalist calls for d growth we believe that these perspectives are apprenticed on the notion that the ecological destruction wrought by capitalism is a product of growth per se rather than the consequence of the pursuit of profit maximization and the anarchic character of capitalism itself like so like foster many socialist groups tailor their treatment of sustainable development to the anti technological and anti-growth prejudices of the green activists that they seek to recruit capitalism has of course developed the productive forces without regard for ensuring the well-being of our species and its ability to coexist with the natural environment but even some of the more dangerous technologies and practices such as nuclear fission might be adapted to contribute to humane sustainable development in a rationally planned economy in which the associated producers factor in the environmental effects of particular technologies into their decision-making anti-growth advocates generally just simply reject the expansion of productive capacity on essentially moral grounds some environmentalists even favor return to more primitive economic models and propose that the population of the advanced capitalist countries lower their standard of living those in the developing world should curb their expectations such notions are both reactionary and utopian and have nothing in common with Marxism which holds that only through the further development of the productive forces will it be possible to eliminate classical contradictions and the unregulated destructive interaction of humanity in nature in his economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844 Marx described communism as quote the genuine resolution of the conflict between man and nature between man and man the true resolution of the strife between existence in essence between objectification and self confirmation between freedom and necessity between the individual and the species communism is the riddle of history salt and it knows itself to be the solution now the historical agency for this communist transformation is the proletariat a class with radical chains in order to liberate itself from these chains however Marx observed that the working class has no choice but to collectivize private property and reorder the relations of production in a gala terian and democratic manner insofar as there is an identity between communism and environmentally sustainable development a political project capable of effectively addressing ecological crises must habits as it's cool the seizure of power by the working class and the imposition of what Marx called the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat yet many present-day admirers of marx and virtually all green activists view this perspective as hopefully naive I've dated and in some cases dangerous well more Pro working-class environmentalists sometimes before hazy calls for labor to take up the cause of sustainable growth others are simply indifferent or even hostile toward working people who they view as myopic conspicuous consumers only interested in maintaining the polluting factories mines and refineries in which they were what is necessary is an approach that links the strategies of a redressing environment crises and the growth of social inequality on the one hand with a perspective of the socialist reorganization of society on the other this of course requires organization a revolutionary party capable of leading the working class and other oppressed layers to fight for state power building such a party must enter on winning mass support for a revolutionary program that is a set of demands that constitute a basis of practical struggle to guide the spontaneous movements of the workers and oppressed in the direction of while returning the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and creating a new type of state based on the democratic working-class institutions it has to be acknowledged that with very few exceptions even the best exponents of the Marxist tradition have paid relatively scant attention to environmental problems in recent years the scope of ecological catastrophe has become obvious with unambiguous consensus within the scientific community on the implicit implications of anthropogenic climate change yet some self-described Marxist continue to downplay the dangers out of a mrs. misguided desire not to adapt politically to petty bourgeois environmentalism however unlike mainstream climate activists Marxist reject the idea that capitalism can be incrementally transformed into an eco-friendly system this is not to say the revolutionary should be indifferent to particular instances of ecological degradation of course it is necessary to give you actively involved in struggles to resist corporate destruction of the environment yet the chief responsibility of Marxists we believe is the attempt to popularize the understanding that such destruction is only a manifestation of the profound irrationality of the capitalist mode of production the necessity of the revolutionary transformation of society through working-class revolution has never been more urgent Marxism offers the only realistic chance our species has for survival because in the end it problems of human freedom and sustainable economic development are inseparably intertwined both require the expropriation of the exploit expropriate earth and the creation of a rationally plan socialist economy on a world scale so think about questions




Comments
  1. Defense of science must be rationally based. Marx, Engels, and Lenin were prudent when dealing with the scientific questions of their day. Some contemporary vulgar Marxists (Robertson's Spartacist League, for example) reject the warnings of bad official science as an attack on the Industrial Revolution and Historical Materialism. The neo-Malthusians who back the Anthropogenic Global Warming Hoax reject the work of thousands of respected meteorologists, geologists, and astrophysicists in order to defend a modern scientific orthodoxy based on bourgeois government support. These official scientists are responsible for UN programs that push pre-industrial technology on the underdeveloped countries. The bourgeois élites are fearful of advances in technology and would like to put the breaks on the Industrial Revolution because its advance magnifies the contradictions inherent in capitalism and gives the working class new means to communicate and solidarize with their class brothers and sisters internationally. Hitler's Nazi movement had a "Green" wing, see:
    http://spitfirelist.com/for-the-record/ftr-628-its-not-easy-being-green-nazi-infiltration-and-co-option-of-the-green-party/

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