Animalities: The Personhood of Bison


HELLO, WELCOME EVERYONE. HOW ABOUT ANOTHER HAND FOR EDUARDO COSTA. MY NAME IS JOHN PAUL JONES, DON BENNETT MOON DEAN OF SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES, WELCOME BACK FOR OUR SECOND IN FOUR-WEEK INSTALLMENT OF ANIMALITIES, TONIGHT’S SPEAKER LOVES DOGS BUT STUDIES BISON. AND MY BOLO TIE AND BOOTS ARE HOMAGE, NOT IRONY. BEFORE I INTRODUCE HER, I WANT TO SAY A SPECIAL THANKS TO OUR TITLE SPONSORS, MIKE AND BETH CASSER, AND OUR SBS MEMBERS, THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR SUPPORTING THIS. ALSO OUR GREAT CREW, SUPPORTING SPONSORS, BEHIND THE CURTAIN HERE AND LIVE STREAMING ALL OVER THE WORLD, AZPM AND IN ABOUT, 4 TO 36 HOURS AFTER TONIGHT’S EVENT, ANYONE CAN GO BACK AND WATCH TONIGHT’S LECTURE. THANK YOU, AZPM. AND OUR COMMUNITY SPONSORS, DOCTORS, VIVIAN AND ADID SABAH, PINKA RESTAURANTE AND THANK ESPECIALLY, PATRICIA SCHWABE COULDN’T BE HERE WITH US TONIGHT, ENCOURAGES ALL OF YOU OR MAYBE THIS SIDE, TO GO TO HER RESTAURANT TONIGHT. ON BROADWAY AFTER THE LECTURE AND HAVE A DRINK AND ENJOY SOME DINNER. ALSO, PARK TUCSON FOR ALL OF THEIR HELP IN GETTING EVERYBODY IN ON A VERY BUSY THURSDAY NIGHT WITH ROADS CLOSED FROM TUCSON MEET YOURSELF WHICH STARTS TOMORROW NIGHT, I ENCOURAGE ALL OF YOU TO GO TO. AND THEN FINALLY, THIS WONDERFUL HISTORIC FOX TUCSON THEATER. THANKS TO EVERYONE WHO PUT ALL OF THIS TOGETHER AND MADE IT HAPPEN. DR. MARIA NIEVES ZEDENO IS OUR SPEAKER TONIGHT. SHE RECEIVED HER PH.D. FROM SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY. AND JOINED THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA IN 1994. SHE IS A RESEARCH PROFESSOR IN AND DIRECTOR OF THE BUREAU OF APPLIED RESEARCH AND ANTHROPOLOGY IN THE SCHOOL OF ANTHROPOLOGY WHERE SHE ALSO HOLDS THE TITLE OF PROFESSOR. AS AN ANTHROPOLOGIST HER WORK INVOLVES ARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOHISTORY AND ETHNOGRAPHY TO CONSTRUCT PAST LANDSCAPES AND BETTER UNDERSTAND CULTURAL PRACTICES ON LANDSCAPES, PARTICULARLY THOSE IN THE NORTHERN PLAINS, MONTANA, NORTH DAKOTA, BUT ALSO, ALBERTA. WHERE SHE HAS DECADES’ WORTH OF WORK WITH BLACKFEET TRIBE IN THAT PART OF NORTH AMERICA. SHE LOOKS AT A LOT OF DIFFERENT VARIABLES INCLUDING WHAT WE WOULD CALL CULTURE OR WAYS OF MAKING MEANING OF THE WORLD. BUT ALSO, WAYS OF LIFE, DEMOGRAPHY, MIGRATION, ETHNICITY, TERRITORIES, ALL OF WHICH TAKES PLACE ON THE LAND INVOLVES THE RELATIONSHIP OBVIOUSLY BETWEEN PEOPLE AND THE LAND. BUT ALSO, NATURAL RESOURCES AND FINALLY, AND NOT LEAST, ANIMALS. AND THAT’S WHY SHE IS HERE TONIGHT. BECAUSE OF HER EXTENSIVE WORK WITH THE BLACKFEET AND THE BISON. SHE IS THE AUTHOR OF MANY PUBLICATIONS, BOOKS, RESEARCH MONOGRAPHS, RESEARCH REPORTS, AND ARTICLES AND BOOK CHAPTERS. SHE HAS RECEIVED SOME $2 MILLION WORTH OF GRANTS TO SUPPORT HER WORK AND THE WORK OF HER COLLEAGUES. HER TRIBAL COLLABORATORS AND HER STUDENTS. ALL OF WHICH I AM VERY PLEASED TO SAY ARE WORKING IN THIS FIELD WITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLES AND ARCHAEOLOGY, AND DEMOGRAPHY AND INTERNATIONALLY AND NATIONALLY. SO, IT GIVES ME GREAT PLEASURE TO INTRODUCE TO YOU, NIEVES ZEDENO. NIEVES.>>THANK YOU. GOOD EVENING. AND, THANK YOU FOR COMING TO LISTEN TO MY TALK. TODAY I WOULD LIKE TO TELL YOU ABOUT ONE OF THE OLDEST OF HUMAN ANIMAL INTERACTIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. THAT OF HUNTERS AND BISON. AND, I WILL FOCUS SPECIFICALLY ON BISON HUNTING SPECIALISTS. THOSE WHO HAVE INHABITED THE NORTHWESTERN PLAINS OF NORTH AMERICA, CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES. SINCE TIME IN MEMORIAL, OR PERHAPS ARC ARE SINCE THE LAST GLACIACIAN. YOU WILL HEAR BLACKFOOT AND BLACKFEET, THEY’RE NOT INTERCHANGEABLE, NEITHER PLURAL OR SINGULAR. BLACKFOOT REFERS TO THE CONFEDERACY WITH WHOM I WORK, TO THE TERRITORY, TO THE ETHNICITY, THE CULTURE AND THE LANGUAGE. BLACK FEET ON THE OTHER HAND IS THE LEGAL NAME OF THE BLACKFEET TRIBE AND ITS RESERVATION IN MONTANA. AND I WILL DO MY BEST TO KEEP THOSE TWO STRAIGHT. SO THAT YOU, SO THAT, I DON’T CONFUSE YOU. WELL, JUST TO SET THE MOOD, LET ME BEGIN WITH A STORY. A BLACKFOOT STORY. IN THE BEGINNING, THE CREATOR, OLD MAN NAPPIE CAME FROM THE SKY TO MAKE THE WORLD. TRAVELING FROM SOUTH TO NORTH. HE MADE THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS AND THE PRAIRIE. HE MADE RIVERS, LAKES, AND SPRINGS. FROM HIS OWN BLOOD, HE MADE RED OCHRE, RED PAINT. AND THEN, HE MADE ANIMALS AND PLANTS AND BIRDS AND FISH. HE PUT BISON ON THE GRASSLAND, ON THE PRAIRIE. AND BIG-HORN SHEEP ON THE MOUNTAINS AND THEN HE MADE PEOPLE. HE MADE HUMANS. BUT THE HUMANS HE MADE HAD NO ARMS OR HANDS. SO, A SHORT TIME LATER, HIS HUMANS CAME TO HIM AND PLEADED. OLD MAN NAPPIE, WE CAN’T FEED OURSELVES, WE ARE STARVING. WE ARE BEING KILLED AND DEVOURED BY MONSTERS BY THESE LARGE FURRY ANIMALS. WE CAN’T DEFEND OURSELVES. SO, THE CREATOR REALIZING HIS MISTAKE, HE CAME BACK ON TO THE EARTH, AND GAVE THEM NOT ONLY ARMS AND HANDS, BUT HE GAVE THEM WEAPONS. HE TOLD THEM HOW TO MAKE WEAPONS AND HUH TO HOW TO HUNT. AND EVER SINCE THERE HAS BEEN THIS PROFOUND, UNBREAKABLE BOND BETWEEN HUMANS, HUNTERS AND BISON. NOW, ABOUT 200,000 YEARS AGO, GIVE OR TAKE A MONTH, THE FIRST BISON CAME FROM THE OLD WORLD TO POPULATE NORTH AMERICA. JUST ABOUT THE TIME BEFORE THE THIRD OF FOUR GLACIACIANS. NOW THE BISON THAT CAME, WERE NOT MODERN BISON, THE BISON YOU SEE TODAY. THEY WERE EXTINCT SPECIES OF BISON. THERE HAVE BEEN FOUR SPECIES OF BISON THAT EVOLVED IN NORTH AMERICAN CONTINENT TWO OF WHICH BISON ANTIQUUS AND BISON BISON, WERE THE MODERN BISON, WERE HUNTED BY THE PALEO-AMERICAN PEOPLE. BISON ANTIQUUS, BECAME EXTINCT 10,000 YEARS AGO. BUT MODERN BISON WENT ON TO EVOLVE AND TO POPULATE UNBELIEVABLY SUCCESSFULLY EVERY POSSIBLE NICHE WHERE HE COULD FIND GRASS. OR ANYTHING EDIBLE. AND THAT IS WHY BISON WAS SO SUCCESSFUL. THE ONLY LARGE HERBIVORE THAT WAS SUCCESSFUL AT THE TIME, AT THE END OF THE ICE AGE. BECAUSE HE WAS A GENERALIST. HE, OF COURSE, ATE GRASS THAT WAS HIS FAVORITE FOOD. BUT IN A PINCH HE COULD SNACK ON SOME WILLOW CHUTES, MESQUITE PODS, THE VEGETATION OF FOREST, IN THE OHIO VALLEY, SO HE SPREAD ACROSS THE CONTINENT FROM THE BOREO FOREST IN THE NORTH TO THE SONORAN DESERT FROM ROCKY MOUNTAINS TO THE OHIO VALLEY. SO, JUST TO GIVE YOU A SENSE OF HOW MANY BISON WERE THERE AT THE TIME OF ARRIVAL OF THE FIRST EUROPEANS INTO THE CONTINENT. THERE WERE AN ESTIMATED 30 MILLION TO 60 MILLION BISON. EXPLORERS, EXPLAIN AND DESCRIBE THAT BISON BLACKENED THE PRAIRIE AS FAR AS THE EYES COULD SEE FOR DAYS OR WEEKS ON END. WITHIN 300 YEARS, BISON HAD DECREASED BY 75%. AND IN THE LAST 50 YEARS, OF THE 19th CENTURY. BISON CAME TO THE BRINK OF EXTINCT. IN 1883, THERE WERE 574 BISON BOTH IN CANADA AND IN NORTH AMERICA. WHAT HAPPENED? ASIDE FROM THE IMMENSE SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST, THERE WERE SEVERAL VERY SPECIFIC FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE NEAR EXTINCTION OF BISON. IN THE 1820s, NEW YORK ENTREPRENEUR NAMED JOHN JACOB ASTOR REALIZED, VERY SHORTLY, THAT THE FUR TRADE AND BEAVER PELTS WAS NO LONGER VIABLE IN EUROPE AND IT WAS BEING IN FACT REPLACED BY CHINESE SILK. BUT HE DIDN’T WANT TO ABANDON THE TRADE BECAUSE HE HAD ALREADY SET UP THIS HUGE LIKE TRANSCONTINENTAL TRADE APPARATUS. SO HE TURNED HIS SIGHTS TOWARDS BISON HIDES BECAUSE THE BURGEONING INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION WAS DEMANDING A GREAT DEAL OF LEATHER FOR THEIR MACHINERY. SO HE SET TRADING POSTS, THE UPPER MISSOURI RIVER VALLEY FROM CITY OF ST. LOUIS ALL THE WAY TO THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. AND HE ATTRACTED NATIVE AMERICAN HUNTERS WHO HAD ALREADY BEEN TRADING WITH EUROPEANS AND EURO-AMERICANS TO HUNT BISON FOR THE INDUSTRIAL TRADE. ON A GIVEN YEAR, 180,000 BISON HIDES WERE FLOATED ALONG THE MISSOURI RIVER DOWN TO ST. LOUIS AND BEYOND. NOW WHEN THAT TRADE BEGAN TO DWINDLE, JUST ABOUT THE SAME TIME, THE RAILROAD, THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAY BEGAN ITS CONSTRUCTION. AND AS YOU CAN IMAGINE, HUGE HERDS OF BISON WERE A HUGE NUISANCE TO THE RAILROAD WORKERS, NOT ONLY DID THEY STOP THEM FROM PROGRESSING BUT THEY ALSO DESTROYED, THEY COMPLETELY TRAMPLED THE NEWLY LAID RAILS. SO IT WAS SUCH A PROBLEM, THAT THEY — THE RAILROAD INVITED TRAVELERS, GUESTS AND THEIR PASSENGERS WERE ENCOURAGED TO SHOOT, TO SHOOT BISON ON SIGHT ALONG THE WAY. AND THEN OF COURSE THERE WERE LARGER, OLDER AND MORE PROFOUND REASONS FOR WHY BISON ALMOST DISAPPEARED. THOMAS JEFFERSON AGRARIAN DREAM. AND HIS DESCENDANTS WANTED SO BADLY TO SEE AMERICAN FAMILIES TAKE ON FARMING. HAVE THEIR OWN FARMS. TILL THE GROUND. BE PRODUCTIVE. MAKE THE SOIL PRODUCE. BUT AS THEY WERE MOVING TO THE WEST, THEY REALIZED THAT NO NATIVE AMERICAN IN THE WEST WAS WILLING OR AT LEAST NOT IN THE NORTHWEST, WAS WILLING AND ABLE TO SETTLE DOWN AND HAVE A FARM. ESPECIALLY BISON HUNTING SPECIALISTS, THE BLACKFOOT AND THEIR NEIGHBORS. WHY SHOULD THEY FARM? THEY WERE WEALTHY, SELF-SUFFICIENT, POWERFUL. AND THEY HAVE THE FREEDOM THEY WANTED TO DO ANYTHING. BUT YET THE GOVERNMENT PERCEIVED OF THEM AS WASTEFUL, USING UP LAND THAT, THEY HAD NO USE FOR. LAZY. UNRULY. BLOODY. REBELS. AND ULTIMATELY, VERY, VERY DANGEROUS TO JEFFERSON’S AGRARIAN DREAM. AND TO THE SETTLEMENT OF THE WEST. FOR EXAMPLE, IN 1873, COLUMBUS DELANOS, SECRETARY OF INTERIOR UNDER PRESIDENT GRANT WROTE — I WOULD NOT SERIOUSLY REGRET THE TOTAL DISAPPEARANCE OF THE BUFFALO FROM OUR WESTERN PRAYERS PRAYERIES, I WOULD REGARD IT AS A MEANS OF HASTENING A SENSE OF DEPENDENCE ON THE PRODUCTS OF THE SOIL AND THEIR OWN LABORS. BY THIS HE MEANT THAT IF YOU REMOVED THE VERY SOURCE OF THEIR INDEPENDENCE, AND THEIR SELF SUFFICIENCY, BISON, YOU WOULD SUBDUE THEM, AND MAKE THEM FARMERS. HOW WRONG HE WAS. AND HENCE CAME, BEFELL UPON US, UPON OUR CONTINENT, THE WORST ECOLOGICAL DISASTER OF VERY, MANY, MANY CENTURIES. BUT THIS ECOLOGICAL DISASTER WAS NOT JUST NATURAL. IT AFFECTED ABOUT 1/3 OF IN DIN THIS PEOPLE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE THAT OCCUPIED AND THE CONTINENT, FROM CANADA, BOREO FOREST ALL THE WAY TO THE GULF OF MEXICO. OF COURSE, NOT EVERYBODY WAS AFFECTED EQUALLY. ON THE SOUTH, THEY WERE FARMERS WHO HUNTED BISON IN SUMMER WHILE THEY WERE WAITING FOR THE CROPS TO RIPEN. IN THE CENTER, THEY WERE HUNTERS, WHO FARMED. THEN AS YOU GO FURTHER NORTH, THEY WERE GENERALISTS HUNTERS WHO ALSO TRAPPED AND FISHED AND CONSUMED A WIDE VARIETY OF WILD PRODUCTS. AND THEN, TO THE FAR NORTH, THERE WERE THE BLACKFOOT. FOR WHOM BISON WAS THE ONLY REAL FOOD AND EVEN IN TIMES OF DURESS THEY WOULD CONSUME OTHER GAME. THAT FOOD WAS NOTHING FOOD. AS YOU CAN IMAGINE THEY LOST A LOT. THEY NOT ONLY LOST THEIR WEALTH, THEIR FOOD, THE WALLS OF THEIR LODGES, THEIR WINTER COATS, RAW MATERIALS FOR THEIR TOOLS, THE VERY THREAD THEY USED TO SEW THEIR CLOTHES. THEY LOST THEIR CENTER, THEIR IDENTITY AS HUNTERS. THE CORE OF THEIR WORLD, BECAUSE HUNTING IS NOT JUST SUBSIST SUBSISTENCE ACTIVITY, HUNTING IS A WAY OF LIFE, THINKING, A WAY OF SEEING THE WORLD, A WAY OF IMAGINING THOSE THINGS THAT CANNOT BE SEEN. SO, FOR ABOUT 100 YEARS, ARCHAEOLOGISTS AND, WE KNOW — WITH NO SMALL HELP FROM HISTORIANS OF THE EARLY 20th CENTURY HAVE BEEN ATTEMPTING AND PUTTING A GREAT AMOUNT OF EFFORT AND WORK IN FUNDING AND INTO THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THIS ANCIENT WAY OF LIFE, ANCIENT BISON HUNTING WAY OF LIFE. AND OF COURSE, THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF BISON HUNTING IS AN ARCHAEOLOGY OF BONE AND STONE. AND HERE YOU SEE THE FATHER OF BISON HUNTING, ARCHAEOLOGY, DR. GEORGE FRIEZEN FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING EXCAVATING THE SITE EARLY IN THE 1940S. FROM HIM, AND HIS STUDENTS, AND MANY OTHER SCHOLARS, WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO PORTRAY A VERY STARK VIEW AND RECONSTRUCTION OF HOW BISON HUNTERS WORKED AND LIVED. AND TO THAT WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO ADD MEAT TO THOSE BONES AND TO THOSE STONES. BUT LOOKING AT HOW, HOW INCREDIBLY RICH, COMPLEX AND COLORFUL LIFE WAS, BEFORE THE ARRIVAL OF THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION INTO THE WESTERN PLAINS. SO WE KNOW A GREAT DEAL ABOUT BISON IN BISON HUNTING. AND WE ALSO DON’T KNOW AN IMMENSE DEAL. WE KNOW FOR EXAMPLE THAT FOR THE BETTER PART OF 14,000 YEARS, SMALL GROUPS OF HUNTERS PURSUED SINGLE ANIMALS OR VERY SMALL NUMBERS OF PREY. THEY DIDN’T NEED TO REALLY KILL THAT MANY ANIMALS, THEY COULDN’T MANAGE THAT LARGE A HERD OR A FOR HUNTING AND THEY WERE WELL ADAPTED TO A LANDSCAPE THAT THEY COULD HANDLE IN SMALL NUMBERS. NOW ABOUT 4,000 YEARS AGO, THE VERY FIRST COMMUNAL HUNTING SITE APPEARS IN ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD IS IN THE CROWE RESERVATION IN SOUTHERN MONTANA. THIS WAS THE FIRST MASSIVE BISON KILL KNOWN IN THE REGION. AND YET IT IS VERY RARE, IT IS PERHAPS THE ONLY SO LARGE BISON KILL FOR THAT TIME PERIOD. SO RARELY, YOU SAW SITES THAT REPRESENTED MASS KILL. UNTIL ABOUT 2,000 YEARS AGO. AND AS I WILL TELL YOU VERY SOON, ABOUT 2,000 YEARS AGO THERE WERE A SERIES OF INCREDIBLY CRITICAL INNOVATIONS FOR HUNTERS THAT, THAT, STIMULATED NOT ONLY POPULATION GROWTH, BUT ALSO TECHNOLOGICAL GROWTH AND VERY SOPHISTICATED WAYS OF PERMANENTLY CHANGING THE LANDSCAPE, MODIFYING THE LANDSCAPE, NOT ONLY TO HUNT FOR THE DAY OR THE MONTH OR THE YEAR, BUT TO ACTUALLY PLAN FOR A FUTURE INTO THE FUTURE GENERATIONS. SO, I WAS WORKING ABOUT 2007, I HAD BEEN WORKING IN THE BLACKFEET INDIAN RESERVATION ON ONE UNRELATED PROJECT, NONETHELESS IMPORTANT TO THE BLACKFEET TRIBE, TRADITIONAL CULTURAL DISTRICT NOMINATION, WHEN, MY COLLEAGUE AND FRIEND BLACKFOOT HISS TORIC HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICER, JOHN MURRAY, RELIGIOUS LEADER AND PHILOSOPHER BY TRAINING GAVE ME A VIP TOUR ALONG WITH SOME ELDERS, OF THEIR OLD BISON HUNTING SITES. AND THEY EXPLAINED TO ME HOW THEY WORKED. I DIDN’T KNOW EXACTLY WHAT I WAS LOOKING AT. THEY EXPLAINED TO ME HOW THEY WERE BUILT. HOW THEY WERE USED. WHAT WAS THE CONSEQUENCE OF THE USES OF THE SITES. AND THEN THEY SAID TO ME — YOU KNOW, MARIA, THAT IS MY FIRST NAME. YOU KNOW, MARIA, WE WOULD REALLY LIKE YOU TO STUDY THESE SITES. WE WANT YOU TO STUDY THEM SCIENTIFICALLY. SO THAT PEOPLE WILL KNOW WHO WE WERE AND WHO WE ARE. AND THAT OUR CHILDREN, OUR KIDS, WILL BE PROUD OF THEIR ANCESTORS. SO, I HAVE TO CONFESS THAT I DIDN’T KNOW VERY MUCH AT THE TIME ABOUT BISON HUNTING. NEITHER ARCHAEOLOGY NOR ETHNOGRAPHY. I FIGURED THAT I NEEDED TO LEARN FROM THE BLACKFEET FIRST. SO THAT I UNDERSTOOD WHAT THEY THOUGHT ABOUT BISON AND BISON HUNTING AND THEIR OWN PAST. AND THEN, I COULD DESIGN A PROJECT TO THEIR OWN LIKING. SO MY FRIEND PHILOSOPHER, JOHN, BEGAN TO TEACH ME ABOUT BLACKFOOT METAPHYSICS. OF COURSE, BLACKFOOT METAPHYSICS IS A COMPLETE, WELL-DEVELOPED, FULLY COGNIZANT, FULLY EXPLICIT WAY OF LOOKING AT THE WORLD. IT IS NOT A PRIMITIVE RELIGION. IT IS NOT A BELIEF SYSTEM. IT IS NOT A SYMBOLIC SYSTEM. IT IS NOT A SUPERSTITION. IT IS NOT TOTEMISM, IT IS NOT ANIMISM, IT IS PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, A LA BLACKFOOT. AND MOST IMPORTANT ABOUT BLACKFOOT SCIENCE IS IT IS ENCODED IN THE LANGUAGE. THE LANGUAGE STRUCTURE CARRIES IN ITS OWN ALL THE PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES THAT ARE IN THE WORLD, INVISIBLE AND VISIBLE WORLDS. AND THEREFORE EVERY TIME THEY SPEAK BLACKFOOT YOU ARE REMINDING YOURSELF OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL PRINCIPLES THAT RULE THE UNIVERSE IN YOUR LIFE, SOCIETY AND CULTURE. SO, I UNDERSTOOD ALSO FROM JOHN, AND WHAT I KNEW ABOUT WESTERN PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, THAT WHAT WE THINK ABOUT SCIENCE AND WHAT, NONWESTERN PEOPLE SPECIFICALLY NATIVE AMERICANS, PARTICULARLY THE BLACKFOOT, ACTUALLY THINK ABOUT SCIENCE AND HOW THE WORLD WORKS AND WHAT PRINCIPLES DO THEY USE TO EXPLAIN THE WORLD. AND IT WAS IN A STARK CONTRAST TO OUR WAY OF THINKING. FOR EXAMPLE, IN THE BLACKFOOT WORLD, EVERYTHING HAS A SOUL. HUMAN AND NONHUMAN. EVERYTHING IS ANIMATED BY, BY A POWERFUL LIFE SOURCE. THAT CONNECTS ALL OF THE BEINGS IN THE WORLD. WITH ALL OF THE FORCES IN THE UNIVERSE. WITH ALL OF THE DEITIES IN THE SKY. THEY’RE ALL CONNECTED. BECAUSE THEY’RE ALL CONNECTED THEY ARE FREE TO MOVE ABOUT THE UNIVERSE. THEY ARE FREE TO TRAVEL. IMAGINE IF THE LIFE SOURCE, IS CONNECTING, LIFE SOURCE, WERE LIKE A HUGE SYSTEM OF RIVERS, OF NAVIGABLE RIVERS, THINGS, BEINGS, FORCES CAN ACTUALLY NAVIGATE THE UNIVERSE THROUGH THAT SYSTEM. WHEN WE THINK ABUT OUR CATEGORIES OF BEING, OUR CATEGORIES OF BEING ARE VERY, VERY STRICT. AND, FOR EXAMPLE, WE HAVE PLANTS, ANIMALS AND MINERALS. A PLANT CANNOT BE AN ANIMAL. AN ANIMAL CANNOT BE A MINERAL. VICE VERSA. IN THE BLACKFOOT WORLD NOT SO. YOU MIGHT ENCOUNTER A VERY LARGE ROCK, ONE OF THE I ROTTING BOULDERS ERRATIC BOULDERS LEFT OVER FROM THE ICE AGE. YOU DON’T KNOW WHETHER IT IS INDEED A ROCK OR PERHAPS A BISON. OR MAYBE A GRISLY BEAR. SO YOU GRIZZLY BEAR. YOU ARE CAUTIOUS OF THE ROCK, AND YOU PLACE AN OFFERING ON THE SPIRIT OF THE ROCK, TOBACCO, A DOLLAR BILL. RIGHT? AND THEN, OF COURSE, BECAUSE THE WORLD IS FLUID AND YOU DO NOT KNOW WHEN THINGS ARE GOING TO BE IN A CERTAIN STAGE. IN A CERTAIN MODE. IN A CERTAIN APPEARANCE. OR MATERIALITY. THE WORD IS VERY UNCERTAIN. HUMANS IN HABIT A VERY, A WORLD THAT IS VERY NARROW. IN TERMS OF IDEAL CONDITIONS FOR SURVIVAL. AND IT IS INHERENTLY DANGEROUS, IT IS UNCERTAIN. SO EVERYTHING THAT HUMANS DO, AND EVERYTHING THAT HUMANS LEARN, AND THEY LEARN IT THROUGH THE SPIRITS, AND THROUGH, THROUGH OTHER HUMANS AND THROUGH KNOWN HUMAN PERSONS. GOES INTO ACQUIRING POWER, TO MAKE THE WORLD LESS DANGEROUS, LESS UNCERTAIN AND MORE PREDICTABLE. TO HAVE AN UPPER HAND INTO THE WORLD, A WORLD THAT IS FRANKLY A LOT LARGER THAN HUMANITY ITSELF. SO POWER AND POWER ACQUISITION THROUGH VISION QUESTS, THROUGH DREAMS, AND THROUGH VERY FORMAL CHANNELS OF INFORMATION TRANSFER FROM PERSON TO PERSON AND THROUGH GENERATIONS, ACTUALLY, ALLOWS HUMANS, THE BLACKFOOT TO SURVIVE AND BE PROSPEROUS AND LIVE WELL. AND THAT IS WHAT THEY PURSUE. 57BD THEREFORE,AND THEREFORE THEIR SYSTEM DEVELOPED INTO A FORMAL SYSTEM OF LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING. AND THEN OF COURSE, KNOWLEDGE AND THE KAY YETING CHAOTIC, UNCERTAIN WORLD, ACTUALLY REQUIRES ORDER. THE BLACKFOOT USED THE CONCEPT OF BUNDLE TO BRING ORDER INTO THE CHAOTIC DIVERSITY OF THE WORLD. SO, BUNDLING IS BOTH A CONCEPT AND IT HAS IN A MATERIAL THING. BUNDLING IS A WAY TO ORDER THE UNIVERSE TO DISCERN WHAT THINGS CAN WORK TOGETHER AS A TEAM AND WHAT THINGS CANNOT WORK TOGETHER AS A TEAM. AND THESE TEAMS ARE SPIRITS, OBJECTS, PEOPLE, DEITIES. AND EACH OF THE BUNDLES, EACH OF THE TEAMS WHEN THEY WORK TOGETHER THEY’RE LARGER THAN THE SUM OF PARTS. SO, SO THEY ALSO HAVE A MATERIAL REPRESENTATION THAT IS CALLED THE BUNDLE, THE SACRED BUNDLE, THE CEREMONIAL BUNDLE WHICH THEY, BLACKFEET AT SOME POINT ACQUIRED AND 4,000, YEARS AGO AND CARRIED THEM ON TO THIS DAY. BUNDLES, NEEDLESS TO SAY ARE ESSENTIAL TO THE BISON HUNT. SO, HOW DOES THE UNIVERSE AND THE BUNDLE UNIVERSE LOOK FROM BISON’S PERSPECTIVE. BISON HAS ITS OWN BUNDLE. AND IN THIS BUNDLE, HE HAS ALLIES AND ENEMIES. BEAVER IS ONE OF HIS BEST FRIENDS. BECAUSE BEAVER COLLECTS AND PROTECTS WATER BODIES ON THE SURFACE OF THE PRAIRIE SO WHEN BISON MIGRATE THEY HAVE WATER TO DRINK IN BETWEEN PERMANENT STREAMS. FIRE IS ONE ONE OF BISON’S CLOSEST ALLIES. BECAUSE FIRE RENEWS THE PRAIRIE AND BISON NATURALLY FLOCKED TO FRESHLY BURNED GRASS. THEN HE HAS ENEMIES, HE HAS PREDATORS, WOLF AND GRIZZLY BEAR, ONLY PREDATORS CAN FELL A BISON. THEN THERE ARE HUNTERS. WHAT IS THE PLACE OF HUNTERS IN THE BISON UNIVERSE? WELL HUNTERS ARE EQUAL OR LESSER THAN BISON. AND ALONE AND NAKED IN THE WORLD, IT WOULD BE VERY DIFFICULT FOR THEM TO FELL A BISON AND SUCCESSFULLY EAT IT. RIGHT? PROCESS IT AND EAT IT. BUT HUMANS HAVE HELPERS. ONE OF THEIR MAIN ALLIES AND HELPER, THE MOST INTIMATE HELPER IS A MARINE FOSSIL CALLED AMANITE, YOU HAVE SEEN AMANITE IN THE ROCK AND MINERAL SHOWS. THEY’RE THESE MARINE FOSSILS THAT CAN BE BROKEN INTO A CERTAIN WAY AND SOME TIMES WHEN YOU BREAK THEM, THE FRAGMENTS LOOK LIKE A LITTLE BISON. IN BLACKFOOT THEY’RE CALLED SOMETHING. AND AT SOME POINT IN THE PAST IN THE DEEP, DEEP PAST, GAVE HUNTERS A MAGICAL SONG. IT IS CALLED THE BISON CALL. BISON CALLING CEREMONY. AND WHEN THEY SING THE SONG, AND DO THE CEREMONY, THEY CAN ACTUALLY CHARM BISON SO THAT BISON CAN WILLINGLY COME TO THEM AND THEY CAN GUIDE THEM ON TO THEIR DEATH. AND IF YOU THINK ABOUT HOW MANY PIECES OF KNOWLEDGE AND OBJECTS HUMANS REQUIRE TO, TO SUCCESSFULLY HUNT A HERD OF BISON IT IS JUST STAGGERING. THEY RECEIVE FROM, FROM THE DEITIES THEY RECEIVE WEAPONS. FROM THE ANIMALS THEY RECEIVE BUNDLES AND ALSO THE KNOWLEDGE AND HOW TO HUNT FOR EXAMPLE WITH WOLF. HOW TO HUNT IN A PACK. HOW TO DRIVE BISON IN A PACK. OF COURSE, THEY HAVE THEIR CHARMING SONG. FROM THUNDER THEY GOT FIRE AND RAIN-MAKING MAGIC. AND FROM THE WATER BEANS, THE TWO CEREMONIAL TIPIS, THE BLACK-AND-YELLOW BUFFALO LODGES. BUT HUNTING IS NOT EXTRACTIVE IN THE BLACKFOOT WORLD, NOT JUST YOU CHARM THE BISON AND YOU SUCCESSFULLY KILL IT AND PROCESS IT AND SO FORTH. THIS IS A PARTNERSHIP. IT IS A CONTRACT. BETWEEN BISON AND HUMANS. AND IN THIS CONTRACT, THE RULES OF THE HUNTING BUNDLE, THE BISON BUNDLE HAVE TO BE OBSERVED. PEOPLE HAVE TO RESPECT THE BISON CYCLES. THEY HAVE TO MANAGE THE GRASSLAND IN A APPROPRIATE MANNER. AND THEY HAVE TO CONDUCT RENEWAL CEREMONIES SO THAT EVERY TIME THEY KILL AN ANIMAL, THEIR SPAOEURT WILL REMAIN SPIRIT WILL REMAIN ALIVE. AND HUNTERS DRINK BISON’S BLOOD WHEN THEY KILL BISON SO THAT ACT, TRANSFER OF LIFE WILL RETAIN THE SPIRIT OF THE, DEAD BISON LIFE. AND THAT WILL BE ABLE TO COME BACK ON EARTH AND BE HUNTED AGAIN. SO, ARMED WITH THESE RUDIMENTARY AMOUNT OF KNOLLAGE BOUT KNOWLEDGE, BLACKFOOT, IS MORE PROFOUND THAN I CAN UNDERSTAND. AND BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE IN ARCHAEOLOGY, GROUP OF GRADUATE STUDENT AND ALUMNI NOW, AND I, DESIGNED THE BISON HUNTING LANDSCAPE PROJECT. A FIVE-YEAR PROJECT. AND OF COURSE, THE BLACKFEET TRIBE IN MONTANA, HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICE, PARTNERS AND HOSTS WE RECEIVE FOUR, FIVE GRANTS. LARGE AND SMALL TO SUPPORT FIVE YEARS OF RESEARCH. THE BUREAU OF RESEARCH IN ANTHROPOLOGY WAS THE MANAGER OF ALL OF OUR PROJECTS, AND THEN, WE HAD — SEVERAL GENERATIONS OF GRADUATE STUDENTS FROM THE U OF A AND ALSO WE TRAINED TO THIS DAY WE CONTINUOUSLY TRAIN BLACKFOOT TRIBAL MEMBERS AS PART OF ARCHAEOLOGISTS FOR JOB PLACEMENT. AND THAT SCHOOL IS REALLY SUCCESSFUL. THEN OF COURSE, EXTERNAL COLLABORATORS, TWO OF OUR ALUMNI, AND, AND, MY DEAR COLLEAGUES FROM SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY AND THEN OF COURSE, LAST BUT NOT LEAST, DAVID YENMAN, PRODUCED A FAN FASTIC FANTASTIC PROGRAM. ALL RIGHT, SO, MY PREVIOUS COLLEAGUES HAD FOCUSED INTENSELY ON THE BISON KILL SITES. AND THESE BISON KILL SITES THAT ONE OF WHICH YOU SAW IN THE PICTURE OF GEORGE FRIEZEN. THEY’RE NOTHING BUT LAYER UPON LAYER UPON LAYER OF BONE. I MEAN, BISON BONE. SOMETIMES, PREDATORS, PREDATORS BONES. AND THE APPROPRIATE TOOLS FOR KILLING, BUTCHERING AND PROCESSING THE ANIMALS. MY COLLEAGUES BECAUSE OF THE DEPTH OF THE SITES AND THE DIFFICULTY IN EXCAVATING THEM, THEY TENDED TO EXCAVATE SO DEEP INTO THE GROUND THAT THEY LOST SIGHT OF THE HORIZON. IN OUR PROJECT WE WANTED TO DO EXACTLY THE OPPOSITE. WE WANTED TO, YES, USE THOSE BONE BEDS AS DEPARTING POINT, BUT WE ALSO WANTED TO GET A BIRD’S EYE VIEW THAT WOULD BE COMMENSURATE WITH A IMMENSITY AND SCALE OF BRINGING HERDS OF BISON UNTO THEIR DEATH ACROSS THE PRAIRIE AND ACROSS THE RIDGES. AND WE HAD — SOME QUESTIONS THAT WE WANTED TO REVISIT FROM PREVIOUS RESEARCH. BUT WE ALSO WANTED TO ASK NEW QUESTIONS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE BLACKFOOT HAVE THESE ORAL TRADITION ABOUT USING FIRE TO CLEAR THE GRASSLAND FROM NUISANCE PLANTS SO THAT THE BISON WOULD COME. WE TURN THAT ORAL TRADITION INTO A RESEARCH QUESTION AND IMPLEMENTED THAT RESEARCH QUESTION ON THE GROUND. AND THEN OF COURSE WE WANTED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION THAT SUPPORTED SUCH A HUGE ENTERPRISE AS THE COMMUNAL HUNT. THE BLACKFOOT ABORIGINAL TERRITORY IS ENORMOUS. IT COVERS THE BETTER PART OF ALBERTA AND SASKATCHEWAN AND ALMOST ALL OF MONTANA. IT STRADDLES THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT AND EXTENDS ON TO THE PRAIRIE. AND AS YOU CAN SEE IN THESE MAP, EVERY LITTLE WHITE DOT IS A — IS EITHER A PREHISS TORIC CAMPSITE PREHISTORIC SITE OR KILL SITE. COVERED WITH ARCHAEOLOGY. ALSO AS THE IT SO HAPPENS, THESE TERRITORY CORRESPONDS TO THE FESCUE PROVINCE OF THE NORTH AMERICAN GRASSLANDS. FESCUE GRASSES ARE, HIGHLY NEW FRESH US GRASSES, BISON FAVORITE FOOD AND ALSO VERY HIRE FIRE HAPPY. WHEN FIRE IGNITES AND ILLUMINATES THE FESCUE GRASS LAND, BISON FLOCK INTO THE AREA. WHEN YOU SEE THE SIRETORY IN CROSS THE TERRITORY ARE ELEVATIONAL ZONES, EACH ELEVATIONAL ZONE WAS USED BY BLACKFOOT IN THE ANCESTRAL HUNTERS FOR DIFFERENT LOGISTICAL PURPOSES DEPENDING ON THE SEASON AND THE ACTIVITY. IT WAS ON THE FOOTHILLS, HOWEVER THAT THE LARGE WINTER HUNTS TOOK PLACE. THAT’S WHERE BISON CAME TO WINTER IN THE SHELTER VALLEYS OF THE FOOTHILLS, THAT’S WHERE PEOPLE WINTER, THAT’S WHERE THEY HUNTED IN LARGE SCALE. IN ADDITION TO BEING THE PLACE OF — OF, FOR DIDN’TERING FOR THE BISON, FOR DIDN’TERING FOR THE BISON. THEY HAVE UNIQUE TOPOGRAPHY, VALLEYS ARE ENTRENCHED AND HAVE HIGH RIDGES. HIGH RIDGES OFTEN HAVE, VERY STEEP PRECIPICES AND THE HUNTERS WERE ABLE TO UTILIZE THOSE PRECIPICES TO DRIVE A HERD OF BISON AND PUSH THE BISON INTO A STAMPEDE DOWN ON THE — DOWN THE PRECIPICE AND THEY WOULD FALL ON TO THE GROUND AND THEY WOULD DIE IMMEDIATELY OR BE FINISHED UP AND BUTCHERED AT THE END OF THE CLIFF. AND FOR OUR STUDY WE CHOSE AN ENTIRE RIVER VALLEY IN THE CENTER SOUTH PORTION OF THE — OF THE BLACKFOOT INDIAN ROSIER SRAGS AND WE RESERVATION, WE CHOSE THE VALLEY FOR VARIETY OF REASONS. FIRST IT HAD SIGNIFICANT ORAL TRADITIONS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH SOME ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES. SECOND THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE VALLEY WAS IDEAL FOR BISON HUNTING THROUGH THE METHOD CALLED THE JUMP. PUSHING THE HERD OVER THE CLIFF. AND THEN OF COURSE THE VALLEY ALSO HAD A NUMBER OF VERY WELL-KNOWN SITES THAT WERE SPECTACULAR BISON JUMPS, BISON HUNTING SITES. SO WE DECIDED THIS IS THE IDEAL PLACE TO START AND WE ARE GOING TO DO AS MUCH AS WE COULD A VALLEY WIDE SURVEY AND RECONNAISSANCE. HERE WE ARE, WE ARE AT — ONE OF THE BISON JUMPS. THE BISON JUMP, TWO ALUMNI, JESSE VALLIGER, AND BEA RICEY, SETTING UP THE SAEGS SO WE CAN DO MAPPING. WE DECIDED WE WILL BEGIN FROM THE KNOWN TO THE UNKNOWN. AND ONCE YOU LOCATE A JUMP. THIS ONE IN PARTICULAR HAD A VERY DEEP BONE BED. ONCE YOU LOCATE A JUMP YOU CLIMB OVER THE CLIFF TO THE TOP OF THE RIDGE AND THEN YOU BEGIN LOOKING FOR ANY KIND OF HUNTING STRUCTURE THAT WOULD HAVE HELPED THE HUNTERS CONTAIN THE BISON AND BRING THEM ON TO THEIR DEATH. NOW THESE DESTRUCTORS ARE CALLED THE BISON DRIVE. THE BISON DRIVE IS A FUNNEL-SHAPED STRUCTURE MADE OF TWO, MADE OF TWO LINEAR, LINEAR FEATURES, OF STONE. THE WIDER PART IS ON THE BACK SIDE OF THE RIDGE. THE NARROWEST PART IS RIGHT ABOVE THE DEADFALL. AND AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DEADFALL THERE IS A CORRAL. NOW THIS WAS A SACRED TEMPLATE. FOR THE BLACKFOOT. BUT IT IS ALSO A VERY EFFICIENT WAY OF TRAPPING, HUNTING, PUSHING A LARGE NUMBER OF ANIMALS, ESPECIALLY TRAPPING LARGE NUMBER OF ANIMALS. IF YOU COME NEXT WEEK TO THE TALK ABOUT HERRING YOU WILL SEE THAT, HERRING, FISHERS, FISHERMEN ALSO BUILD THESE KIND OF FUNNEL-SHAPED STRUCTURES TO TRAP AND HARVEST LARGE NUMBERS OF FISH. NOW, OF COURSE, THE TEMPLATE IS ELEGANT IN THEORY. BUT ONCE YOU LAY IT ON THE GROUND AND IN THE ACTUAL TOPOGRAPHY, IT IS VERY COMPLEX BECAUSE YOU HAVE TO — YOU HAVE TO ACCOMMODATE THE TEMPLATE TO EVERY SWALE ON THE GROUND, EVERY RISE ON THE GROUND, IF THERE ARE SOME LITTLE STREAMS OR WHAT WE CALL IN THE SOUTHWEST, WASHES, THEY ARE CALLED, UP NORTH, COULIES, ONCE YOU SET THEM IN A WAY THAT IT SEEMS TO WORK YOU BRING IN THE HERD, AND YOU KEEP THE HERD WITHIN THESE LINEAR FEATURES, MADE OF STONE, AND THEN, YOU STAMPEDE THEM OVER THE, OVER THE CLIFF. THESE FEATURES ARE MADE OF THOUSAND, LITERALLY THOUSANDS AND I SAY, I KNOW THAT THERE WERE SEVERAL THOUSAND BECAUSE I MYSELF RECORDED THEM. WITH MY STUDENTS. AND MY COLLEAGUES. THOUSANDS OF LITTLE ROCK PILES, NO LARGER THAN A LARGE BASKET. AND THESE ROCK PILES ARE EVENLY SPACED, FROM THE DEADFALL ALL THE WAY TO THE, TO THE BACKSIDE TO WHERE THE BISON GATHERED AND MILLED AROUND. THEY CAN GO ONE MILE. THREE MILES. MAYBE MORE. BUT THESE ROCK PILES JUST DEFINITELY FOLLOW THE TOPOGRAPHY AND FOLLOW THE TEMPLATE. WHEN PEOPLE DIDN’T HAVE ENOUGH ROCK THEY WOULD USE BISON DUNG, DRY BISON DUNG TO PILE IT UP TO MAKE THIS LITTLE STRUCTURES AND ON TOP OF THE, ON TOP OF THE ROCK PILES THEY WOULD PUT SOME BRUSH. SO THEY, THERE WAS THE ILLUSION OF A FENCE. BUT THE BISON DIDN’T FIGURE OUT THAT WAS A FLIMSY FENCE. THEY SAW THE FENCE AND FOLLOW IT THROUGH. I HAVE TO TELL YOU HOW TO SURVEY THESE. YOU DO IT ON FOOT. NOT ON HORSE. NOT ON CAR. NO SATELLITE IMAGERY. YOU WALK IT. EVERY SINGLE ROCK PILE. YOU WALK IT AND YOU GPS IT. AND THERE IS A REASON WHY OUR PROJECT WAS — WAS — VERY NEW IN THE NORTHWESTERN PLAINS AND AMONG COLLEAGUES. UNTIL THE ARRIVAL OF GPS TECHNOLOGY PEOPLE COULDN’T ACTUALLY MAP EVERY SINGLE ONE OF THESE, THESE STRUCTURES. AND THEREFORE, MAPS OF THESE DRYLANDS MAYBE COVERED 100 METERS, 200 METERS THEN THEY STOPPED. WELL I HAVE PERSONALLY WALKED MILES AND MILES ACROSS A HIGHWAY INTO A PRIVATE CAR PORT THROUGH THE BACKYARD THROUGH THEIR CORRAL ACROSS THE HAY FIELD PECK UP THE LINE AGAIN AT THE — PICK UP THE LINE AGAIN AT THENED OF TEN MILES OF LINE. AND I COULDN’T LOVE IT MORE. OH, SORRY, BUT, I HAVE TO GIVE A SHOUTOUT TO MY LONG-TIME, BLACKFEET ARCHAEOLOGIST, HE STARTED WORKING WITH US IN 2007 AND CONTINUES TO WORK WITH US, MOST SUPERB ARCHAEOLOGY I HAVE EVER KNOWN. AT THE END OF FIVE YEARS WE FOUND THIS INCREDIBLE AMOUNT OF FEATURES. OVER 36,000 INDIVIDUAL ROCK FEATURES, NOT ALL OF THEM, ALL OF THEM, MAJORITY WERE HUNTING FEATURES. NOT ALL OF THEM WERE. PEOPLE WERE NOT ONLY HUNTING IN THE VALLEY THEY WERE LIVING IN THE VALLEY. THEY WERE DOING CEREMONIES IN THE VALLEY. THEY WERE BUILDING MEMORIAL MONUMENTS TO THEIR DEATH IN THE VALLEY AND BUILDING VISION QUEST SITE SO THEY COULD ACQUIRE MORE KNOWLEDGE AND MORE POWER. JUST TO GIVE YOU A SENSE OF HOW THIS, HOW THESE SLIDES LOOKED IN THE SPACE, BECAUSE THIS IS A SATELLITE PHOTO. YOU CANNOT REALLY, YOU CANNOT, NOT REALLY ACCURATELY PORTRAY THESE, THESE, DRIVE LINE FEATURES, HUNTING FACILITIES. THEY’RE NOT PHOTEGENIC AT ALL. IF YOU SEE THE MAP, YOU HAVE ILLUSTRATES THREE CLUSTERS OF HUNTING, OF, OF HUNTING — FEATURES OF DRIVE LINES. HERE THEY LOOKED LIKE LITTLE SPIDER LEGS, BUT IN REALITY, THEY COVER ANYWHERE BETWEEN 6 AND 20 SQUARE KILOMETERS EACH. AND THE BEAUTY AND THE, AND THE INGENUITY OF THE HUNTERS WAS TO POSITION, THE DRIVE, THE DRIVE LINES, THE BISON DRIVES, ACROSS FROM, ACROSS THE RIVER FROM ONE ANOTHER. SO THAT, IF BISON FOR ANY REASON TURNED AROUND AND CROSSED THE RIFF, THEY WERE THE OTHER HUNTERS OUT THERE, READY TO USE THE OPPOSITE DRIVE LINE, TO ACTUALLY TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE, OF THE MOVING HERD. SO THEY WERE READY, THEY WERE VERY TACTICAL IN THEIR UNDERFEET, READY TO MAKE ANY CHANGES DEPENDING ON CHANGES OF THE WIND, CHANGES OF THE WEATHER, SUN EXPOSURE. THEY TRULY WERE SERVANTS OF NATURE, METHODOLOGY AND ECOLOGY. THEY WERE GENE KWRAL AT EFFICIENT AND SUCCESSFUL. YOU COULD SEE THE PAIRS WERE SPACED OUT ALMOST MORE OR LESS EVENLY ALONG THE VALLEY, ABOUT 10 MILES FROM ONE ANOTHER. AND, EACH ONE WAS UNIQUE. AND UNIQUELY LOCATED. BUT THERE WAS ONE SINGLE COMMON FEATURE OF ALL OF THESE JUMPS AND ALL OF THESE HUNTING SITES. AND THAT IS THAT — WHEN THE BISON ARE RUSHING TOWARDS THE DEADFALL, THE LEAD COW, THE ONE IN FRONT, CANNOT SEE THE DEADFALL. BISON CAN SEE ACROSS THE RIVER, BUT THEY CANNOT SEE RIGHT IN FRONT OF THEM. WE SIMULATED THAT. OVER AND OVER AND OVER AGAIN. AND IT ALWAYS CAME OUT SIGNIFICANT IN TERMS OF THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT CONDITION FOR SUCCESS. WHERE THE BISON WOULD NOT BE ABLE TO SEE WHERE THEY WERE GOING AND WHERE THEY WANT TO FALL. AND THESE GUYS WERE JUST — LIKE AMAZING. THEY WERE LIKE DIABOLICAL AT IT. REALLY DIABOLICAL, I SHOULD BE CITING, J.P. LEWIS, HAVING SAID DIABOLICAL FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE 1 40S. ALSO, 1940s. THERE WAS A SECOND PART OF OUR PROJECT NEVER BEEN DONE BEFORE. CERTAINLY NOT IN THE NORTHWESTERN PLAINS. NOT IN THESE SITES. AS YOU RECALL, I HAD TOLD YOU THAT WE WERE LOOKING INTO WAYS OF TESTING THE USE OF FIRE, ANTHROPOGENIC FIRE, TO SEE IF THEY WERE USING THE FIRE IN THE VALLEYS. SO MY BRILLIANT COLLEAGUE, AND ALSO, U OF A ALUMNI, CHRISTOPHER ROSE FROM SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY AND HIS WIFE AND COLLEAGUE, CASEY HOLLENBACK CAME TO HELP US DESIGN A STUDY A TEST FOR FINDING EVIDENCE OF GRASSLAND FIRE. AND IN BISON HUNTING TERRITORY THERE IS BASICALLY TWO SIGNS OF FIRE THAT EVERYBODY KNOWS. ONE IS THE FIRE THAT YOU USE TO CLEAN THE KILLING, BUTCH ERRING AREAERING AREA, SO THE SMELL WILL GO AWAY. THE FIRE BURNS SO HOT IT TURNS THE GROUND INTO BRICK. THE OTHER OF COURSE FIRE SIGNAL, WILDLIFE, FIRE, WILDFIRE. YOU NEVER KNOW WHEN THUNDER OR LIGHT THING IS GOING TO STRIKE. YOU DON’T KNOW WHERE TO FIEND IT UNTIL YOU SEE IT BURNING. WELL, IN THESE SITES, WHAT CHRIS AND CASEY DID, IS THEY CLEANED UP SECTIONS OF THE RIVER BANK. TO SEE IF THERE WAS ANY BURIED DEPOSIT THAT CONTAINED BURNED GRASS. AND, LO AND BEHOLD IF YOU LOOK, AT THE UPPER RIGHT PHOTOGRAPH, YOU ARE GOING TO SEE THIN LAYERS OF BLACK SOIL. CHOCKFUL OF CHARCOAL. AND IT IS, OF COURSE, ABOVE THE CHARCOAL THERE IS MORE CHARCOAL, LAYER OF CHARCOAL, AND ANOTHER LAYER OF CHARCOAL. WE DATED THE LAYERS OF CHARCOAL, BURNED GRASS, THEY DATE PRECISELY TO, TO THE TIME WHEN THE DRYLANDS WERE BUILT AND THE KILL SITES WERE USED, JUMPS WERE USED. BURNING BEGAN AT THE TEAM OF CONSTRUCTION AND ENDED WHEN THE SITES WERE DECOMMISSIONED AND PEOPLE MOVED NORTH FOR A TIME. SO WE KNEW THAT THIS WAS A SEQUENTIAL BURNING PATTERN, BURNING OF THE GRASSLAND, AND IT HAD A KNOWN RANDOM PATTERN. HUMANS TEND TO NOT BE RANDOM. THIS WAS A KNOWN RANDOM PATTERN. BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY, IT WAS NOT JUST NONRANDOM. IT WAS ASYNCHRONOUS, BY THAT I MEAN, WE OF ALL OF THE SAMPLES WE TOOK ALONG THE RIVER NONE OF THEM BURNED AT THE SAME TIME. THE HUNTERS WERE BURNING ONE S-BGTTION OF THE ONE SECTION OF THE VALLEY FIRST, MOVING TO ANOTHER SECTION AND MOVING TO ANOTHER SECTION. SO WHILE ONE WAS RECOVERING FROM BURNING, THE OTHER ONE WAS GROWING FRESH GRASS, AND THE OTHER ONE WAS ABOUT TO BE BURNED. SO, IN SHORT WE ACTUALLY WERE ABLE TO ILLUSTRATE, NOT ONLY THE, THE DEGREE AND INTENSITY WITH WHICH THE LANDSCAPE WAS ACTUALLY UTILIZED AND BISON WAS UTILIZED BUT ALSO, THE DEPTH AND THE EXTENT OF PERMANENT MODIFICATION OF THE ECOLOGY OF THE GRASSLAND AND OF THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE RIVER. THESE GUYS WERE LANDSCAPE ENGINEERS AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGISTS. AND THAT IS ONE OF THE GREATEST AND MOST SATISFACTORY DISCOVERIES THAT I THINK OUR PROJECT ACTUALLY CAME TO. SO, WHEN YOU LOOK AT BISON HUNTING, IN SHORT, YOU HAVE TO LOOK AT IT MULTIPLE SCALES. YOU HAVE TO LOOK AT IT AT THE PLACE WHERE THE BISON FELL TO THEIR DEATH. AT THE PLACE WHERE THEY WERE GRAZING. AT THE SCALE WHO WERE, THEY WERE BEING DRIVEN INTO THE VALLEY. SIMILARLY, YOU HAVE TO LOOK AT IT FROM VARIOUS TEMPORAL SCALES. THE KNOLL EPLG THAT PEOPLE KNOLL KNOWLEDGE FROM VISION QUESTS, AND TRANSMISSION OF KNOWLEDGE THROUGH THE MILLENIA CAME TO BEAR ON CENTENNIAL SCALE TRANSFOR PHAEUGS OF THE LANDSCAPE — TRANSFORMATION OF THE LANDSCAPE FOR HUNTING, 800 YEARS OF OCCUPATION OF THE VALLEY. AND THEN OF COURSE, BOTH MILLINARY KNOWLEDGE AND TRANSFORMATION OF THE VALLEY CAM TO BEAR ON EVERY HUNTING EPISODE. SO ALL OF THE SCALES NEED TO BE CONSIDERED AT ONCE. AND THEN, TWO VERY IMPORTANT ORGANIZATIONAL PRINCIPLES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SOCIETY. AND HOW, HUNTERS, RECOGNIZE THEMSELVES TO BE PROSPEROUS AND SUCCEED. THE YIN AND YANG OF COMMUNAL HUNTING. COOPERATION AND ORDER. WE OFTEN HEAR THE HUNTERS COOPERATE WITH ONE ANOTHER AND THEY’RE VERY ALTRUISTIC. WHEN YOU ARE HUNTING, SEVERAL HUNDRED BISON, EVERY SINGLE SEASON, AND YOU HAVE A LOT OF MOUTHS TO FEED YOU CANNOT JUST COOPERATE, YOU ALSO HAVE TO IMPART ORDER. BUT, COOPERATION CAN BE SEEN, YOU KNOW A. AT THE SITE LEVEL WITH CONSTRUCTION OF HUGE FACILITIES THAT REQUIRE, TRANSPORTATION OF THOUSANDS OF ROCK. YOU CAN SEE IT AT THE VALLEY IN TERMS OF HOW THE SITES WERE LAID OUT AND HOW ORGANNING ORGANIC COMMUNE KAGS MUST HAVE BEEN TO MOVE HERD FROM ONE HUNTING CLUSTER TO ANOTHER. AND THEN AT THE ORIGINAL LEVEL, COOPERATING BRINGS ATABILITY TO THE ABILITY TO PROTECT FROM SCARCITY, PROTECT YOURSELF FROM SCARCITY, COMMUNICATING AND COOPERATING WITH FELLOW HUNTERS DOWN THE RIVER OR ACROSS, ACROSS, ANOTHER VALLEY. AND THAT ALSO PROTECTS YOU FROM DANGER AND FROM INTRUDERS. AND THEN ORDER, THE VERY COMMUNAL HUNT IS IN AND OF ITSELF OUR ORGANIZING PRINCIPLE, ORDERING PRINCIPLE. BECAUSE THE IT IS STRUCTURES OPPORTUNITY FOR FUTURE SUCCESS. WHEN YOU PERMANENTLY CHANGE THE LANDSCAPE, YOU CREATE, YOU CREATE A HUMAN CULTURAL LANDSCAPE THAT YOU CAN CONTROL, THAT YOU, THAT ALLOWS YOU TO PREDICT TO AN EXTENT. RIGHT? AND THEN THE PREDICTION ALSO PROMOTES PERMANENCE AMONG MOBILE HUNTERS THAT DO NOT OCCUPY THE VALLEY YEAR-ROUND. THERE WERE SEVERAL DIFFERENT KIND OF LEADERS. THE LEADER OF THE HUNT. THE CIVILIAN LEADER. THE WAR CHIEF. AND THE, THE RELIGIOUS LEADERS. AND RELIGIOUS LEADERS GENERALLY HELD THE HIGHEST OF POWERS. ALONG WITH THE WAR CHIEFS. AND THEN THERE WERE THESE — SUPERMAN CORPORATIONS, INCORPORATING INSTITUTIONS, KNOWN AS BUNDLE GROUPS, OR, OR, MYSTICAL SOCIETIES. AND THEY FUNNING OF THESE SOCIETIES WAS TO CROSS-CUT BAND IDENTITY AND CROSS-CUT GENDER AND AGE SO THAT POOLS OF KNOWLEDGE WOULD BE MAINTAINED WITHIN THE INSTITUTION, WITHIN SOCIETY, AND THEY WOULD BE PROPERLY TRANSFERRED TO THE INITIATED AND TO ALL OF THE YOUNGER GENERATIONS. OF COURSE, THESE CORPORATIONS ALSO HELPED, NOT NECESSARILY FORCEFULLY, BUT BY THEIR VERY FUNCTIONING TO REDISTRIBUTE WEALTH. YOU KNOW, BY THE TIME WHEN BISON, COMMUNAL BISON HUNTING WAS AT ITS HEIGHT THESE PEOPLE WERE REALLY, REALLY RICH. THEY WERE VERY WEALTHY. NOW, IN TERMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE HUNT, AND JUST — TO SUM ALL OF THIS UP. IF YOU LOOK AT THE PAST 5,000 YEARS, WHAT YOU SEE IS, IS AT THE BEGINNING YOU HAVE — YOU HAVE A SMALL GROUPS OF PEOPLE, ALREADY POSITIONING THEMSELVES STRA STATEGICICALLY IN THE LANDSCAPE IN PLACE WHERE’S BISON WOULD BE MOST LIKELY TO BE THERE TO BE PRESENT OR TO BE HUNTED. BUT AS ARCHAEOLOGISTS, OFTEN NEED PROXY OF MEASUREMENT OF TPWRO*ET GROWTH AND EVOLUTION. WE CANNOT MEASURE AND COUNT PEOPLE ACCURATELY. SO IN THIS PARTICULAR CASE, A GOOD PROXY OF EVOLUTION FROM, STALKING SINGLE ANIMALS TO, TO THE, THE HEIGHT OF THE COMMUNAL HUNT IS THE ACREAGE OF HUNTING SPACE AS DEFINED BY THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL HUNTING GROUND. SO THE FIRST OF — THE FIRST TWO OR THREE MILLENIA IN THE GRAPH IS WHAT YOU HAVE IS RELATIVELY SMALL SITES. THEY GROW IN PACE WITH THEIR NATURAL GROWTH OF POPULATION, THE NATURAL COLONIZATION OF NICHES AND GRASSLANDS. AND OF COURSE, COMMUNAL HUNTING RISES ABOUT 4,000 YEARS AGO AS WE SAID. BUT IT IS A TWO, 2,000-YEAR MARK THAT YOU CAN REALLY SEE THE — THE — THE IMPACT OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON THE RISE OF THE COMMUNAL HUNT. FIRST IS FIRE. WITH FIRE YOU CANNOT ONLY — YOU CANNOT ONLY MANIPULATE THE MIGRATION PATTERNS OF THE BISON HERD BUT ALSO RENEW THE GRASSLAND. THAT HAS THE EFFECT OF INCREASING THE HUMAN CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE PRAIRIE. OF THE, OF THE REGION. SO YOU CAN HAVE MORE PEOPLE COMING IN AND MORE PEOPLE HUNTING AND INSIDE SPEAKING TO GET MUCH LARGER. THEN OF COURSE, ONCE YOU HAVE ABILITY TO BRING IN LARGE NUMBERS OF BISON, YOU BEGIN TO DEVELOP THE BISON DRIVING TECHNOLOGY IN THE FORM OF THE CONSTRUCTIONS OF THESE PERMANENT FACILITIES, THESE STONE FACILITIES AND WE HAVE, WITH A LOT OF ANIMALS BEING KILLED AND PROCESSES YOU HAVE TO DEVISE A WAY TO STORE FOOD THAT YOU ARE NOT CONSUMING IMMEDIATELY. AND, YOU PROBABLY HAVE HEARD THIS WORD, A HIGHLY NUTRITIOUS CAKE, LIKE A HEALTH BAR, MADE OF DRIED, CRUSHED, BISON MEAT WITH BERRIES AND BISON FAT. YOU MAKE THEM INTO THE VERY LIGHTWEIGHT, VERY LONG SHELF LIFE, VERY, YOU KNOW, EASILY STORABLE CAKES. AND YOU CAN TRANSPORT THEM. IF YOU PREPARED THEM PROPERLY THEY WILL LAST UP TO TWO YEARS. SO WITH THE MANUFACTURER OF THE CAKES, COMES ABILITY TO TRADE FOR OTHER PRODUCTS SUCH AS CORN OR FEATHERS OR, YOU KNOW, TUBERS, ET CETERA. AND SHORTLY THERE AFTER, THE BOW AND ARROW COMES IN. THE BOW AND ARROW GIVES THE HUNTERS ABILITY TO SHOOT BISON AT A VERY SHORT DISTANCE. AND REPEATEDLY SHOOT THEM. WITHIN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME. ONCE THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ARE IN PLACE YOU CAN SEE HOW THE SIZE OF THE HUNTING SPACE JUST EXPLODES. IT GOES UP TO 1,000 FOLD IN TERMS OF ACREAGE OF HUNTING SPACE. AND THIS SYSTEM GOES ALL THE WAIL TO THE ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS. IT HAD, IT PEAKS. DURING THE FIRST 50 TO 80 YEARS OF EUROPEAN ARRIVAL BECAUSE THE EUROPEANS THAT CAME INTO THE NORTHWESTERN PLAINS WERE HUNGRY AND NOT VERY ABLE TO FEED THEMSELVES, ENGLISH FUR TRADERS. AND IMMEDIATELY THE NATIVE AMERICANS FIGURED OUT THAT THEY COULD GET GUNS, THEY COULD GET, YOU KNOW, LIKE LUXURIES, AND MANY OTHER, MANY OTHER EUROPEAN GOODS, IN EXCHANGE FOR FEEDING THE EUROPEANS. AND THEY FED THEM THE BISON CAKES IN ADDITION TO FRESH MEAT. THEY HAD FOR THE FIRST, I SAY, 50, 80 YEARS, 100 YEARS, THE UPPER HAND. IN REGULATING THE COMINGS AND GOINGS OF EUROPEANS AND EUROPEANS FORTUNES. AND THAT IS ONE OF THE THINGS THAT I BELIEVE ONLY RECENTLY MY COLLEAGUE, HAD MADE EXPLICIT IN HIS BOOK. SO I STARTED WITH A STORY OF LOSS. WHEN THE SYSTEM, THE HEIGHT OF THE, AND THE PEAK OF THE COMMUNAL HUNT TANKS IN 1850 AND ON, WITH THE ARRIVAL OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, AND THE FEDERAL, THE U.S. GOVERNMENT FEDERAL MAN DATED EXTINCTION OF BISON AND CONFINEMENT IN RESERVATIONS. BUT, I DIDN’T WANT TO LEAVE YOU WITH A SENSE OF LOSS. I WANT TO GIVE, GIVE YOU A SENSE OF HOPE. I AM GOING TO GIVE YOU AN IDEA OF HOW HOPEFUL IS THE FUTURE OF HUNTERS AND BISON IN NORTH AMERICA. AND BISON HAS RECOVERED. BUT THE ROAD TOOK 100 YEARS TO RECOVER. IT WAS ONLY BECAUSE A FEW DEDICATED RANCHERS AND, AND, PARK RANGERS, AND PRIVATE CONCERNED PRIVATE CITIZENS AND THEIR EFFORTS AND THEIR LOBBYING THAT VIABLE HERDS BEGAN TO EMERGE OUT OF A FEW PAIRS OF REPRODUCING ANIMALS. IT TOOK 100 YEARS TO CREATE RESERVES IN CANADA AND THE U.S. THAT WOULD ACTUALLY INVEST IN REPRODUCTION SYSTEMS, PROGRAMS FOR BISON. AND THEY WERE INCREDIBLY SEQUESTER SISFUL. THEY WERE SO SUCCESSFUL IN FACT THAT 100 YEARS AFTER THE LAST BISON HUNT, CONGRESS FUNDED THE BISON INTERTRIBAL COUNCIL TO BEGIN TO ESTABLISH BISON RANCHERS INSIDE INDIAN RESERVATIONS. FOR THEIR PART, THE NATIVE AMERICANS, BLACKFOOT PARTICULARLY, BLACKFOOT TRIBE IN PARTICULAR, THEY SUFFERED INCREDIBLE, INCREDIBLE LOSSES. STAGGERING LAWS. THEY WAS LOOK THE RUG HAD BEEN PULLED FROM UNDER THEIR FEET. AND THEY WALKED AROUND IN THE BEGINNING. PEOPLE SAY AS IF LOST IN A FOG. THEY SUFFER A LARGE MASSACRE UPON WHICH THEY VERY — HUMBLY WALKED INTO THE RESERVATION ON THEIR OWN WILL. AND, AFTER THE LAST BISON HUNT, THEY WERE SO LOST BECAUSE THEY DIDN’T KNOW WHAT ELSE TO EAT. THAT THEY ALMOST STARVED TO DEATH BECAUSE GOVERNMENT RATIONS WEREN’T ENOUGH TO FEED SO MANY PEOPLE. AND THEN WITHIN A GENERATION OR TWO THEY BEGAN, THEY DIDN’T WANT TO ABANDON HUNTING, SO THEY BEGAN TO REINVENT AND REORIENT THE HUNT TOWARD ELK AND TOWARD THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FRONT WHERE THEY COULD ACTUALLY FREELY HUNT OUTSIDE OF THE PURVIEW OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND THE MISSIONARIES WHO WANTED TO, OF COURSE, CIVILIZE THEM. DURING THE LATE PORTION, THE LATE PORTION OF THE 20th CENTURY THERE WERE A LOT OF MOVEMENTS. AMERICAN INDIAN MOVEMENT, A LOT OF YOUTH AFTER THE VIETNAM WAR, CAME BACK TO THE RESERVATIONS, THEY HAD BEEN RELOCATED THEIR PARENTS HAD BEEN RELOCATED THEY WANTED TO COME BACK AND RELEARN WHO THEY WERE AND FIND THEIR CULTURE. IT WAS A QUEST FOR CULTURAL IDENTITY. AND THEY OF COURSE, SOUGHT THE ELDERS THAT WERE STILL ALIVE AND HAD KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THEIR PAST. TO TEACH THEM AGAIN THE RULES OF THE GAME AND THE RULES OF THE BUNDLES. SO THAT THEY COULD ACTUALLY REVITALIZE THEIR CULTURE IN A VARIETY LIKE A NUMBER OF, FEDERAL LEGISLATION, ALLOWED THEM TO ACTUALLY DO THAT. AND PROTECT THEM WHILE THEY WERE QUESTING FOR THEIR CULTURE, FOR THEIR, OWN IDENTITY. WITH THE REPETITION, LEGISLATION, ALLOWED FOR REPATRIATION, THE BLACKFOOT WERE ABLE TO RECOVER BUNDLES SOLD, LOST, OR HAD BEEN CONFISCATED FROM THEM IN CANADA AND THE U.S. AND WITH THOSE HUNTING BUNDLES, THE BEAVER BUNDLES THEY BEGAN TO DEVELOP AN INITIATIVE FOR BISONS RETURN. BISON ARE THRIVING AND GROWING. LOOK AT THEM. THEY ARE — ENJOYING THE COMFORTS OF MODERITY, RIGHT. THEY’RE SMART. BISON IS GROWING. TRIBAL HERD ARE GROWING. COMANAGEMENT IS INCREDIBLY NEEDED. AND THERE IS A LOT OF COOPERATION BETWEEN PRIVATE STATE FEDERAL AND TRIBAL RANCHES TO ACTUALLY KEEP HEALTHY HERD AND TO KEEP THEM GROWING BUT KEEP THEM ALSO UNDER CONTROL. BECAUSE BISON USED TO ROOM FREELY. THEY CAN’T DO THAT ANYMORE. THEY LIVE IN A CLOSED SYSTEM THAT REQUIRES GRASSLAND MANAGEMENT, THAT REQUIRES POPULATION MANAGEMENT, THROUGH STRATEGIC CULLING OF THE HERD AND, AND — AND FOR EXAMPLE, HUNTING. AND, SLAUGHTERING FOR HEALTHY FOOD. SO, WITH BISON’S RETURN, HUNTING RETURN. AND IN 2018, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK OPENED THE HUNTING SEASON FOR BISON FOR THE WESTERN TRIBES THAT WERE CULTURALLY AFFILIATED TO THE GREATER YELLOWSTONE ECO SYSTEM THAT LINED THE TREATY OF 1851. AND THE BLACKFOOT WERE ONE OF THEM. SO THE BLACKFOOT CANADIAN AND AMERICAN HUNTERS. 80 OF THEM. ALONG WITH THEIR BUNDLES. ALONG WITH THEIR MAGICAL SONGS AND FOSSILS, AND, TREKKED DOWN TO YELLOWSTONE, 600 MILES AWAY. SAID THEIR PRAYERS. PERFORMED THEIR CEREMONIES. SANG THEIR SONGS. AND, I BELIEVE THEY HARVESTED ABOUT 2,000 BISON. THE WAY YOU COULD EXPLAIN IT TO ME, WHEN THEY SAW THEIR PEERS ON FOOT, DRIVING THE BISON, FROM THE PARK, ONTO THE HUNTING GROUND ON TO THE SHOOTING GROUND, THEIR HAIR AND THEIR BACK OF THEIR NECK STOOD ON EDGE. IT WAS LIKE GOING BACK 130 YEARS. IT WAS AMAZING. IT WAS AWESOME ACCORDING TO THE, TO THE, EYEWITNESSES. AND I PERSONALLY WANT TO GO AND EXPERIENCE IT MYSELF. BUT WITH THE HUNT ALSO COMES NECESSITY FOR THE RENEWAL OF THE PARTNERSHIP. 130 YEARS LATER, YOU CAN’T JUST GO AND HUNT BISON AND COME HOME AND PUT IT IN THE FREEZER. MAKE SAUSAGE OUT OF THEM. WHAT YOU NEED TO DO, REALLY, AND WHAT THE TRIBE IS DOING, AND WHAT THE BLACKFOOT CONFEDERACY AS A WHOLE ISING TO IS IS DOING IS FINDING THE MEANS TO BEGIN TO RENEW THE OLD PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE COSMOS, AMONG THEM, CENTRAL TO THEM THE PARTNERSHIP WITH BISON. IN THE SUMMER OF 2018 MY STUDENTS AND I WERE HONORED AND HUMBLED TO BE INVITED TO AN HISTORICAL EVENT, HAD NOT HAPPENED IN 130 YEARS. IT WAS THE TRANSFER OF THE HORNED SOCIETY BUNDLES FROM THE BLACKFOOT IN CANADA TO THE BLACKFEET IN THE UNITED STATES. THE HORN SOCIETY IS A MYSTICAL SO SIGH TEE SOCIETY HAS POWER TO ENTER DEEPEST FOLDS OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE UNIVERSE AND THE DEEPEST FOLD OF THE BISON BUNDLED UNIVERSE. AND THIS SOCIETY WAS BROUGHT BACK TO THE AMERICAN BLACKFEET. AND THE CEREMONY, THE SEVEN-DAY CEREMONY WAS LARGER THAN LIFE. WE WERE OVERWHELMED. WE WERE SILENT. WE WERE AWED. BUT, MORE THAN ANYTHING ELSE, AFTER WE DISCUSSED IT AMONG OURSELVES, WE — WALKED AWAY WITH A SENSE THAT — THERE WAS SUCH IMMENSE AMOUNT OF HOPE IN THAT CEREMONY FOR HEALING HISTORICAL TRAUMA, FOR EDUCATING THE YOUTH, AND FOR GIVING THEM HOPE FALL FOR A FOR A BETTER FUTURE. THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU.>>WOW, THAT WAS MARVELOUS. I HOPE TO SEE YOU NEXT THURSDAY, WHERE, ALLISON DEMMING WILL BE TALKING ABOUT HERRING. AND THE — THE FANTASTIC STORY OF HERRING IN THE MARITIME PROVINCES. PLEASE IF YOU ARE AROUND THIS WEEKEND, WE DON’T EXPECT ANY RAIN, PLEASE JOIN US AT TUCSON MEET YOURSELF RIGHT HERE DOWNTOWN. THANK YOU ALL FOR YOUR ATTENDANCE. BYE-BYE.




Comments
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