길가메쉬, 함무라비 왕 : 메소포타미아 문명 [10분 세계사 역사]


Iraq, one of the prohibited countries to
travel after the Gulf War in 1990, is getting better than other prohibited countries like Syria, Libya, or Somalia, so the prohibition might be discarded soon. If the prohibition is lifted from Iraq, it may become a charming trip destination. It has a long history going back to 4,000 BC, and there are so many historic sites and buildings remaining after a lot of countries’ birth and death. Hence, it has an amazing value as a tourism spot. In ancient times, Iraq was
mostly the land of Mesopotamia, which is called the cradle of civilization. And the most important rivers of Mideast called Euphrates and Tigris flow in Iraq. It’s where Mesopotamian civilization arose. Mesopotamia comes from ancient Greek. Meso means middle, and potamia means river, so it means the midpoint of
both Euphrates and Tigris River. Out of all the ancient civilizations, Mesopotamia region is one of the oldest. It began in 7,000 BC. We’re in the year 2020 now, so it was about 9,000 years ago. Agricultural people who settled down in
the piedmont of Zagros in the north of Iraq, did farming and were spending the Neolithic Era. Later, they moved onto Halafian culture,
which is an advanced form of the village. During that time, they created the pottery with
geometric ornament or animal painted on it. They also used copper, which is one of the metals. During the Ubaid period in 6,000 BC,
they even discovered metallurgy of copper. Metallurgy is simply extracting the metal from the ore and reforming that into a shape that is required. All the tools and weapons made at that time played a big role in the urbanization of Mesopotamia,
along with the use of materials. After that, the civilization carried on. Let’s briefly list the empires that arose in the Mesopotamia region,
starting with Sumer. After many city-states were established and the Akkadian Empire was united, King Hammurabi started to rule over Babylonia. And after Assyria and Neo-Babylonian Empire, Persians under
the Achaemenid Empire ruled Mesopotamia. After some time,
Alexander the Great ruled over Mesopotamia. And after that, the Seleucid Empire and
Parthia ruled the land in order, so it was a place of a rampage ever since ancient times. All sorts of empires came and went. If you look at people of Mesopotamia in the early era, they were living in primitive socialism. When farmers gathered
the harvested goods in public storage, it was shared equally among all those who worked. It didn’t matter whether if the person was a metal dealer or architecture. Then, when the Bronze Age started and
excess food was available, there was a dispute among people, and it led to an endless conflict among
countries and cities. Many novels and movies dramatize history and make it look interesting. The most famous literary work
that speaks of ancient Mesopotamia is the Epic of Gilgamesh. It is the oldest epic poetry about Babylonia, and Gilgamesh, the hero of the story, was the 5th king of the 1st dynasty of Uruk,
according to the Sumer document. Over time, there was fantasy added onto his story, and he became a hero of myth. Now that it is said to be the oldest epic,
shall we look into the story? The background is 2750 BC, in the city of Uruk. Gilgamesh was the king of Uruk,
as 2/3 the god, and 1/3 human. As it is for any heroes of literature,
he was a jack-of-all-trades, who was handsome, smart, and a good worrier. At the beginning of the epic,
his personality was rotten to the core, where he was full of himself and
bullied his citizens for nothing. He would beat up all the men in
the city as if it was a challenge, and he even practiced droit du seigneur to
anyone who would marry. Droit du seigneur is where someone else other than the husband who gets the authority gets to sleep with the bride on
the first day of the wedding. This culture can also be found in the landlords
or the clergy of Europe during the Middle Age, Brahman of ancient India, or monks of Cambodian Buddhism and Taoism. It can also be found at
the beginning of the movie Braveheart. Now that there was
a tyrant who was tormenting his citizens, the citizens prayed to Anu to punish Gilgamesh. Then, Anu created a monster called Enkidu, which was covered in fur and
was as strong as Gilgamesh. Enkidu went into the head to head brawl
against Gilgamesh after coming to Uruk. The battle was a tug of war
where they couldn’t determine who’s victorious, but Gilgamesh was brought down to his knees. But Enkidu, a fierce beast with a warm heart, reconciled with Gilgamesh and became his best friend. They became a pair of heroes and helped out many, and even killed the forest ranger Humbaba,
one of the most fearsome creatures in the world. Now that we’re here,
Gilgamesh’s fame for being handsome and strong got into the ears of Ishtar,
the goddess of love and abundance. Ishtar flirted Gilgamesh, but he turned her down, which made her furious and
let loose the bull of heaven to the land. The bull from the heaven created
a hell out of the buildings and land. So Gilgamesh and Enkidu had to stand up for the crisis. After defeating the bulls, He was a little hesitant to kill the god’s animal, But Enkidu, loving the earth, kills the Bull of Heaven. The situation got uncontrollably serious,
and the gods of the heaven were furious. And they made a decision to execute Enkidu. So Enkidu was stricken with a disease and died. This will be it for the sorrowful story of Gilgamesh. If you are interested in this, Please read the book on the Epic of Gilgamesh. Out from the literature, we will learn
more about Gilgamesh’s homeland, Uruk. Uruk was a city covered with rampart, had a gigantic canal, and the ziggurats. The ziggurats were a kind of temple. People wanted to get closer to the gods in the heaven, So they built high buildings, And they got higher in the future generations. During the Early Dynastic Period of Sumer, the ziggurats
had terrace-looking figure on the first floor, But in the Ur period, they became
towers with the three-story terrace. The priests guarding this place had
the most mighty power then. Because the people believed
that the priests could directly communicated with gods. In the contemporary age, we can know
the weather or prepare against typhoons with the help of the weather center’s weather forecast, But thousands of years ago, people believed
that the weather is dependent on the will of gods. For example, the gods in the Gilgamesh stories, Because they were mad at the noisy people on the land, Just to sleep quietly They flooded the place where people are gathered,
destroying everything. Different from the Nile of the Egyptian civilization,
which is relatively stable, Near the Tigris and the Euphrates disastrous floods and droughts occurred unexpectedly which made them think
that the character of gods were volatile. Thus, the priests who comforted the volatile gods’ wrath were very important people to
the people living in this area. During the Uruk period, the ziggurats were
only prominent building in the Mesopotamian region, But after more than a 1,000 years, Buildings were built not in the form of temples,
but into huge palaces. For example, there’s the Sargon Palace of B.C. 720, which has more than 200 yards and rooms. This phenomenon meant that, because of increased
interest in societal rules or welfare in the human society, The power of priests who were closer with gods were shifted to secular kings. In other worlds,
there was a shift of power from gods to human. However, they still believed in
the absolute existence of gods, The kings shared the power that only the priests had, And they shared the role of
administration and religion too. Now, the Mesopotamian society had kings, Which changed the whole atmosphere of the region. As I told you in the beginning of the video, This region is characterized with the frequent
clashes between many city states, And strong outsider group invaded the region, Going through Akkadian kingdom and
Babylonian kingdom, It turned into an era
where only the strong kingdom survives. In the social system, from the early primitive socialist
tendency where people divide up their produce equally, But with the introduction of tax system, People could produce as much as they pay tax And a social system of
individual business started to emerge. The kings with power, to build strong influence, Expanded their territory by invading others,
thereby widening their activity region. And they started to inherit their throne to their sons. The popular king who had strong power in this region Is the King Hammurabi, the 6th king of Babylon, who appeared in the “Code of Hammurabi” video of
the 5 minutes World History. Hammurabi ruled Babylonfor 42 years from
B.C. 1972 to B.C. 1750. When he ascended to throne, the Mesopotamian region Was divided into many kingdoms like
Assyria, Larsa, and Eshnunna And there was a fighting for
the territory between kingdoms. During his reign, he focused on the domestic affairs for
economic growth for 30 years And strengthened the kingdom by improving
the kingdom’s production and military force, And from his 31st year, he started to
engage in wars with surrounding kingdoms And united the whole Mesopotamian region in
his 39th year, calling it Babylonia. After the unification, Hammurabi dispatched
governors in the conquered regions And he only bestowed the governors of the regions with
administrative rights, not judicial and financial rights. Even though it is 4,000 years from now, He created the system of
centralized authoritarian control. And, to make judgments according to
the legislation of the central government, The Code of Hammurabi was created,
which shares the same legal system. The code doesn’t just contain
“An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth,” But it’s consisted of 282 provisions Stating regulations for
different crimes or issues occurring in the society. Not only harsh crimes like robbery or abduction, In contemporary terms, the regulation of
house rental like real estate policies, And the code for employment and wages which
the businessmen back then should abide by, The liabilities and credit related to
debt issues, and marriage laws, And the laws related to slaves existed back then, It states many different laws and regulations. Today, we talked about the overall history of
the Mesopotamian region, The Epic of Gilgamesh, And the Code of Hammurabi, Which was an opportunity to
learn how complicated this region was. This is it for the Knowledge Youtube with Fun History, 10 Minutes World History.




Comments
  1. 길가메시 얘기를 쫘악 정리해서 들었네요^-^
    함무라비왕 얘기도 법전의 얘기도 잘 들었습니다~^-^

  2. 사제들의힘이 막강했군요~함무라비왕의 힘도 막강했군요~법전이 탄생한 이유도 잘 알고 갑니다~^^

  3. 지대넓얕 신간에서 길가메시 서사시 봤는데 전체적인 역사까지 알게되서 좋네요. 바빌론이 지금 이라크가 있는 지역이군요. 여기도 한번 가고 싶네요.
    좋은 영상 감사합니다.

  4. 길가메쉬 서사시 내용 흥미롭네요 ^^
    그리스로마 신화와는 뭔가 다른 매력이 있을 것 같아, 한번 찾아 읽어보고 싶습니다 ㅎ

  5. 메소포타미아문명 배웠던 기억이 나고 대략 들어봤던듯한 내용인데 오늘은 길가메시..이걸 처음들어보는군요. 여튼 오늘은 함무라비도 어디서 들어본거구..어디어디니가서 들어본 단어며 지명이 나와서 친근하게 잘 들었어용^^

  6. ◈ 유튜브 자막기능을 켜보세요. ◈

    – 한국어 자막/English subtitles

    – 日本語字幕/subtitulo de espanol

  7. 메소포타미아의 뜻은 잘 몰랐었는데… 이렇게 또 알게 되네요. ^^
    그런데 초야권은 헉… 너무 어이없네요…
    참.. 별의 별일들이 다 일어나는 것 같아요..
    세계사를 듣다보면 희안하고.. 흥미롭고.. 안타깝고.. 재미있고.. 참 다양한 일들이 많은 것 같아요..
    오늘도 재미있게 잘 들었습니다. ^^

  8. 도장깨기 ㅋㅋㅋ 길가미시…. 역시 복잡한 역사네요 ㅎㅎ 오늘도 감사합니다요👏👏👏

  9. 오늘도 잘듣고갑니다
    들을때는 알겠는데 댓글쓰려니 ㅎㅎ항상응원합니다 중간광고 2개까지 풀청입니다

  10. 메소가 중간 포타미아가 강이라는 뜻이군요! ㅎㅎ 역시 문명의 시작은 강이 흐르며 비옥한 땅이 있어야돼요! 정말로 엔키두와 길가메쉬의 이야기는 말그대로 판타지처럼 되어버렸네요! 😁😁

  11. 법전의 끝판왕^^~가보고싶은데 갈수 없는?^^ 언젠가 가보고 싶네요ㅎㅎ 그럼 월요병 가버렸 ㅋㅋ 굿밤되세요!!!~^^

  12. 이라크는 참 알고보면 유구한 역사문명을 자랑하는 곳인데 오늘날 가나안 땅이 있었던 팔레스타인 접경지대와 더불어 왜 저리 안습국가가 되었나 모르겠습니다. 메소포타미아 문명은 학교 다닐 때 그냥 수업시간에 시험문제 풀기위해 듣고 지나가는 수준에 불과했는데 지독하게도 디테일하게 설명해주시네요. 어후~ 이 동네는 왜 이렇게 역사가 드라마틱한지 모르겠네요. 고대문명 이야기는 언제나 특유의 지적호기심을 자극하는 이야기들이 그득하고 흥미로운 것 같습니다. 아…함무라비 법전 그렇게 등장했군요. 그나저나 이란 애들은 왜 비행기를 격추시켜가꼬 에궁~;;;

  13. 메소포타미아 뜻은 처음 알았네요 이라크가 이런 중요 요지인지도 ㅎㅎ 역사가 깊은 나라군요
    저런 지식은 어디서 수집하시고 얼마나 공부하시는 존경스럽네요^^ 어려워서 머리에 다 들어가지는않겠지만 잘 보고갑니다~

  14. 길가메쉬에 함무라비법전까지
    흥미로운내용 잘 설명해주셔서
    감사합니다~~~
    항상 응원합니다~~~

  15. 길가메쉬가 신화에 나오는 인물인걸 영상보고 알았네요 ㅎ
    마블케릭터인줄만ㅡㅡ;;
    잘 보고 갑니다!!

  16. 이라크 관광이 풀린다면 ~~!! 정말 가보고 싶어요~!!
    청동기 시대 부터 갈등이 시작되는건 ㅠㅡㅠ
    판타지에 판타지로 신화가 되었다는 우르크왕. ㅎ ㅋ 도장깨기 ㅠㅡㅠ 못된 ㅠㅡㅠ 초야권이라니! 엔키두와 맞짱~ 영웅콤비라~^^
    재미난 신화들~
    지구라트에서 궁전으로~ 신과 사제의 권력에서 왕의 시대.. 사회구조의 변화와 정말 다양하게 재미난 공부를 하고 가네요~

  17. 기원년의 도시와 건축물들이 과연 기원년에 어찌 저렇게 만들어졌을까 너무나 신비롭습니다.^^ 물론 추측된 이미지이겠지만 말이지요. 신년에 선생님 얼굴이 더욱 좋아지신것 같습니다~

  18. 다른 문명은 몰라도 메소포타미아 문명은 저도 관심이 꽤 있어서,
    나중에 해볼라 하는데, 많은 참고가 되겠네요. 좋은 정보는,,,👍👍👍

  19. 여행금지국가에서 풀려도 한동안은 안갈듯해요 무서워서리ㅎ
    유적과문화를 생각하면 가볼곳들이 많네요.문명의시대를 거슬러올라가서 왕국이야기까지.
    지배에지배 ~~
    왕국들이 아주정신없네요😁😁😁

  20. 대한민국 금지국가지만 금지만 풀리면 정말 멋진관광지가 될듯요~초야권 정말 어이상실 ^^
    길가메시 이야기는 왜케 쨈나던지~역시 그리스신화얘기는 늘 흥미진진한듯해요^^
    정말 어쩜 그시대 이런 건축물들 만들었는지는 지금 생각해도 넘 놀라운듯요~~^^
    함무라비왕 유명해서 알고는 있지만 제대로~ 어떤왕인지는 몰랐는데~~왜 함무라비법전이 유명한지는 알것 같이요~~🤗💓💗 다 외워서 줄줄 말씀 하신듯🤗 멋진영상 잘보고 갑니다~😊

  21. 메소포타미아문명하면 떠오르는 길가메쉬,함무라비왕. 예전 잠시 봤던 책내용을 떠올리며 재밌게 잘 시청했어요.

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