Let”s talk about where you think morality comes from. So, in the religious view, obviously there are certain things that I believe are capable of understanding by any sentient human being. I don’t believe all human beings in the absence of religion are immoral people who go around murdering their neighbors and raping their sisters. I think that I think that — and, in fact, this is pretty well-embedded in Judaic philosophy the idea that there is this sort of natural law theology, where you, as just a normal person, know not to kill people, and know not to steal, and know to set up courts of law. This is what they call the seven commandments to Noah, but the idea is that anyone can basically discover these things. And there are universals across culture about you’re not supposed to murder your brother. But, the, the biblical reading is that to reach a more sophisticated level of morality that leads to a sort of right- based society we see here, you at least need the, the catalyzing enzyme of, of, a Judeo-Christian religion in order to get here. That would, I think, be the most rationalistic argument on behalf of Judeo-Christian values But, where is “here” again? Uh, “here” would be a civilization that values individual rights above the values of the collective. Uh, that says that people ought to be treated, to use the biblical phrase, as made in the image of God, that we should treat individuals as made in the image of God. That does not happen in the absence of a Judeo-Christian value system That’s the religious argument. Uh, so… Although, that is more of a historical argument. Right. That’s what I’m saying. It’s a rationalistic argument. Because the, the deeply religious argument would be “God said so, so do it.” Right? But that’s not the argument that I think is the most compelling, because that only works if you believe in God and if you believe in revelation. So that’s not the argument I tend to make because I don’t find it intellectually convincing. It’s an argument from authority, which of course, is not particularly convincing. So I tend to make the historical argument, which is that history brought us to… that, that The reason we are at this point in history is because without that particular catalyzing enzyme, You don’t get what you have here, which is why the west, and western civilization crop up in a Judeo-Christian system, but don’t crop up in for example, Islamic countries and Islam’s been around for a thousand years. So, number one, what do you make of that argument? And then, I want to get into where you think morality comes from. Right. Well, a few points. One, I’m not convinced by that historical argument. I think you can cherry-pick the data either way, and come up with a different conclusion. And, the… Even if I agreed with it, it wouldn’t make the case I think you’d want to make. Because it, it’d be an instance of what’s called the genetic fallacy, which is: If we… Even if we granted that our respect for individual rights, say, came from a Judeo-Christian tradition, it doesn’t mean that it can only come from there, or that it even is best gotten from there. Um, and I would say that it actually hasn’t come principally from there. So, for instance, you could say that Christianity in particular, was responsible for, or in part responsible for the fall of the Roman Empire. Right? So, Christianity undermined the notion that the Roman Emperor was a god. You know, it made it harder to recruit true soldiers, and they had to farm it out to mercenaries, And, you know, it eroded, you know, what you might call “traditional Roman values.” And, then, the Western Empire fell, and, you know, we ushered in the dark ages Um, and, insofar as there was a reboot to civilization at that point He was large at the results of classical learning and phylosophical in sight of the antiquity in preserve by all the people and Islam avoid So I think you can have it any way you want to look at the history but it doesn’t get you there in terms of the moral content in this case: political or social content coming from the Bible or any other religious text.
-So, then why here? Meaning in Judeo-Cristian religion or civilization but not Islamic civilization because you mention we discover very style in XII and XI centuries was really beginning in the islamic world before