Welcome back to [Not Just Games] episode 84. I’m Joey In the game [Shadow of the Tomb Raider], after finished exploring the Mayan Civilization in Mexico, Lara Croft headed towards Peru to continue her adventure at the Inca Empire While in [Civilization VI: Gathering Storm], Inca Empire is added into the game Even the mini game – [Zuma] features Inca Empire In the previous episode, we’ve talked about the three major american civilizations, especially the cultures of the Mayan Civilization and Aztec And in this episode, we’ll talk about the last of the american civilizations, the Inca Empire If you haven’t watch the previous episodes, 83 and 82, I would suggest you to watch them first to have a better understanding The Inca Empire was an ancient civilizations in the 15th to 16th centuries As compared with the Mayan and Aztec Civilizations that we have mentioned previously, the two of them located at Central America while the Inca Empire is located at the South America formed by the people called inca At the early stage, the ancestors of the incas were living at the plateau area of Peru Afterwards, they migrated to Cuzco In Year 1197, they built up the Kingdom of Cuzco In the Ming Dynasty, China has sketched a world map that included everything they have discovered. That world map stated the Kingdom of Cuzco which was located at the South America as Cuzco Nation Until the Year 1438, a new leader was introduced to the nation, and his name was Pachacuti a newly added monarch of the Inca Empire in the game [Civilization VI: Gathering Storm] He made Cuzco the capital of the nation and then slowly build up the Inca Empire Afterwards, he started his expedition and to expand his territory From Year 1438 to Year 1533, by using assimilation tactic, he first sent out spies to extract the internal information Everyone was impressed by their leader’s capabilities, and therefore, the people gave away their luxury goods as a token of appreciation and to invite them in joining the Inca Empire Through cultural erosion and inter-marriage, they managed to bring in a few states to join the Inca Empire. For those which chose not to join forces with them, they would be conquered instead. With that, the Inca Empire had started its preliminary expansion. 2 years after the founding of the empire, which was in the year 1440, Pachacuti had started to build Machu Picchu, one of the 7 Wonders of the World. The eagles are flying, the surroundings tall buildings pierce through the clouds, full of prestige The mottled castle wall that appeared in the eyes has become a past The items we have acquired, left nowhere to be taken Let us bury away the skulls and bones Machu Picchu was built in the year 1440 and it is located on the ridge of the mountain at an elevation of 2350 meters With its unique and steep geographical location, up until the year 1911, an American Historian called, Hiram Bingham lll was led to Machu Picchu with the guidance of the natives He then managed to bring Machu Picchu to the world but what made it interesting after this American historian discovered Machu Picchu was he tried to lie to the natives saying that he wanted to borrow some relics back for research purpose and would return them afterwards Thereafter, he slipped away with about 4,000 relics and never returned Up until 100 years later, the Peru’s government filed a lawsuit against the Yale University in the U.S which had given an embarrassment to Barrack Obama, the President of the United State of America during that period of time Therefore, in the year 2012, the Yale University had decided to return all of the relics to Peru Machu Picchu was not a normal city of Inca Empire It was a place of worship for the noble families and for them to preserve health There were less than 750 people there during its heyday Frankly speaking, it was a vacation spot for the noble families Of course, with distance afar and mountains high, the noble families would not often go for a vacation due to the rough mountain roads Therefore, there were less people staying in Machu Picchu As the people there would rarely communicate with the outside world, Machu Picchu has turned into a paradise valley Right after the death of Pachacuti, his son continued his legacy in expanding the empire Through years of war, he managed to push the Inca Empire to its apex As the Inca Empire was built in mountainous land, the traffic there could easily facilitate the transportation to anywhere Therefore, they started taking on infrastructure works and built the well-known ”Inca Road Network” It was the most advanced transport system with the greatest coverage in the South America during that period of time They have built roads on the mountains, across the rivers, and at the field Moreover, they had built several service stations along the road according to specific marching distance which tend to provide all sorts of supplies to the army Regarding the information communication, they had set up a team of Chaski, allowing them to have a better knowledge about the enemy’s situation, war situation, and the enemy’s internal information With the combination of the Chaski, supply stations, and the wide coverage transportation system, they managed to achieve a highly effective communication system The ”Inca Road Network” had opened up the empire to the other cities The only livestock they had was the Alpaca While gold was the symbol of the Inca Empire They called the gold as the ”Sweat of the Sun” All the gold they had was plundered from other cities upon achieving victories and therefore, gold symbolized their state of power It also allowed the Incas to master all the techniques in smelting gold to manufacture ornaments, and clothing, fully utilizing gold in many ways The Inca Empire was known as ”The Golden Country” by the later generations During the 15th century, the Spanish came with dreams of gold After beating down the Mayan and Aztec, the Spanish found out that there was a mysterious gold empire in the South At the early stage of the Inca Empire, due to countless of expeditions and assimilation, they brought in a lot of small cities and tribes, forming a multiracial, multilingual, and multicultural empire, which had caused some of the people to be less loyal to the empire The Spanish had also seized the opportunity to subvert some of the tribes With the arrival of the Spanish to the South America, it reflected the fallen of the Inca Empire with its ”Inca Road Network” although it had brought prosperity to the empire itself at the beginning With the ”Inca Road Network”, the Spanish no longer had to go across the woods in search for the Mayans and Aztec They only had to follow the ”Inca Road Network” to reach those Inca cities and to annihilate them instantly In addition, with the help from the subverted tribes to lead the way, the Spanish managed to advanced further to the entire country What was more unfortunate was the outbreak of Variola’s virus and it had widespread all over the empire through the ”Inca Road Network” We have mentioned previously that the Inca’s one and only livestock was the Alpaca What makes it even interesting was: The Incas have never seen a horse in their lives Therefore, they were scared of horse When a few of the Spanish horsemen arrived, The reaction of the Incas was: “What are those? What kind of creatures are those men with metal riding? How could it be running so fast?” This had brought nightmares to the Incas which led them with no choice but to drop their weapons and escape Sometimes, tens of the horsemen would be enough to kill over a thousand of the Incas Moreover, the Incas’s mastery in smelting gold could only allow them to produce handicrafts but failed to manufacture any metal armor If not, they would not be dressing like a gorgeous natives in the war Therefore, during their fight against the Spanish, their armors and weapons were inferior as compared to the enemies With the invasion by the Spanish and the Viorila’s virus, how did the Inca Empire manage to respond to the situation? The two heirs were having a civil war to fight for the throne And just like that, Spain had managed to easily knock out this country of gold The King was captured The Spanish had even lied to the Incas by telling them that they could get their King in exchange with their gold However, when they managed to acquire the gold from the Incas, they executed the King The Inca Empire had eventually came to an end in less than 100 years As for the Maya and Aztec Civilizations, they had failed to rise again after the defeat by the Spanish The Incas had tried to rise up and they had successfully reconquered the capital in year 1537, establishing a new Inca Empire, and they had managed to hold their ground for 36 years However, it was annihilated by Spain eventually, which was in year 1572, the Incas had decided to surrender in front of the Spanish There was no longer any glory from the empire of gold In the game [Shadow of the Tomb Raider], it had fully opened up a mysterious city – Paititi Rumors had said that due to the civil war, Variola’s virus, and the invasion of the Spanish Upon the fallen of the empire, the Incas had kept away the rest of the gold in a mysterious forest city – Paititi The entire city was built with the gold and jewels left after the war, sparkling under the sunlight The people who had survived the war cut off the ”Inca Road Network”, living the world of their own thereafter Over the past hundred years, countless of archaeologists and explorers have tried to search for this ”Lost City” In the year 2001, an Italian archaeologist once again mentioned about Paititi In year 2007, a giant stone wall was found in Peru but unfortunately there were no authentic trace of the city Even though we have modern satellite and advanced topographic techniques, however, there are still plenty of places in this world that we, the human beings have never set our foot in Whether or not this Paititi a myth, it is still an unknown But I do hope that one day when we woke up from our bed, we would be seeing the news saying that humans have found the lost city – Paititi and we have even discovered the surviving natives, it would definitely set the world on fire as it would be one of the most valuable treasure to all human being Thank you for watching this episode of [Not Just Games] Please hit the ”Subscribe” button if you like to see more I am Joey, See you in the next episode!